Study Apple Strategy Management Essay Example
Study Apple Strategy Management Essay Example

Study Apple Strategy Management Essay Example

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  • Pages: 10 (4972 words)
  • Published: August 5, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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Once known as Apple Computer. Apple Inc. has efficaciously became a successful company in a competitory consumer electronics industry. The house managed to outsell others by being advanced and distinguishing its merchandises through superior service criterions and high quality merchandises. To guarantee criterions are met. Apple outsourced its fabrication to a dependable 3rd party electronics fabricating company. Foxconn Technology. In recent old ages. the smartphone industry is traveling towards commoditization. This resulted in intense competition where changeless invention is required to defy its concern marketability.

Apple’s strategic capablenesss such as holding tailored hardware/software systems has enabled the corporation to place itself in term of value. rareness. inimitability and non-substitution. However. to go on deriving its market portion as the best smartphone. the corporation might necessitate to reexamine its concern suitableness. so as to keep its market leading in the industry. This strategic analysis and rating study will hence reappraisal Apple’s public presentation and sustainability through utilizing concern degree schemes before strategic recommendations are decided upon. In order for Apple to continually retain its market place. the corporation might necessitate to see its concern suitableness such as its strategic way. Through market development. the company can increase its presence in new market sections. There is a demand to look into its R & D (Research & Development). so that new merchandises with alone characteristics can increasingly developed.


Background Information

Apple Inc. is a technological company that had achieved great success in planing. bring forthing and selling i


ts broad scope of merchandises classs including Mac. IPad. IPod and IPhone. which brings inventions in computing machines. media tablet. Portable music participants and nomadic phones severally. In add-on. Apple besides offers a assortment of related package. applications. services. networking solutions. peripherals and third-party digital content which represent a radical epoch for invention and distinction of Apple. (reuters). Although touch screens in nomadic devices are non new.

Apple managed to be the first to accomplish mass market acceptance for that engineering by making and establishing the first IPhone series in January 2007. The IPhone was so much in front of its clip that it virtually created a new class in the market go forthing everyone else playing catch up (Elliot. 2012). The Apple’s mark market includes adolescents. college and university pupils. concern people. immature kids and childs and grownups. As of September 29. 2012. it had 412 retail shops in 14 states around the universe. (Fiscal Report 2012) At the same clip. Apple had an extended 72. 800 regular employees and an extra 3. 300 impermanent employees or contractors worldwide (Apple 3 twelvemonth PnL).

Fiscal Performance

Harmonizing to the fiscal study. the company recorded entire net gross of $ 156. 508 million during the financial twelvemonth 2012. which shows an addition of 63 % over financial twelvemonth 2011. In which net net income accounted for $ 41. 733 million. a 61 % addition over financial twelvemonth 2011 (Apple 3 twelvemonth PnL). As observed from the study. Apple’s gross net income border had rise from 40. 5 % to 43. 9 % in the past 2 old ages. This is chiefly the consequence of effectual execution of cost-leadership and distinction scheme over the

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old ages.


The firm’s pervious CEO. Steve Job (from 1997 – 2011) had created a civilization in which vision are understood and is unrecorded by their employees. He believes that pass oning the vision to the employee is about every bit of import as coming out with new merchandises (Elliot. Jay. 2012). This civilization was kept alive even when Tim Cook took over as CEO (from 2011 – current) which basically kept all Apple’s employees on the same page and ordain the vision with true passion (Elliot. Jay. 2012) which is cardinal to strategic direction (Find that book)

Macro Environment Analysis

PESTEL Analysis

PESTEL analysis will be used to understand Apple’s external environment and derive an penetration of Apple’s hereafter concern potency. market state of affairs and operations waies. There are six elements in the PESTEL analysis ; Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal. Sing developments, tendencies, declarative incidents at the planetary degrees. we identify that Social. Technological and Legal component of the PESTEL analysis pose a much important impact on Apple’s mobile phone SBU as compared to the remainder.


Apple’s societal environment is one of cardinal subscriber for its success today and will go on to take it into greater tallness in future (wei kang. 2013). It’s ‘think different’ motto is the alone combination of simpleness. creativeness and luxury image into the merchandise that reflects the user’s single individuality and the desire to be different (Schneiders. 2011). Apple’s pervious CEO Steve Job ever had a sense of what consumer truly wanted and adjusted the company’s merchandises line to run into their wants. In other words he tells them what they should love (VERGANTI. 2010). This is a phenomenon known as the cult selling in which people do non cognize their wants until cult sellers present it to them (RAGAS & BUENO. 2005). In simple footings.

Cult selling is really a tool used in scheme to beef up client trueness (Schneiders. 2011). This component has important positive impact as it allows Apple to hold the strongest client trueness in the universe and achieve the highest redemption rate in the electronic field (MacNN. 2006). This consequence can be seem world-wide whenever Apple launch their new merchandise. Apple’s fans would bivouac for yearss in forepart of the shop merely to acquire one of its newest invention. This shows that Apple’s users truly love Apple unlike most others (NUSSBAUM. 2005). In add-on. due to the engineering development.

Apple’s Products such as the IPhone are no longer being viewed as luxuries but existent necessities goods (beginning). To win in the long tally. Apple should follow and stay to its steering rule; ‘don’t follow your clients ; Lead them’ which implies that consumer demand to be shown a superior option which Apple distinguishes itself and supply these options (MacVarish. 2009).


The market for nomadic phone and other electronic merchandises that Apple offers puts them in a hyper competition environment driven by the fast gait of technological alterations. Companies like Apple which manufacture such merchandises
will hold to continually put significant sum of money on research and development (R & D) to bring forth better public presentation. new characteristic and better design merchandises to

counter the short life rhythm and frequent debut of new merchandises in the market (beginning). Harmonizing to MacVarish. one of Apple’s steering rule for their invention scheme was ‘Be your ain toughest Critic’. In which. Apple aims to offer new merchandise lines that replaces older merchandises doing their them disused and therefore forestalling rival from making so. With this rule to crush itself.

Apple managed to crush its rivals excessively (MacVarish. 2009). Ultimately this enable Apple to take the market as it did in the launching of the different coevals of IPhone particularly IPhone 5 which become the world’s best-selling Smartphone worldwide during the fourth one-fourth of 2012 (Maisto. 2013). As a consequence. Apple’s R & D disbursal additions exponentially from $ 1. 782 billion in 2010 to $ 3. 381 billion in 2012 (Apple 3 twelvemonth PnL). Due to their research intensive nature to maintain invention in front of rivals. Apple becomes less cost-efficient in concentrated markets and is exposed to greater hazard if it’s R & D does non come through (beginning).


The rational belongings war has long being used as tool in engineering and direction scheme by companies such as Apple to derive strategic advantage against their rivals. Apple entirely has filled every bit many as 250. 000 patents for the IPhone and other Smartphone covering the design and functionality of these merchandises (Cusumano. 2008). Apple had cases all around the universe with its rivals such as Samsung. Motorola and Nokia both suing and being sued over misdemeanor of each other’s patents (beginning). One such instance is the case in the U. S between the Apple and one of its top smart phone rival ; Samsung in which the jury awarded Apple $ 1. 05 billion in harm and ordered some of Samsung’s Smartphone merchandises off shelf in parts of the US (beginning). This finding of fact allows the IPhone to derive typical advantage in the US market and at the same clip helped Apple in advertisement and broadcast IPhone originality. In add-on the sum of harm awarded to Apple could be counted as gross which finally increases the net income border significantly for of Apple that one-fourth. In decision. while most cases Apple filed comes with small success. any tribunal determinations that verdict in
favour of Apple’s patents will probably let IPhone to stay typical in the market (Cusumano. 2008).

Industry (Competitive) Analysis

Michael Porter’s 5-forces theoretical account

Apple’s competitory place and its attraction in the smart-phone market can be explained in analysing the Porter’s 5-Forces model (Porter. 1980). Using the competitory forces. it would place the fight and its ability to place itself with variegation. It will demo its sustainability and profitableness of its iPhone series. Threat of Potential Entry/Barriers to entry – LOW

The smart-phone industry is saturated and poses strong barriers to possible entrants who are acute to come in the market. Soon. there are a few well-established rivals that have a big market portion and economic systems of graduated table which limits new entrants from come ining. Its strong trade name presence and consumer trueness is a hinderance to possible entrants (Bostic. 2013). New entrants require a big sum

of capital investing. so as to vie against the market leaders. Due to big economic systems of graduated table. it is about impossible for this new entrants to come in and derive significant market portion. Sometimes. there is a demand for new entrant to introduce such as making typical characteristics or package to vie. But this normally brought about by deficiency of resources as puting in ample resources does non come cheap. Legal footings such as patents and hallmarks serves as a barrier to new entrants. New entrants besides face barriers such as legal footings. These are normally patents or hallmarks that the dominants participants have. This market leaders such as Apple Inc have patents on its designs of iPhones including package such as iTunes. This prevents any violations from new entrants to copy similar thoughts. After all. Apple is still a dominant participant in the smart-phone market and viing against Apple truly requires a new entrant high start-up costs. Mention:

Bostic. K. (2013). “Study finds 20 % of Apple iPhone users switched off from Android in past year”. Apple Insider Porter. M. (1980). “Competitive Scheme: Techniques for analysing industries and competitors”. Free Imperativeness, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group Rivalry between rivals – HIGH

The smart-phone market is really well-developed and there is a high grade of concentration. It is controlled by a few big rivals which are Apple’s strong competition. This are dominant smart-phone participants such as Samsung. LG and HTC Mobile which has high capital investings. Smart-phones have become a trade goods item that any individual will necessitate. As such. dominant participants have been puting an accent on competitory pricing. This will enable them to derive an border over rivals. These rivals are by and large of comparable size with Apple in its operations. Due to stiff competition. Apple will distinguish itself in footings of design characteristics and functionalities. Its rivals have besides sharply seek a leading place in the smart-phone market by invariably introducing and seeking new alterations. The consequence of engineering promotion has besides caused an increased competition to seek alteration in the industry. This in bend consequences in competition among smart-phone participants to streamline its merchandises and invariably refreshed its appliances to run into the demand. so as to remain in competition. (Apple Inc Report. 2009).


Menace of replacements – Moderate

It may seems that Apple has a assortment of replacements in the market. but the nature of Apple’s merchandises sets itself apart from rivals. Although it may look that Apple has an extended array of replacements in the market. but its proprietary nature of merchandises sets itself apart from rivals. Soon. its menace of replacements of its smart-phones (e. g: iPhone5) are still moderate. But rivals are already siting on its successes by invariably introducing and substitutes it with a similar merchandise in the market. In general. Apple beginnings its parts from assorted providers. therefore maintaining itself alone in the smart-phone market. As such. Apple still have to constantly remain advanced and monetary value conscious so as to efficaciously positioned itself against other rivals with a strong stigmatization and following. As such. its distinction scheme can efficaciously diversified

itself from others.

Dickering Power (purchasers) – Low

There are many smart-phone trade names in the market that is a replacement to Apple’s iPhones. but the bargaining power by purchasers remain low. The chief fact is that Apple’s focuses on distinguishing its merchandises from its rivals. Its alone designs. characteristics and cult selling are testimony to its trueness by purchasers. Its niche market in the smart-phone industry besides makes purchasers less sensitive on merchandise pricing. Customers or loyal fans of Apple are still willing to pay regardless of the monetary value. Although major retail merchants or concerns have some comparative power to bargaining due to its majority volume. single purchasers still have no control particularly on their merchandise pricing. Apple’s deficiency of 3rd party options besides means that purchasers have less options for other merchandise.

Dickering Power (Suppliers) – Low

Apple relies on a assortment of providers in its industry for smartphones. Normally. it is non limited to merely one individual provider for assorted constituents in the assembly of its smartphones. As such. this leaves Apple’s providers with less dickering power over monetary values. This enables Apple to successfully make a competitory advantage over its rivals in the market (Apple Annual Report. 2012). Due to its majority measures of constituents. Apple Inc can hold a purchase over providers through negociating better footings and pricing. This allows Apple to hold a lower cost construction and ensures a higher net income border as compared to its rivals.

Apple’s Strategic Capabilities


Apple’s incorporate system of hardware and package has enabled the house to successfully market and develop to be their most valuable strategic resources (Dhaliwal. 2009). It was their former CEO. Steve Jobs that pulled Apple’s back to the growing phase. Apple’s talented squad of package applied scientists. coders and interior decorators are the firm’s cardinal resources in introducing. This enables Apple to use their cognition to successfully make a trim hardware and package system which serve as its cardinal capablenesss. Its integrating in its key capablenesss has allowed Apple to make a competitory advantage and sustainability in the market (“Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition. ” 2009).

The VRIN theoretical account. a four key standards resource-based position. examines if Apple Inc. uses its strategic resources to make a competitory advantage.

Apple holds good dealingss with its OEM concern spouses in China. It includes companies such as Foxconn and Hon Hai Precision Industry. This close relationships that the house maintains with its spouses assures that the end products produced are superior and of high quality. This allows Apple to be in front of other smart-phone makers who prefers non to outsource production.

Value: Its strong relationships maintained with its concern spouses allow Apple to take advantage of chances by Foxconn. such as inexpensive fabrication costs. This ensures that the house can supply a sustained value in its merchandises and therefore cut downing any menaces (Barney. 1991). Inimitability: Rivals can still copy by following Apple’s scheme of happening an OEM spouse. But what sets Apple apart from the remainder. is its ability to keep its development of package. which others has jobs copying despite holding an OEM spouse. The purpose of Apple Inc. is to incorporate

multiple maps into developing an Apple merchandise. This will guarantee Apple’s users get the most value when they purchase the concluding merchandise. Apple Inc. ability of uniting all 5 facets of cardinal strategic resources/capabilities into one. allows the house to be in front of rivals due to its sustained value and its success in taking chances and cut downing menaces. (Barney. 1991).

Retail Locations

The debut of Apple’s retail shops provide the corporation with a physical presence and convenience to its clients. It allows Apple to make a shop image by supplying an attractive shop forepart and superior client service. This cardinal resource serves as an of import value to Apple which is a comparative rareness in the industry. Value: Its strategic locations of its retail shops worldwide provide consumers with the ability to make its merchandises easy. This gives Apple a competitory advantage against rivals. Rarity: Apple’s scheme in positioning its shop and distinguishing its merchandises ensures that the house is in a leading place. Its alone factors of its strategic retail location are a rareness to the organisation. Talented package development squads

Apple has a capable squad of package developers. This are frequently carefully chosen by the corporation and serves as Apple’s most gifted coders. They assist Apple with presenting of import merchandises. But frequently developers of this quality are non rare in the IT industry. neither are they tough to copy. Hence other smart-phone makers such as Samsung Mobile can besides develop or engage strong quality of developers excessively.

Industrial Design Capability

Industrial design capableness is one of Apple Inc. strategic resource that serves as a map of its invention ability. Its capableness of its advanced design squads are valuable to the corporation. Its advanced design squads besides have strong teamwork which forms one of Apple Inc. strategic resource excessively. This enables Apple to so be really valuable. rare among its rivals and besides its trouble in imitation.

Tailored Hardware/Software Systems

Apple Inc. competitory advantages among rivals are holding a tailored hardware and package systems. It is one of Apple’s most of import abilities as it is merely specifically designed and built in its incorporate merchandises. Its ‘closed system’ manners besides form its forte as most rivals relied on 3rd party package. One illustration would be Samsung Mobile following the Google’s Android market. Its capableness of uniting its ain design. package development. hardware coders ensures its competitory advantage. Value: The benefits of holding its ain hardware and package guarantee that the house provides value to its consumers. Rarity: The rareness of holding a dynamic squad of gifted staff allows the house to develop specialised hardware and package which are alone to the company.

This are of import factors which identifies Apple’s power in the industry. Inimitability: Apple’s inimitability in most of its strategic capablenesss allows the house to be of a competitory advantage than its rivals. In peculiar. its trim package. iOs app shop was developed in front of its rival. Samsung Mobile who adopted the Google Play shop. Though Apple has a talented squad of package developers. this is still inimitable as rivals can develop and develop staff. In general. Apple’s strong strategic capablenesss still prevent

rivals from intimidating. Non-substitution: In general. Apple’s merchandises are substitutable with alternate merchandises. The ground that sets apart from its rivals is its trade name individuality and its tailored hardware and package. This development serves as a alone factor which no third-party can replace.

Sustainability as Competitive Advantage

To successfully prolong Apple’s continued public presentation and competitory advantage. its direction may see seeking sole partnerships or agreements with its OEM spouses to convey costs down and likely making out to more states with enlargement of Apple’s shops. These schemes will let Apple to continually take the market with its laterality and market portion.


The purpose of Apple Inc. is to incorporate multiple maps into developing an Apple merchandise. This will guarantee Apple’s users get the most value when they purchase the concluding merchandise. Apple Inc. ability of uniting all 5 facets of cardinal strategic resources/capabilities into one. allows the house to be in front of rivals due to its sustained value and its success in taking chances and cut downing menaces. (Barney. 1991).


In the smart-phone industry. there are many trade names that compete straight with Apple iPhones. But what stands out against rivals is Apple’s ability to place and distinguish its merchandises. Its innovativeness in industrial design. specialized hardware/software and its strategic retail location allows Apple to derive its singularity in the market. This assures Apple Inc. as a successful administration due to its trade name individuality and superior quality. Inimitate Apple’s inimitability in most of its strategic capablenesss allows the house to be of a competitory advantage than its rivals. In peculiar. its trim package. iOs app shop was developed in front of its rival. Samsung Mobile who adopted the Google Play shop. Though Apple has a talented squad of package developers. this is still inimitable as rivals can develop and develop staff. In general. Apple’s strong strategic capablenesss still prevent rivals from inimitating.


By and large. Apple’s merchandises are substitutable with alternate merchandises. The lone ground that sets apart from its rivals are its trade name individuality and ability to maintain clasp of Apple’s fans. Its gifted squads of package developers and tailored hardware/software are an uniqueness to Apple and no third-party can be substituted.

Business Strategy

Strategy Statement

An analysis shows that there is a scheme displacement in Apple for its smart Telephone concern as the company had a alteration in leading since 2012. Apple’s current end is to give its consumer the best merchandise experience by offering superior high and low-middle terminal merchandises that are user friendly. advanced in design and characteristic. incorporate seamlessly and excellence gross revenues and post-sale support experience for consumers (forbes).

Generic Competitive Strategy

Apple’s is prosecuting a intercrossed combination of merchandise distinction and cost leading scheme. With the combination of the 2 scheme. Apple managed to accomplish high net income border where it produces its smart phone cheaply and selling them at a premium monetary value.

Competitive range (wide mark)

Under Tim cook’s (CEO of Apple from 2012- current) lead. Apple started to research new district by constructing on the success of its current smart phone concern unit and spread outing it into emerging markets. This scheme is seen to be put into

action with the proclamation of the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c (a watered-down version of the IPhone series) launch (Apple chief web site). With the double launch of the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c. Apple managed to place its merchandise in both the premium and non-premium class severally that offers 2 monetary value points. The IPhone 5s will go on to turn to their current market while the IPhone 5c will catered to more monetary value sensitive client base particularly from the emerging market.

Competitive Advantage (Lower cost and Differentiation)

Given that Apple will be holding a double IPhone launch with about the same design. characteristics and running on the same operating system (ISO 7). it will accomplish economic systems of range where cost factors such as advertisement and research and development will be shared. In add-on. the 2 IPhone caters to different market section. leting Apple to hold a larger addressable market where economic systems of graduated tables can be achieved by driving supplier’s cost down with the promise of addition order measure. These factors will assist Apple present cost leading in the smart phone industry.

However despite the increasing attempt in research and development to convey about invention and to distinguish their smart phone. Apple failed to bring forth sufficient singularity and dimension that is valued by their consumer. In fact. Apple is retroflexing its old IPhone theoretical account with minimal debut of ‘game-changing’ characteristics. The company’s cut down gait of invention can be inferred from its latest launched flagship IPhone. the IPhone 5s which retains the dimensions and design of its pervious flagship ; Phone 5 with small add-on to its characteristic and public presentation (yahoo intelligence).

Value Chain

Apple. Iraqi National Congress has been able to hone the concatenation of activities in invention. Apple starts from its new thoughts of merchandise design through R & D with its scheme capableness and extended support. Then makers it and eventually markets it wholeheartedly. The procedure of transforming inputs into outputs via medias a figure of primary and support activities” (Hill and Jones. 2001. p. 133). Each value is considered to be a beginning of competitory advantage. Value concatenation analysis is a powerful tool for directors to place the key activities within the house which form the value concatenation for that administration. and have the potency of a sustainable competitory advantage for accompany. Therein, competitory advantage of an administration lies in its ability to execute important activities along the value concatenation better than its rivals Technology Development

Buying and R & D

Inbound Logistics

Most constituents are by and large available from multiple beginnings ; a figure of constituents are presently obtained from individual or limited beginnings. Hardware merchandises are manufactured by outsourcing spouse primary in Asia e. g. Foxconn.

  • Delegate natural stuffs acquisition – Apple works with its OEM spouses to depute the natural stuffs acquisition procedure but provides some supervising for quality control intent.
  • Automated having systems – Apple has implemented sophisticated automated having systems to rush up the receiving procedure and cut down installation footmark and storage infinite demand

That is a concern for providers. Apple’s smartphone borders are the highest in the industry. But as those

borders come under force per unit area. Apple will force providers to cut costs. Flat-panel telecastings followed a similar form. with borders for screens finally falling to near break-even degrees. says Alberto Moel. an analyst at Bernstein Research.

Outbound Logisticss

Apple used assortment of direct and indirect distribution channel. such as retail shops. online shops and direct gross revenues force. 3 Rd party cellular web bearers. jobbers. retail merchants and value added resellers.

Apple continue to spread out and better its distribution capacities by spread outing the figure of its ain retail shops worldwide in order to guarantee a high quality purchasing experience for its merchandise.

Economic packing – Apple employed squads of design and technology experts who develop merchandise packaging that’s slim and visible radiation yet protective. Efficient boxing design non merely reduces stuffs and waste. it besides helps cut down the emanations produced during transit.

Generic Competitive Strategy

Apple is prosecuting a wide distinction scheme. Apple differentiates by offering high-quality. exceeding design. and individualized service. The range of their scheme is wide aiming clients runing from
unworldly novice users to specials demands power-users.

  1. Cost-leadership
  2. Differentiation

Business Suitability

Apple Inc. is concerned with which strategic waies and methods suggested addressed the issues the corporation faced (Johnson & Scholes. 2008). It assists in finding the concern suitableness of strategic picks which relates to the strategic place. To prove on Apple’s suitableness on its proposed concern schemes. the Porter’s value concatenation theoretical account is chosen to see the internal factors of the organisation. Strategic Directions

Market Penetration

Soon, Apple’s substructure is really good established and developed. But the corporation should still go on in its substructure developments. so as to accomplish back its high market portion in the smartphone industry. Its market incursion concern scheme relies to a great extent on its primary activities such as inward logistics. outbound logistics ; and gross revenues and selling. To go on traveling towards the market incursion way. its support activities do play apart. The engineering development will so be in a place to help the support to the proposed scheme.

Merchandise Development

Apple may necessitate to see a strategic impetus to derive a competitory advantage in its concern scheme. The merchandise development scheme gets its aid from support activities such as developing new merchandises to run into client demands. To increase its steadfast public presentation and market portion. Apple is presenting new characteristics such as finger detector on its new iPhone5s and besides colored version of its iPhone5c (Apple. com). This new characteristics or merchandise development someway serves a finding factor whether Apple will accomplish its concern scheme or affects its corporate public presentation.

Market Development

At present, the house is following the market development scheme. It assists Apple in embarking into new market sections. Therefore. there is the importance to concentrate particularly on the primary activities of inbound and outbound logistics. gross revenues and selling. Apple is still able to trust on its OEM spouses for resources particularly in fabrication. which serves as Apple’s cardinal competence. To travel in front. Apple might necessitate to come in or develop new market. such as in developing markets which it has zero presence. With its strong confederation spouse. such as Foxconn. Apple

is able to use its logistics portion and its strong gross revenues and selling to open up new market. Hence. these three suggested concern schemes are suited to measure the value concatenation. and Apple can transport any of these schemes in front. Apple will necessitate to see which scheme will accomplish its overall concern aims to prolong itself in the market.

Reference List

  1. hypertext transfer protocol: //in. reuters. com/finance/stocks/companyProfile? symbol=AAPL. O (reuters)
  2. hypertext transfer protocol: //files. stockholder. com/downloads/AAPL/2634031917x0x444195/E7A8FE5F-8835-46AB-ACC2-6FA28DFB546D/Three_Yr_Financial_History. pdf (Apple 3 twelvemonth PnL)
  3. Porter. ME. (2008). ‘The Five Competitive Forces that Sharpe Strategy’. Harvard Business Review. vol. 86. no. 1. pp. 78-93. Business Source Complete. (online) Available at: EBSCOhost database [ Accessed:15 sept 2013 ] (Porter. 2008)
  4. MacVarish. B. (2009. August 13). Steering Principles of Apple Innovation. brucemacvarish. com. Retrieved January 29. 2010. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. brucemacvarish. com/2009/08/guiding-principles-of-innovation-at-apple1-dont-follow-your-customers-lead-themapple-tends-to-place-less-emphasis-on-evide. hypertext markup language (MacVarish. 2009)
  5. Cusumano. M 2008. ‘Technology Strategy and Management: The Puzzle of Apple’. Communications Of The ACM. 51. 9. pp. 22-24. Business Source Complete. EBSCOhost. viewed 16 July 2013. (Cusumano. 2008
  6. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. forbes. com/sites/mobiledia/2012/02/19/nuts-apples-ceo-reveals-future-strategy-google-to-expand-into-hardware/ (forbes)
  7.  (hypertext transfer protocol: //sg. intelligence. yokel. com/photos/apple-unveils-iphone-5s-iphone-5c-slideshow/five-colors-iphone-5c-cases-photo-181338126. hypertext markup language) (yahoo intelligence)