AP Human Geography Unit 7 Test Review

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Census Tract
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Urban areas divided into 5,000 residnets each by the US Census
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Megacities
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Cities with more than 10 million people
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Nonbasic sector
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A sector in which workers are responsible for the functioning of the city itself
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Zoning ordinances
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A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
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Settlement geography
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Patterns of settlement on earth’s surface: rank-size rule and Christaller’s central place theory
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Concentric zone model
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A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
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Zone in transition
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An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban (around the CBD)
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Bosnywash
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The heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore
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Megalopolis
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A very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
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CBD
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The commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers
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Gentrification
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The restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
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Sector model
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A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD)
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Metropolitan area
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A major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
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Ghettos
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A section of the city occupied by a minority group who live there with economic pressure
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Urban geography
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The study of how people use space in cities
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Primate cities
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The largest urban settlement in a country that dominates all other urban places, economically and politically
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Social area analysis
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Puts together information from the census tracts to create an overall picture of how various types of people are distrbuted within a broader area, like a city
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Annexation
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Adding a territory to a city
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Multiple-nuclei model
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A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes and activities
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Smart growth
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Legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
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City-state
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A city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
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Urbanization
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The social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
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Basic sector
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Activities and services that generate income for a city
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Infrastructure
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the basic, underlying framework of a city
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Sprawl
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The progressive spread of development over the landscape
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Peripheral model
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A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
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Urban hierarchy
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A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
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Edge city
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A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
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Mesopotamia
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First civilization; between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
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Nile River Valley
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Second civilization; North Africa (3200 BC)
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Indus River Valley
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Third civilization; Northern Pakistan(2200 BC)
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Wei-Huang Valley
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Fourth civilization; China (1500 BC)
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1st Tier World Cities
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London, New York, Tokyo
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2nd Tier World Cities
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Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, Brussels, Frankfurt, Paris, Zurich, Sao Paulo, and Singapore
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3rd Tier World Cities
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Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, and Johannesburg
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Louis Wirth
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Believed that what sets cities apart from rural areas are their large size, high density, and social heterogeneity
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E.W. Burgess
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Concentric zone model
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Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman
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Multiple nuclei model
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Walter Christaller
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Central place theory
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John Bochert
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Analyzed urbanization in North America and developed 4 epochs based on the impact of transportation & communication
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Homer Hoyt
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Sector model
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Situation
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Position relative to travel routes, farmlands, manufacturing complexes, towns, cities
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Site
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Physical qualities of its place- valley, coastal plain, plateau, island
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Central place
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All urban centers have a certain economic range and centrality
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Gravity model
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Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.

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