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A&P of Speech Muscles of Articulation Essay

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Muscles
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Some attach to skeletal system, but not all. Some not attached to skeleton at all (interdigitate), some only attach at one end.
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Orbicularis Oris Superior
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Surrounds mouth with orbicularis oris inferior. Main muscle mass of lips. Attach to other muscles as well as skin and mucus membrane lining of the lips. Under vermilion border. Active to lower upper lip for p, b, m. Works together with orbicularis oris inferior to create rounding for /u/.
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Orbicularis Oris Inferior
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Surrounds mouth with orbicularis oris superior. Main muscle mass of lips. Attach to other muscles as well as skin and mucus membrane lining of the lips. Under vermilion border. Active to raise lower lip for p, b, m. Works together with orbicularis oris superior to create /u/.
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Zygomaticus Minor
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Exterior surface of zygomatic bone to upper lip. Contraction elevates the upper lip. Fixed at the zygomatic bone.
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Levator Labii Superior
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Lower margin of eye orbit to lateral half of upper lip. Interdigitates with Orbicularis Oris Superior. Contraction elevates upper lip. Constricts for a bilabial sound.
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Levator Labii Superior Alaeque Nasi
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From frontal process and lower orbital margin of maxilla to lateral cartilage of the nostril and upper lip. Interdigitate with Orbicularis Oris Superior and surrounding tissue. Contraction elevates the upper lip and flares the nostrils.
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Zygomaticus Major
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Zygomatic bone to skin mucosa and interdigitates at the oral angle. Contraction moves oral angle up and back. /i/ and smiling
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Levator Anguli Oris
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Maxilla to oral angle. Deep to other upper lip muscles. Elevates angle of the mouth, does not elevate the upper lip.
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Depressor Anguli Oris
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Part of the mandible to lower lip at oral angle. Contraction pulls down on the oral angle inferiorly and laterally.
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Depressor Labii Inferior
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Part of the mandible to the lower lip. (fibers interdigitate with orbicularis oris inferior) Deep to depressor anguli oris, insert at the same place. Lower the lip, evert the lip (pout).
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Mentalis
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From mandible up to the lower lip, one on each side and meet at the midline. Involved in elevating the lower lip. Involved in helping to protrude the lower lip (puckering of the chin) along with depressor labii inferior.
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Risorius
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From angle of mandible to the oral angle. Fixed at mandible, contraction spreads the oral angle laterally. Active for production of /i/
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Buccinator
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Forms muscular bulk of the cheek. From large area of mandible and maxilla to oral angle. Deep to risorius. Moves oral angle laterally, helps flatten the cheeks.
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Platysma
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Thin, broad, flat muscle that covers most of lateral and anterior region of the neck. From region around pectoralis major to the oral angles. Smiling broadly and depressing the jaw against resistance contract this muscle. Active when lips are tightly compressed.
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Teeth
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Housed in the alveolar processes of the maxilla and the mandible
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Deciduous Teeth (20)
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Baby teeth, erupt by first birthday
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Permanent Teeth (32)
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Erupt sometime between 6-8 years of age
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Occlusion
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How the upper and lower teeth contact each other
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Lips spreading for /i/
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Risorius, buccinator, zygomaticus major
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Lip rounding for /u/
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Orbicularis oris superior and orbicularis oris inferior
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Lip constriction for /p/, /b/, /m/, /f/, /v/
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UL: orbicularis oris superior (but not for /f/,/v/) LL: Orbicularis oris inferior, Mentalis
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Lip release for /p/, /b/
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UL: zygomaticus minor, levator labii superior, levator labii superior alaeque nasi LL: depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferior DO NOT CONTRACT IN ISOLATION (in speech production)
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Tongue
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Attached to the pharynx, hyoid bone, mandible. Can move in a lot of ways. Muscular hydrostat: muscles contract displacing other parts of the tongue. Most active articulator
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Lingual Frenulum
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Little strip of tissue that connects the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
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Palatoglossus
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One on each side, from soft palate superiorly to sides of the tongue inferiorly. If velum is fixed, tongue is elevated, if tongue is fixed, the velum is lowered (velopharyngeal port is opened).
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Styloglossus
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Styloid process superiorly and posteriorly to the sides of the tongue inferiorly and anteriorly. Fixed at the styloid process, contraction moves it back and up.
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Hyoglossus
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Inferior posterior attachment to hyoid bone, superior anterior attachment spreading out to the tongue. Contraction pulls the tongue down and back.
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Genioglossus
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From inside of the mandible to a large area of the tongue. Significant muscle fibers spreading in all directions. Contraction squeezes the tongue in the middle area, causing the tongue to protrude.
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Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
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Within the body of the tongue
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Superior Longitudinal
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Very thin sheet on superior surface of tongue. Along entire length of tongue from hyoid bone to tip. Contraction elevates tip of tongue. Constriction for sounds like t, d, n.
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Transverse
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Under superior longitudinal from side to side, transversely across the tongue. When it contracts, it helps to create a groove down the center of the tongue for s, z, ʃ, ʒ.
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Vertical
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From top surface of the tongue, runs down and lateral to sides and inferior surface. Contraction helps to flatten the tongue.
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Inferior Longitudinal
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Under surface of tongue from the root (at hyoid) to apex (tip) contraction pulls the tip of the tongue down, releasing a stop (t or d)
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Mandible and TMJ
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Passively moving tongue and lips. 2 movements: hinge like movement of condyle (rotating it around TMJ). Gliding movement: down and out or side to side. Glides to grind up food
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Temporomandibular Joint
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Mandible moves around it. Condyle of mandible articulates with temporal bone.
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Digastric: Anterior Belly
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Posterior attachment to the hyoid bone and anterior attachment to mandible near midline. If fixed at hyoid bone, contraction lowers the mandible.
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Mylohyoid
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Runs along inner surface of mandible to last molar. Extends to anterior portion of hyoid bone. Forms floor of the mouth. If fixed at hyoid bone, contraction lowers the jaw.
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Geniohyoid
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Inserts into lower portion of surface of mandible; runs to middle of hyoid bone. Part of the floor of the mouth. If fixed at hyoid bone, lowers the mandible.
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Lateral (External) Pterygoid
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Two heads anteriorly: side of the greater wings of sphenoid bone, lateral pterygoid plate. Posterior attachment to condyle of mandible. Fixed at anterior attachment, contraction causes condyle of mandible to move forward. If both protrude at the same time, jaw slides forward. If alternate contraction, grinding motion for mastication.
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Mandibular Elevators
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High vowels and consonants elevate the mandible. Muscles do not contract for speech, muscles act as springs, relax depressor muscles and mandible springs back up.
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Masseter
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Superior attachment, external: from lateral surface of zygomatic arch. Internal: from medial surface of zygomatic arch. (blend together after zygomatic arch) Inferior attachment to ramus of mandible. Fixed at zygomatic arch, contraction elevates the mandible at 90 degree angle to biting surface (molars)
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Temporalis
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Fan shaped muscle; temporal, parietal, and frontal bones. Goes under zygomatic arch to attach at ramus and coronoid process of mandible (medial surface). Elevate and retract jaw. Fixed at top. Involved in mastication
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Medial (Internal) Pterygoid
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From lateral pterygoid plate and maxilla, attaches to medial surface of ramus and angle of mandible. Together with masseter forms sling around mandible. Contraction helps elevate the mandible. Involved in mastication
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Velopharyngeal Port
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Space created in the pharynx between nasopharynx and oropharynx. Can be open or closed depending on what we are doing.
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Constrictor Muscles
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Squeeze to push food down, elevates larynx up and forward.
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Superior Constrictor
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Level of the soft palate, contraction constricts the walls of pharynx around soft palate. Involved in helping to close velopharyngeal port for swallowing and oral speech sounds.
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Middle Constrictor
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Contracts around bolus to push down.
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Inferior Constrictor
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Contracts around bolus to continue to push it down.
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Bolus
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Chunk of food after mastication that is moved from molars to tongue.
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Stylopharyngeus
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Superior attachment to styloid process, inferior attachment to back wall of pharynx between superior and middle constrictors. Helps to widen pharynx before bolus comes through. Once bolus comes through it relaxes.
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Palatopharyngeus
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One on each side, superior attachment to soft palate, inferior attachment to side walls of pharynx, below velum. For nasal speech sounds, depresses or lowers the velum (opens velopharynx) or help lift pharynx when palate is fixed during a swallow.
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Eustachian Tube
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Tube that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx. Allows us to equalize pressure in the middle ear.
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Tensor Veli Palatini
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From medial pterygoid plate and cartilaginous portion of eustachian tube to the soft palate. When contracts pulls walls of nasopharynx away from eustachian tube.
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Levator Veli Palatini
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Muscular bulk of soft palate. One on each side, superior attachment to cranial base (fixed). Inferior attachment to soft palate. Contraction elevates the velum (closes off velopharynx).
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Tonsils
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Lymphatic tissue, helping to filter for bacterial infections.
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Palatine Tonsils
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Between faucial pillars
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Lingual Tonsils
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Down at the root of the tongue
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Pharyngeal Tonsils (Adenoids)
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Located at posterior wall of nasopharynx right at level of soft palate. Removal can have an impact on nasality. As we grow adenoids begin to atrophy (dissolve away). Elevate velum against adenoids, when removed there is a space there. Can sound hypernasal (sound energy leaks into the nasal cavity)