on easy tasks, performance is optimal when arousal is high
Which of the following is correct regarding the relationship between arousal and performance?
sympathetic nervous system
Which division of the nervous system is especially involved in bringing about emotional arousal?
many emotions involve similar body responses but have different underlying brain circuits
Concerning emotions and their accompanying body responses, which of the following appears to be true?
the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body’s physical reaction
The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that:
Electrical stimulation of which brain region can produce terror or rage in cats?
epinephrine and norepinephrine; adrenal
The body’s response to danger is triggered by the release of___by the____gland(s).
people with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion
Which of the following was not raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
(Thinking critically) Current estimates are that the polygraph is inaccurate approximately_____of the time.
those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal
In the Schacter-Singer experiment, which college men reported feeling an emotional change in the presence of the experimenter’s highly emotional confederate?
people who are socially outgoing or who exercise regularly tend to be happier
Which of the following is true regarding happiness?
your anger is directed specifically toward the person who angered you
Catharsis will be most effective in reducing anger toward another person if:
physiological reactions, behavioral expressions, conscious feelings
Emotions consist of which of the following components?
guilty knowledge test
Law enforcement officials sometimes use a lie detector to assess a suspect’s responses to details of the crime believed to be known only to the perpetrator. This is known as the:
facial expressions tend to be the same the world over, while gestures vary from culture to culture
Research on nonverbal communication has revealed that:
intimacy and personal increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles
In laboratory experiments, fear and joy:
intimacy and personal growth
Research suggests that people generally experience the greatest well-being when they strive for:
Research indicates that a person is most likely to be helpful to others if he or she:
the expression of emotions helped our ancestors to survive, all humans express basic emotions using similar facial expressions, and human facial expressions of emotion retain elements animals’ emotional displays
With regard to emotions, Darwin believed that:
rise over the early hours and dissipate during the day’s last several hours
A graph depicting the course of positive emotions over the hours of the day since waking would:
cognition is not necessary for emotion
Evidence that changes in facial expression can directly affect people’s feelings and body states has convinced Robert Zajonic that:
the tendency to react to changes on the basis of recent experience
an individual’s self-perceived happiness
relative deprivation principle
the tendency to evaluate our situation negatively against that of other people
emotions consist of physical arousal and a cognitive label
an emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive and body responses simultaneously
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that calms the body following arousal
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the nervous system that activates arousal
a device that measures the physiological correlates of emotion
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
the tendency of people to be helpful when they are in a good mood
we are sad because we cry
emotions prepare the body to fight or flee
Which of the following most accurately describes emotional arousal?
physical arousal and a cognitive label
Schachter’s two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both:
When students studied others who were worse off than themselves, they felt greater satisfaction with their own lives. This is an example of the principle of:
Which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?
Izard believes that there are____basic emotions.
physiological indexes of arousal
(thinking critically) the polygraph measures:
left frontal lobe; dopamine
people who are exhuberant and persistently cheerful show increased activity in the brain’s________, which is rich in receptors for the neurons for the neurotransmitter______.
facial expressions are universal; gestures, culture-specific
Which of the following is true regarding gestures and facial expressions?
Which theory of emotion implies that every emotion is associated with a unique physiological reaction?
fear of cliffs
For which of the following fears do humans appear to be biologically prepared?
arousal of the sympathetic nervous system will trigger an emotional reaction even when artificially induced by an injection of epinephrine
Which of the following was not presented in the text as evidence that some emotional reactions involve no deliberate, rational thinking?
expressing anger can be temporarily calming if it does not leave one feeling guilty or anxious
Concerning the catharsis hypothesis, which of the following is true?
increased rate of respiration, increased blood sugar, and a slowing of digestion
in an emergency situation, emotional arousal will result in:
sprinting 100 meters
a relatively high level of arousal would be most likely to facilitate:
cognitive labels of arousal in the conscious experience of emotions
several studies have shown that physical arousal can intensify just about any emotion. for example, when people who have been physically aroused by exercise are insulted, they often attributed their arousal to the insult. this finding illustrates the importance of:
polygraphs cannot distinguish the various possible causes of arousal
(thinking critically) many psychologists are opposed to the use of lie detectors because:
most humans fears are:
several times a week
in studying what makes people angry, james averill found that most people become angry:
which of these factors have researchers not found to correlate with happiness?
negative emotions are rarely displayed
in cultures that emphasize social interdependence:
you are on your way to school to take a big exam. suddenly, on noticing that your pulse is racing and that you are sweating, you feel nervous. with which theory of emotion is this experience most consistent?
When professor simon acquired a spacious new office, he was overjoyed. six months later, however, he was taking the office for granted. his behavior illustrates the:
after brenda scolded her brother for forgetting to pick her up from school, the physical arousal that had accompanied her anger diminished. which division of her nervous system mediated her physical relaxation?
two years ago maria was in an automobile accident in which her spinal cord was severed, leaving her paralyzed from the neck down. today, maria finds that she experiences emotions less intensely than she did before her accident. this tends to support which theory of emotion?
an intensification of his fear
the candidate stepped before the hostile audience, panic written all over his face. it is likely that the candidate’s facial expression caused him to experience:
jane was so mad at her brother that she exploded at him when he entered her room. that she felt less angry afterward is best explained by the principle of:
after hitting a grand-slam home run, mike noticed that his heart was pounding. later that evening, after nearly having a collision while driving on the freeway, mike again noticed that his heart was pounding. that he interpreted this reaction as fear, rather than as ecstasy, can best be explained by the:
a guilty person can be found innocent by the polygraph, an innocent person can be found guilty, and these tests err one-third of the time
as part of her job interview, jan is asked to take a lie-detector test. jan politely refuses and points out that:
no, it cannot be determined from the information given
a student participating in an experiment concerned with physical responses that accompany emotions reports that her mouth is dry, her heart is racing, and she feels flushed. can the emotion she is experiencing be determined?
dan, who just completed a tennis match
who will probably be angrier after getting a parking ticket?
facial expressions of emotion are universal and biologically determined
children in new york, nigeria, and new zealand smile when they are happy and frown when they are sad. this suggests that:
yoko, a dentist in japan
who is the least likely to display negative emotions openly?
may be more cheerful than those with more active right frontal lobes
nine-month-old nicole’s left frontal lobe is more active than her right frontal lobe. we can expect that, all other things being equal, nicole:
increased electrical activity in julio’s right hemisphere
julio was extremely angry when he came in for a routine EEG of his brain activity. when he later told this to the doctor, she was no longer concerned about the:
when the scientist electrically stimulated one area of a monkey’s brain, the monkey became enraged. when another electrode was activated, the monkey cowered in fear. the electrodes were most likely implanted in the:
bonnie, who graduated from college the day before
as elderly mr. hooper crosses the busy intersection, he stumbles and drops the packages he is carrying. which passerby is most likely to help mr. hooper?
first wait until the anger subsides, then deal with the situation in a civil manner
expressing anger can be adaptive when you:
principle of relative deprivation
cindy was happy with her promotion until she found out that janice, who has the same amount of experience receives a higher salary. cindy’s feelings are best explained according to the:
i am an emotionally literate person who is very accurate at reading others’ nonverbal behavior, detecting lies, and describing my feelings. who am i?
positive valence; high arousal
margaret is a finalist in the u.s. ice skating championship. she is very excited about the competition and is feeling energized. more than likely, the two dimensions of her current emotion would be a_____and_________.
Societies that value aggressive sports are generally less aggressive than societies that do not value aggressive sports
Which of the following findings would support an interpretation of aggression as catharsis?
Experience of physiological changes
In the James-Lange theory of emotion, which of the following immediately precedes an emotion?
Dan, who has just completed a tennis match
Who will probably be angrier after learning that he or she has received a parking ticket?
Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support the:
cognitive labels; physical arousal
According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.