AP World History Terms II

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser
Pax Romana
27 BCE-180 CE, a period of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
Silk Roads
established during the Han dynasty, flourished during the Pax Mongolica.
Punic Wars
246-146 BCE, conflict between Rome and Carthage for domination of the Mediterranean. Rome won, Carthage was sacked.
Pelopponesian War
400s BCE, civil conflict in the Greek world that was basically Athens versus Sparta. A contest for hegemony caused by tensions over the Delian League. Sparta won, although conflicts continued.
Persian Wars
500-479 BCE, conflict between Ionian Greek colonies backed by Athens and the Achaemenid empire, led by Cyrus, Darius, Cambyses and Xerxes. Greece won at the battle of Marathon.
Qin Shihuangdi
ruled 221-210 BCE, First Emporer of China. Standardized the script, built defensive walls, and enforced Legalist policies.
Han Wudi
ruled 141-87 BCE, the Martial Emporer. Established the Confucian education system and expanded into northern Vietnam and Korea and central Asia.
Ashoka
ruled 297-232 BCE, the high point of the Mauryan empire. Created the rock and pillar edicts, taxed, centralized, and encouraged Buddhism.
Chandragupta Maurya
ruled 321-297 BCE, founder of the Mauryan empire. Unified most of India, advised by Kautalya, ruled according the the Arthashastra.
Chandra Gupta
ruled 320-330 CE, founder of the Gupta empire.
Gupta
320-550 CE, second classical empire in India.
Mauryan
321-185 CE, first classical empire in India.
Socrates
470-399 BCE, first major Greek philosopher, interested in ethics and morality. Views recorded by Plato.
Plato
430-347 BCE, second major Greek philosopher, created the theory of Forms or Ideas, wrote The Republic.
Aristotle
384-322 BCE, third major Greek philosopher, believed in the power of reason and the senses, wrote extensively on science.
ren
kindness, respect, humanity.
li
propriety
xiao
filial piety
nirvana
escape from reincarnation, spiritual independence.
moksha
escape from reincarnation, spiritual union.
Old Kingdom
2660-2160 BCE, founded by Menes, built pyramids.
New Kingdom
1550-1070 BCE, restored power ater Hyksos, returned to prosperity, restored dominance in Nubia.
Middle Kingdom
2040-1640 BCE, re-stabilized Egypt, invaded by the Hyksos.
Nestorian Christianity
branch of Christianity popular in Asia which emphasized the human nature of Christ.
Theme system
Byzantine system of provinces ruled by generals, who recruited armies of peasants in exchange for land grants.
mamluks
Abbasid slave soldiers who converted to Islam, eventually became a powerful military caste and governed Egypt from 1250 to 1517.
Sunni Islam
the most popular branch of Islam; belief in the legitimacy of the early caliphs.
Shia Islam
minority branch of Islam; belief that only a descendant of Ali can be caliph.
Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhism
a less popular branch of Buddhism, emphasizes a strict, individual path, popular in southeast Asia.
Mahayana Buddhism
a more popular and more metaphysical northern branch of Buddhism.
Toltecs
950-1150, Central American society that migrated from northwestern Mexico. Precursors to the Aztecs, or Mexica.
junzi
Confucius’s \”superior individuals,\” well-educated, altruistic, and careful.
Hundred Years’ War
1337-1453. France won.
Crusades
1095-1204 Led to Renaissance
Sargon of Akkad
first Sumerian king-conqueror.
Assyrians
1300-612 BCE, had an empire in SW Asia and Egypt.
Zaibatsu
1890s Japanese industrial clique.
Big Stick policy
describes Roosevelt corollary, idea of threatening military force while negotiating peacefully.
Open Door Policy
1899 policy that all European nations, and the US could trade with China.
deterrence policy
the idea that knowing the consequences, like MAD, would prevent military action.
Eisenhower doctrine
countries can ask for help from US if threatened, especially by communism.
Agricultural Revolution
1700s movement in England that led to the Industrial Revolution. Enclosure, crop rotation, and mechanization were major parts.
Gospel of Wealth
1889- Andrew Carnegie’s idea of philanthropy, the rich helping the poor.
Black Death
1300s
Osman Bey
founder of the Ottoman empire
1453-1922
ottoman empire
Babur
founder of the Mughal empire
Akbar
high point of the Mughal, tolerant
purdah
womens’ confinement in the home
Taj Mahal
mughal architecture, islamic influence
muslim gunpowder empires
1450-1750, ottoman mughal safavid
english civil war
parliament vs. king, 1640s
Ivan III (the great)
tsar after golden horde
Ivan the terrible
expanded russia
cossacks
russian pioneers into new territories
boyars
russian nobles
mikhail romanov
first romanov tsar, 1613
peter the great
tsar who westernized
catherine the grreat
expansionist, westernizing, enlightened
matteo ricci
jesuit in china
john calvin
predestination, puritans
jean jacques rousseau
social contract
adam smith
capitalism capitalism capitalism!
domestsic system
like putting-out, lost to industrial revolution
factors of production
land labor capital entrepeneurship
tokugawa shogunate
1603-1868
meiji restoration
1868 on
sino-japanese war
1895 control of korea
russo-japanese war
1905 influence in korea
muhammad ali
industrializing ruler of egypt
Tanzimet era
1840s-1870s
Tanzimet reforms
facilitated trade
Young turks
more failed reform
extraterritoriality
granted to Europeans in Ottoman Empire and China
Opium Wars
Ming China, 1840s-1850s
Treaty of Nanking
opened ports, gave Hong Kong to British, ended Opium Wars
Congress of Vienna
After Napoleon
Berlin Conference
dividing up Africa
Miguel de Hidalgo
Catholic priest, led the Mexican struggle for independence in 1810
Napoleon III
interfered in the Mexican revolution in 1863
Porfirio Diaz
president of Mexico, repressive dictatorship led to the Mexican revolution
Mexican Revolution
Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapato, Ponciano Arriaga- land reforms- tierra y libertad
Benito Juarez
economic growth, constitution of 1857, La Reforma
Simon Bolivar
1800s revolutionary in South America, wanted to unite the region
Gran Colombia
Simon Bolivar’s failed conglomeration of Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
Taiping Revolution
1850s, led by Jesus’s little brother (or so he thought), advocated social reform, land redistribution, and women’s rights.
self-strengthening movement
encouraged western investments and modernization in Qing China, but crushed by the Boxer Rebellion.
Boxer Rebellion
anti-foreign rebellion led by crazy Empress Cixi and the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Seriously.
Revolution of 1905
forced tsar Nicholas II to allow the Duma, which he abolished after a few weeks, inciting planning for further rebellion.
Boers
Dutch farmers in South Africa
Great Trek
British forced boers into the interior of South Africa, where they clashed with Bantu people including the Zulu.
Boer War
culmination of tension between British and Boers at turn of 20th century.
Mexican-American War
Mexico didn’t want us to take Texas.
Spanish American War
U.S. ship exploded in Havana harbor, but more about U.S. concerns about interests in Cuba after independence form Spain in 1895. the U.S. got the Philippines and control of Cuba.
Mehmed the Conqueror
ottoman who captured Constantinope in 1453.
Suleyman the Magnificent
1500s Ottoman who made laws, laid siege to Vienna, and made the ottomans a naval power.
Shah Ismail
founder of Safavid Empire, proponent of Twelver Shiism
qizilbash
Twelver Shiite community
Babur
founder of the Mughal empire, wanted to control a lot of land
Akbar
ruled 1556-1605, high point of Mughal empire, tolerant, centralizing
Aurangzeb
Mughal Muslim, intolerant, expansionist, faced rebellions and decline

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