AP World History Chapter 4 Key Terms
Flashcard maker : Sarah Adrian
The first basic neolithic civilization of China, lasted until 2700 BCE, farmers grew millet, wheat, and rice; domesticated pigs, dogs, goats and horses; Lived in river valleys of china.
Excavated in 1921 in China’s Henan province
A late Neolithic culture (3000-2200 BC) that succeeded the Yangshao Culture; Notable for pottery and art skill as well as influence on the surrounding area. Further established domesticated agriculture and began to establish cities. Development of ritual and political hierarchies, large walled settlements, evidence of war, specialized craft, shmanistic cults with oracle bones, scapulimacy, mythical animals.
The 1st Dynasty in China, formation begun c. 2205-1766 BCE near the Huang He River, Sparse documentation and evidence to support dynasty.
The 2nd Dynasty in China, formation begun c. 1766-1122 BCE near the Huang He River. Archeological record shows urbanization. Huge construction works begin (dikes and channel irrigation). A powerful, highly organized, urban, metal-working culture developed.
The 3rd Dynasty in China, formation begun c. 1122-249 BCE near the Huang He River. \”mandate of heaven\” granted power to rule. virtues of restraint, humility, and advice. Moral character: determinant of right to rule and heaven serves as a moral force with interest in human affairs. encouraged ethical ruling.
Also known as the Huang-He river. The majority of ancient Chinese civilizations originated in the Yellow River Valley.
Cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
Characters that stand for objects, using images or pictures.
Legendary rulers of China c. 2800-c. 2200. Of the three sovereigns and five emperors based in the Huang He (Yellow River) region, Huang-tu (reigned c. 2697 BC) is credited with defeating the barbarians. The era has been associated with the domestication of animals, agricultural development, the gradual replacement of stone implements with bronze, and the formation of larger tribal confederacies.
Ancient city in northern China built during the Shang dynasty, it was China’s first capital.
Mandate of Heaven
A political theory developed during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China in which those in power were believed to have the the right to rule from divine authority.
In China, a dynasty would remain in power only as long as it was providing good government. When a dynasty went into decline, and began to abuse its power, it was said to lose the Mandate of Heaven, or the favor of the gods. A strong leader would usually emerge to claim the Mandate, and establish a new dynasty. This process would then begin again.
c. 1500 B.C.E. to 400 B.C.E. Gulf of Mexico, First Complex society in region, with centralized authority. Known for carvings of giant stone heads and jade animals.
c. 1400 B.C.E to 900 C.E. South Mexico. Built ceremonial center of Monte Alban and peaked as a civilization around 200 C.E.
c. 300 B.C.E to 750 C.E. Valley of Mexico. Major trading and cultural center. At it’s peak populated by 100,000 inhabitants in an area larger than Rome. Contains huge pyramid of the sun, Mexico’s largest pre-columbian edifice.
c. 2000 B.C.E. to 900 C.E. South Mexico, Guatemala, Belize. Most enduring of the Middle American civilizations, the Mayans had by 325 C.E. become superb astronomers who built stepped pyramids smelted tools, and developed hieroglyphs.
c. 200 B.C.E. to 600 C.E. Coast of Peru. Modeled ceramics of animals in a realistic style. Religious and Political life focused on the Huaca de la Luna and Huaca del Sol.
c. 600 to 1470 C.E. Northwest Peruvian Coast. Large urban civilization (Capital: Chan Chan) responsible for fine gold work, record-keeping, and aqueducts. Conquered by the Inca.
c. 1200 to 200 B.C.E. North Peru. Farming society compromising different regional groups, whose main town may have been a pilgrimage site.
Mississippi Valley Mounds
Temple mounds in the mississippi valley that left evidence of elaborate ritual funerals, suggested a hierarchical social and political organization.
An African culture that existed around 500 BCE in Northern Nigeria. They lived along the Niger river and produced terra cotta sculptures.
One of the first urbanized centers in western Africa. A walled community home to approximately 50,000 people at its height. Evidence suggests domestication of agriculture and trade with nearby regions.
Benefited from rich alluvial soils and extensive metal ore deposits. By 1800 B.C.E Shang had become a powerful, highly organized, urban, metal-working culture.
Inscribed Oracle Bone
Shang Kings communicated with their ancestors through sacrificial rituals and divination. Diviners would pose questions- about health, harvest, or politics- by interpreting heat induced cracks that they make on bone and shell.
Shang use of bronze
Bronze ritual items made with technical mastery and elegance for ritual purpose in the Shang. During war, bronze was melted down to produce weapons and once there was peace again the bronze was recast into ritual objects
Royal Tombs at Anyang
shows the wealth and power of the Shang rulers.
Covers 7.5 sq mi. 100,00 at peak (600 B.C.E.)
Lord Shield Jaguar
c. 725 C.E.-role of shaman
Temple I at Tikal
Tikal population was 360,000 at peak and was 100 sq mi. This was a sight of human sacrifice.
Civilizations in Central America (before columbus)
Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, Aztec
Civilizations in South America
Chavin, Moche, Nazca, Tiwanaku, Huari, Chimu, Inca
Great patterns of lines drawn with pebbles on the desert surface. The designs are visible only from the air, and their function and meaning are as exclusive as the culture that fashioned them.
Stone-walled enclosures or buildings built during the African Iron Age in the region of modern Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The structures were the courts of local rulers. They have been associated with foreign trade, integrated farming and animal husbandry, and gold production