AP World History Period 4 Vocab Terms

Flashcard maker : Martha Hill
Absolutism
the acceptance of or belief in absolute principles in political, philosophical, ethical, or theological matters
Astrolabe
an instrument formerly used to make astronomical measurements, typically of the altitudes of celestial bodies, and in navigation for calculating latitude, before the development of the sextant. In its basic form (known from classical times), it consists of a disk with the edge marked in degrees and a pivoted pointer
Atlantic Slave Trade
the business or process of procuring, transporting, and selling slaves, especially black Africans to the New World prior to the mid-19th century
Balance of Power
1. a situation in which nations of the world have roughly equal power
2. the power held by a small group when larger groups are of equal strength
Biological Diffusion
the global diffusion of plants food crops animals human populations and disease pathogens that took place after the voyages of exploration
Boyars
a member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in rank to a prince
Codices
an ancient manuscript text in book form
Colony
a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country
Colombian Exchange
he Columbian Exchange refers to a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life
Conduits
a channel for conveying water or other fluid
Conquistadores
a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century
Creoles/Criollos
a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Latin America, comprising the locally born people of confirmed Spanish ancestry
Debt Peonage
a system where an employer compels a worker to pay off a debt with work
Devshirme
The devshirme system began in the late 14th century. Christian boys were recruited by force to serve the Ottoman government. The boys were generally taken from the Balkan provinces, converted to Islam, and then passed through a series of examinations to determine their intelligence and capabilities
Dhimmi
Literally \”people of the book\”; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus
Divine Right
a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God
Encomienda
a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area
Enlightenment
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Descartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith
Hacienda
a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house
Harem
the separate part of a Muslim household reserved for wives, concubines, and female servants
Indentured Servitude
a labor system whereby young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years. It was widely employed in the 18th century in the British colonies in North America and elsewhere
Janissaries
a member of the Turkish infantry forming the Sultan’s guard between the 14th and 19th centuries
Joint-stock Corporation
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors
Literacy
the ability to read and write
Local Resistance
Food riots, Samurai revolts, Peasant uprisings
Manila Galleons
Spanish trading ships that made round-trip sailing voyages once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean from the port of Acapulco in New Spain (present-day Mexico) to Manila in the Spanish East Indies
Maroon
a fugitive black slave of the West Indies and Guiana in the 17th and 18th centuries; a descendant of such a slave
Mercantilism
The main economic system used during the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. The main goal was to increase a nation’s wealth by imposing government regulation concerning all of the nation’s commercial interests. It was believed that national strength could be maximized by limiting imports via tariffs and maximizing exports.
Mestizo
a person of mixed White European and Amerindian ancestry
Mulattoes
a person of mixed white and black ancestry, especially a person with one white and one black parent
Middle Passage
the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade
Peninsulares
a Spanish-born Spaniard, or mainland Spaniard, residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies
Plantations
an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor
Predominance
the state of being more powerful or important than other people or things; a situation in which there is a greater number or amount of a particular type of person or thing than of other people or things
Protestant Reformation
the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era
Repartimiento
a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines
Royal chartered monopoly companies
joint stock company that obtained a monopoly
Scientific Revolution
the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature
Sikhism
a monotheistic religion founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak in the 15th Century CE, think religion should be practised by living in the world and coping with life’s everyday problems
Social contract
a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual
Syncretism
the amalgamation or attempted amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought
Triangular Trade
the trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that involved shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, these slaves being shipped to the West Indies and exchanged for sugar, rum, and other commodities, which were in turn shipped back to Britain
Viceroys
a regal official who runs a country, colony, or city province (or state) in the name of and as representative of the monarch
Vodun (voodoo)
a polytheistic religion practiced chiefly by West Indians, deriving principally from African cult worship and containing elements borrowed from the Catholic religion
Westernizaton/Moderization
a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values
Zen
a Japanese school of Mahayana Buddhism emphasizing the value of meditation and intuition

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