AP Psych Ch.7- Meek

cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, processing, understanding, remembering and communication

cognitive psychologists
these people study mental activities such as concept formation, problem solving, decision making, and judgment formation

mental imagery
procedural memory, mental images (pictures), visualization in mind (mental maps)

concept (schema)
ideas or mental groupings

superordinate
general concepts

subordinate
specific concepts

formal
concepts with rules

natural
concepts formed from experience

prototype
mental image that best represents a category

trial-and-error
try a method continuously until there is a solution by chance

algorithm
every possibility is tried; methodical, step-by-step. can take lots of time

heuristics
“rule-of-thumb” shortcut, thinking strategies to help come to a quick solution. Not completely accurate

representative
heuristic that uses a prototype to sort objects and ideas. can lead one to ignore relevant information

availability
heuristic. first thing that pops into mind. what comes most readily (ex/plane crash)

insight
sudden moment of clarity, “aha”

mental set
tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it was successful in the past

confirmation bias
tendency to search for information confirming one’s beliefs

fixation
refusal to think of one’s ideas in a different way

functional fixation
tendency to think of objects in terms of how they are usually used/original functions

overconfidence
tendency to be more confident than correct; overestimate accuracy of self

belief bias
distort one’s thinking to prove that self is right; affects one’s thinking patterns

framing
the way a question is asked affects decisions and judgments

creativity
new, novel, and valuable way to solve problems; requires expertise, imaginative thinking, adventurous personality, intrinsic motivation, and the right environment

divergent thinking
many solutions from one point

csikszentmihaly
flow: describes creativity, says that creative people are often contradictory

creative process
pave the way, incubation, illumination, translation

language
system for combining statements so unlimited number of meanings can be used to communicate with others. Spoken, written, gestures

semantics
study of the meaning of language.

syntax
how words are combined to produce a phrase

grammar
how phrases are structured and how sentences work

phoneme
smallest unit of language: letter sounds

morpheme
smallest unit of language with meaning

pragmatics
the politeness, courtesy, and social rules of a language

cognitive universalism
rosch-heider. theory that concepts are worldwide and influence the developments of a language. semanticity, arbitrariness, flexibility, naming, displacement, productivity

skinner; chomsky
___ believed that operant learning and experiences defined language, ___ believed that brain was pre-wired to learn language; all biological

cognitive neuroscience
gradual changes in neuro-network based on experience. throw on switches during infancy. language critical period: firsts 7 years

babbling, one word stage, two word stage, telegraphic stage
stages of language

10
at __ months an infant’s language sounds like their home language(s)

linguistic relativity hypothesis (sapir-whorf)
theory that states thought process and concepts are controlled by language

intelligence
the ability to learn, adapt, solve porblems

reification
reasoning error: a number (such as IQ or ACT) is thought to measure success in life and intelligence completely, accepted as the standard for success though this is not true

spearman
theory that there is only one intelligence, the g factor (general intelligence), which is made up of s factors (specific intelligence)

gardner
theory that there are multiple intelligences; 8 to begin with, now there are more

linguistic, logical/math, visual/spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, existential
9 intelligences of spearman

sternberg’s triarchic theory
analytic, creative, and practical make up intelligence – three aspects of intelligence

social intelligence
ability to understand people, react well in a social situation, and manage oneself

emotional intelligence
Saloney and Mayor. EQ, ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate one’s feelings, thoughts, and moods, empathy

adults
David Wechsler was the first to design an IQ test specifically for:

visual-spatial intelligence
Gardener would say that an astronaut is high in:

emotional intelligence
_________ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled

validity
If a test measures what it is supposed to measure, that test has:

a way to identify students in need of more help with learning
Intelligence testing began in France because French educators wanted:

analytical, creative, practical
Sternberg’s three types of intelligence are

cultural bias
The Dove Counterbalance General Intelligence Test was designed to highlight:

environmental factors
Only differences among people in general can be investigated for the influence of genes because genes always interact with:

ecological validity
___________ is the extent to which a test score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real-life situations

intelligence is largely inherited
In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray made the unfounded claim that:

emotional intelligence
_________ includes the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and to be socially skilled

schizophrenia
A recent study has shown that for a group of individuals with ________, computerized cognitive exercises that placed increasing demands on auditory perception were beneficial

linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorf used the now-famous example of the Inuits’ many words for snow to support the:

syntax
The system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences is:

syntax
“Michael painted the picture” and “the picture was painted by Michael” have the same semantic meaning but different:

books and bookshelves
a person’s schema for a library would most likely include:

a mental set
when solving a problem, if a person is hesitant or unable to think beyond solutions that have worked in the past, he or she is stuck in:

creative people are not necessarily unconventional in all aspects of their lives
Csikszentmihalyi found that:

natural concepts
________ form as the result of people’s experiences in the real world

divergent thinking
Making a list of all the ways one could use a butter knife requires:

WAIS-IV
Brian is 25 years old and wants to take an intelligence test. Which of the following tests would be best for Brian to complete?

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