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AP Psychology Unit 10: Abnormal Psychology

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psychological disorders
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deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
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ADHD
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a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
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medical model
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the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured (usually in a hospital)
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DSM IV TR
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Outlines criteria for diagnosing mental illnesses
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anxiety disorders
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disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladapted behaviors that reduce anxiety
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generalized anxiety disorder
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an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
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panic disorder
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an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes long terror episodes, with chest pain, chocking, or other sensations
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phobia
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an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational free and avoidance of it
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OCD
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an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts(obsessions) and/or actions(compulsions)
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PTSD
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an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpiness, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
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post traumatic growth
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positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and crisis.
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somatoform disorder
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disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
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conversation disorder
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a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
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hypochondriasis
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a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
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dissociative disorders
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disorders in which conscious awareness becomes dissociated from previous memories, thoughts, feelings
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dissociative identity disorder
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A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
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mood disorders
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psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
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major depressive disorder
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A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
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mania
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A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
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bipolar disorder
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A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
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schizophrenia
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A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
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delusions
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False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
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personality disorders
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psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
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antisocial personality disorder
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A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
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eclectic approach
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An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
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psychotherapy
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An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
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psychoanalysis
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A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference to release repressed feelings
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resistance
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in psychoanalysis, the blocks in the flow of your free associations
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interpretations
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in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting of supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other behaviors/events to promote more insight
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transference
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(psychoanalysis) the process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
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psychodynamic therapy
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therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
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insight therapies
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A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
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client centered therapy
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A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth
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active listening
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Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy
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unconditional postive guard
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a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
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behavior therapy
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therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
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counter conditioning
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a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning
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exposure therapies
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behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid little by little
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systematic desensitization
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A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
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virtual reality exposure therapy
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an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
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aversive conditioning
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A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
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token economy
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An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
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cognitive therapy
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therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
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cognitive behavioral therapy
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a popular integrative therapy that combines changing thinking and changing behavior
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family therapy
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therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
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regression toward the mean
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the tendency for extremes of unusual scores (emotions) to fall back (regress) toward their average (usual)
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meta analysis
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A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
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evidence based practice
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clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
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biomedical therapy
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Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system
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psychopharmacology
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the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
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antipsychotic drugs
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Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
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tardive dyskinesia
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involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
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antianxiety drugs
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Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
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antidepressant drugs
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Drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
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electroconvulsive therapy
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a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity.
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psychosurgery
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surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
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lobotomy
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a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
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resilience
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the personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma