Anthropology Quizzes

question
The CD \"Deep Forest\" contained samples of music from which of the following Indigenous group?
answer
Baka Pygmies
question
Which of the following is true of Hoodia root?
answer
-The San had traditionally utilized Hoodia. -It was used to develop appetite suppressant pills.
question
In the film Medicine Man, Dr. Robert Campbell discovers a cure for which of the following diseases?
answer
Cancer
question
What is the problem with native plant knowledge?
answer
It is neither protected nor organized.
question
What types of patents are discussed in the article?
answer
a. Process patents b. Composition-of-matter patents c. Plant patents Correct: All of the above
question
Which court case changed the law so that natural phenomena, and therefore plants and plant parts, could be patentable?
answer
Diamond vs. Chakrabarty
question
Knowledge of the natural environment that has developed in the course of a community's long term residence in a specific ecosystem is reffered to as _____________.
answer
TEK
question
A company utilizes an indigenous community's knowledge of a plant to develop a valuable drug, but does not compensate the community. This practice is referred to as:
answer
Biopiracy
question
A prior art database can be used to challenge a patent application on the basis that the application is based solely on prior art and therefore does not meet which of the following requirements?
answer
Novelty requirement
question
What precedent was established in the Bulun Bulun and Malpurrurru vs. R&T Textile case?
answer
The court recognized that Aboriginal clans can sue to prevent the appropriation of contemporary Aboriginal paintings depicting stories of totemic ancestors.
question
Which of the following beliefs about wizadry is shared by the Navajo and some Sub-Saharan African cultures?
answer
- Wizards sometimes use exuviae (hair, nail clippings, excrement) from their intended victims. - Wizards can shape shift, ie take on the form of an animal.
question
According to anthropologist E. Evans-Pritchard, what is the difference between witchcraft and sorcery?
answer
Witchcraft refers to the possibility of injury by malice alone, with no assistance from materials, verbal spells, or other behavior. Sorcery involves the deliberate use of medicines or spells.
question
Which of the following techniques is employed by a Sub-Saharan African culture to ward off wizardry?
answer
The Wambugwe eat in privacy, because a wizard might cast an evil eye on their food.
question
Leaders from which of the following areas are documented as having used the threat of wizardry or sorcery to intimidate their followers and political rivals?
answer
Melaneasia
question
Belief in wizardry can lead social units that have grown too large to fision into smaller units. This is refered to as the ___________ function.
answer
Obstetric
question
One theory regarding the function of wizardry is that it exists to enable people to express aggression.
answer
True
question
In the movie Skinwalkers, Chee and Leaphorn discover an arrowhead embeded in the first murder victim's truck. The arrowhead was made out of what substance?
answer
Human bone
question
A granary collapses crushing a man to death. The Azande attribute the man's misfortune to wizardry. This is an example of the quest for ___________.
answer
Mastery
question
According to Kluckhohn, which group is most likely to be accused of being a wizard in Navajo society?
answer
Wealthy Individuals
question
A skinwalker collects a victim's fingernail clippings and buries them in a grave with a corpse, intending to harm the individual. This is an example of ___________.
answer
Contagious Magic
question
Which of the following is the Comanche term for supernatural power?
answer
Puha
question
Which of the following is true of places that the Comanche consider sacred or special?
answer
They tend to be high places like hills or knolls and therefore prominent features within the prairie landscape.
question
Which of the following plants that grows on the Medicine Mounds figures prominently in Comanche religious rituals?
answer
Red-berried cedar
question
Which of the following types of evidence may be utilized in an attempt to determine if a site or location should be considered a traditional cultural property?
answer
a. Archaeological evidence b. Native American oral history c. Euro-American historical documents Correct: All of the above
question
The importance of traditional cultural properties was recognized in a 1992 amendement to which of the following pieces of legislation?
answer
National Historic Preservation Act
question
The original report on the Medicine Mounds argued that they did not constitute traditional cultural properties. Subsuquently, this decision was reversed. Why was the original determination overturned?
answer
Individuals came forward with accounts that the Comanche continued to visit the Medicine Mounds in the 20th century.
question
Archaeological investigations at the Medicine Mounds yielded which of the following?
answer
Possible rock cairns
question
An archaeologist discovers a knoll in the Black Hills where she believes Kiowa men used to go on vision quests in the early 1700s. Archaeological investigations reveal rock cairns where the men left offerings. An account by a French fur trader who visited the area in 1736 records the presence of the Kiowa in the area and documents the fact that they used the surrounding knolls for vision quests. Kiowa oral history indicates that this particular knoll and several nearby were used for vision quests prior to the tribe migrating onto the Southern Plains in the late 1700s, but that no Kiowa have visited the location in over two hundred years. Based on the available evidence the knoll should be considered a traditional cultural property of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma.
answer
False
question
According to the authors, which of the following factors may limit the utility of interviews and consultations conducted with members of Native American communities.
answer
Members of a Native American community may be reluctant to discuss religious or spiritual matters with outsiders.
question
According to the authors, why are archaeological investigations unlikely to yield information that will assist in determining if a place is a traditional cultural property?
answer
Sacred places are rarely used as habitation sites. Instead, people visit them for brief periods of time. Therefore, they are unlikely to yield many artifacts and lack any distinct archaeological signature.
question
Both the 1870 and 1890 Ghost Dance movements originated among the ____________.
answer
Northern Pauite
question
Who was the originator of the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
Wovoka
question
Which of the following beliefs was eventually associated with the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
a. The belief that depleted game animals would return. b. The belief that the Native American dead would rise and return. c. The belief that non-Indians would dissappear. Correct: All of the above
question
Why were people drawn to participating in the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
They hoped to see and talk to their deceased relatives.
question
Which of the following made the Sioux version of the Ghost Dance unique?
answer
An attitude of greater hostility toward Whites
question
According to Russell Thornton, the Ghost Dance should be viewed as an example of mass hysteria - an illogical response to cultural deprivation.
answer
False
question
Approximately how many Sioux were killed during the Wounded Knee massacre?
answer
300
question
Which of the following was not a factor that influenced the Sioux to adopt the Ghost Dance?
answer
The massacre of Sioux people at Wounded Knee
question
According to Thornton, why did Native Americans believe that the resurection of their dead would be beneficial?
answer
The dead would bring back knowledge that had been lost when they died.
question
The defining characteristic of a _________ movement is its emphasis on the expulsion of non-Native ideas and individuals.
answer
Nativistic
question
According to Adams, which of the following is a perspective or consideration that shaped policies regarding Native American education?
answer
-Protestant ideology -Quest for land by Whites
question
Which of the following was one of the two conflicting visions that mid-nineteenth century U.S. policy makers held regarding the future of Native Americans?
answer
Indians as a race were doomed to extinction.
question
__________ is the popular nineteenth century belief that the United States was divinely ordained to take possession of and rule the entire continent.
answer
Manifest Destiny
question
Which of the following best describes educators' attitudes regarding Native American religions?
answer
Educators believed that it was important that Native American students convert to Chrisitianity.
question
Which of the following skills were taught to Native American students?
answer
a. Farming b. Wagon-making c. Sewing Correct: All of the above
question
Why did educational reformers believe that Native American chidren should be compelled to attend off reservation boarding schools?
answer
They believed that if students were isolated from their relatives they would be much less likely to cling to their traditional cultures or persist in speaking their Native languages.
question
Which of the following is true of Carlisle Indian Industrial School?
answer
-It was established in 1878. -Over 10,000 Native Americans attended the school.
question
What belief did eighteenth and nineteenth century policymakers hold regarding the relationship between Native American education and the almost insatiable Euro-American demand for land.
answer
As Native Americans became educated they would become farmers. Because being a farmer requires less land than being a hunter-gatherer, Native Americans would need less land.
question
How do contemporary Native American boarding schools differ from those of the past?
answer
Contemporary boarding schools promote Native American cultures, encouraging students to learn more about their cultures.
question
Which of the following is one of the implications of belief in the Civilization-Savagism paradigm?
answer
The conviction that Native American students must be taught that they are inferior to Whites, but that through education they could better themselves.
question
The Miss Indian World competition is held in conjunction with which of the following major powwows?
answer
Gathering of Nations
question
Which of the following was not one of the traditional skills performed by a contestant featured in the documentary Miss Navajo?
answer
Weaving a blanket
question
Which of the following is not part of the Miss Indian World competition?
answer
Swimsuit Competition
question
In her conclusion, Roberts argues that it may be the princesses' ____________ rather than their gender that is being recognized and honored.
answer
Youth
question
According to Roberts, why did the seemingly most qualified queen contestant at the Eastern Shoshone Indian Days fail to win?
answer
Her speech betrayed a lack of commitment to the powwow world and an interest in representing the community outside the realm of powwows.
question
Which of the following statements regarding the behavior expected of powwow princesses is true?
answer
a. She is expected to refrain from snagging at dances and to be discreet in her relationships. c. She greets the powwow participants and spectators and welcomes them to the event. Correct: Both a and c
question
Which of the following is a difference between Native and non-Native beauty pageants?
answer
a. Physical beauty or attractiveness is less important in Native beauty contests than in non-Native contests. b. In Native contests women are given more freedom to express themselves and speak freely than in non-NAtive contests. c. In Native contests emphasis is placed on being able to perform traditional skills. Correct: All of the above
question
What new requirement was introduced into the Miss Navajo pageant by outgoing princess Audra Ettsity?
answer
Sheep butchering
question
Contestants in the Miss Indian World contest represent both their tribes and the broader powwow world.
answer
True
question
Which of the following is an eligibility requirement for entering the Miss Indian World pageant?
answer
a. Must not be married b. Must be between the ages of 18 and 25 c. Must not have any children Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following was not one of the historical events upon which John Ford based one of his films?
answer
Modoc War
question
What was the name of the nine year old girl who was captured by the Comanche in 1836 and later bore a son named Quanah?
answer
Cynthia Ann Parker
question
Which of the following characters in the movie The Searchers expresses racist sentiments similar to those held by Ethan Edwards?
answer
Laurie Jorgensen
question
According to Nolley, why were audiences likely to accept Ford's portrayal of Native Americans and Native American life as historically accurate?
answer
a. They had relatively little prior knowledge of Native American culture and history. c. Ford utilized the names of Native American historical figures, such as Cochise. The public recognized the names, but knew relatively little about these figures. Thus, they had no basis for challenging Ford's depictions of these individuals. Correct: Both a and c
question
Which of the following statements reflects the way in which the diversity of Native American cultures was represented in Hollywood westerns?
answer
Filmmakers largely ignored the uniqueness of different Native American cultures and offered the public representations of generic Indians.
question
Which of the following statements accurately describes John Ford's employment of Native American actors?
answer
a. Unlike other filmmakers, Ford sometimes cast Native American actors in indigenous roles. b. Ford did not cast Native American actors in major speaking roles. c. Ford cast Navajo actors to portray members of other tribes. Correct: All of the above
question
Film critics have argued that racial fears of _____________ were projected onto Native Americans in westerns.
answer
African Americans
question
Which of the following devices or techniques frequently employed in westerns functioned to encourage audiences to identify and sympathize with white rather than Native American characters?
answer
a. The films are narrated by white characters or voices. b. The films feature Euro American music intended to evoke emotional responses, such as folk songs and traditional hymns. c. The films feature imperiled or endangered white women and children. Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following John Ford films offers the most sympathetic portrayal of Native Americans?
answer
Cheyenne Autumn
question
How did the film The Searchers differ from many of Ford's previous films?
answer
Ford finally depicts white violence against Native Americans and suggests that the anger and rage that the Native American characters feel toward whites is, at least to some extent, justified.
question
When did the genre of \"sympathetic westerns\" emerge?
answer
1950s
question
Which of the following of the following opposing forces/ contradictions is addressed in Dances With Wolves?
answer
a. Industrialism and Environmentalism b. Manifest Destiny and the Sacred Homeland c. Assimilation and Ethnic Pride Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following films is considered to be the first sympathetic western?
answer
Broken Arrow
question
What did Elizabeth Stones' research reveal?
answer
Many individuals with no demonstrable Native American ancestry nevertheless persist in claiming Indian ancestry.
question
What event serves as the pivotal moment in both Lt. Dunbar and Lindsay's transformation into Indians?
answer
Hunting buffalo and eating the liver from a fresh kill
question
Which of the following scenes was cut from the theatrical release of Dances With Wolves?
answer
A scene in which the Lakota warriors hold a dance to celebrate the fact that they had killed a party of white buffalo hunters
question
Baird argues that Dances With Wolves inverts many of the plot elements found in \"traditional\" westerns. However, he notes that the representation of Native Americans as violent savages is preserved in the depiction of the _____________ warriors.
answer
Pawnee
question
How does Dances With Wolves differ from other movies that tell the story of a white man adopted into an Indian community?
answer
Lt. Dunbar marries a white captive rather than a Native American woman.
question
According to Baird, which of the following lines spoken by Dances With Wolves to Kicking Bird recalls Freud's argument regarding family romances?
answer
\"You were the first man I ever wanted to be like.\"
question
According to Baird, which of the following explains the popularity and success of Dances With Wolves?
answer
The plot of the film is based on a persistent, widespread, and powerful American myth - that of the White man who sheds the trappings of European civilization to emulate Native Americans and live a more natural and rewarding existence.
question
Sluka argues that being suspected of being a spy is arguably the single most common threat to personal safety faced by anthropologists in the field.
answer
True
question
Which of the following statements accurately reflects Sluka's understanding of the history of United States anthropologist's involvement in counterinsurgency?
answer
Anthropologists became more involved in counterinsurgency during the 1960s and 1970s. This spawned a considerable backlash. Many in the discipline questioned their colleagues' involvement in counterinsurgency. Consequently, involvement in counterinsurgency work was not the norm in the 1980s and 1990s.
question
According to Sluka, what did McFate find so curious about the relationship between anthropology and counterinsurgency?
answer
That anthropologists were not very involved in counterinsurgency programs and that many spoke out against such programs
question
In the piece Scientists as Spies, Franz Boas takes a firm stance against which of the following activities?
answer
Scientists engaging in clandestine spying in foreign countries while pretending to be conducting scientific research
question
According to Sluka, __________ was a counterinsurgency project that involved the active participation of social scientists.
answer
a. Project Camelot b. Project Agile c. Himalayan Border Countries Project Correct: All of the above
question
The Network of Concerned Anthropologists has spoken out against anthropologists' participation in counterinsurgency. Which of the following is a concern that they have raised?
answer
a. It does not allow for informed consent. b. It endangers those involved - both the researchers and the research subjects. c. The resulting information will not be made publicly available. Instead, it will be controlled by the military. Correct: All of the above
question
What does Boas fear will be the result of scientists engaging in spying?
answer
Foreign nations will suspect all American scientists of being spies, making overseas research more difficult.
question
According to Sluka, the first code of ethics was drafted in response to ________________.
answer
Anthropologists participation in the U.S. government's counterinsurgency programs in Southeast Asia and Latin America.
question
The counterinsurgency program in which social scientists are \"embedded\" with front-line military units is referred to as __________________.
answer
HTS - Human Terrain System
question
Both Jeffery Sluka and Montgomery McFate conducted anthropological research on counterinsurgency in __________________.
answer
Northern Ireland
question
According to Jason Baird Jackson, the paradoxical power of endangerment stems from the fact that when Native American languages, songs, and dances are labeled \"endangered\" community members are seized by a sense of hopelessness and despair and abandon any and all attempts to rescue or preserve them. Thus, a label intended to call attention to the need to document and preserve cultural practices is interpreted as signifying that the loss of these practices is inevitable. The application of the term \"endangered\" paralyzes community members and prevents them from taking action to preserve threatened cultural practices and expressions.
answer
False
question
Which of the following is a strategy that Woodland communities have developed to preserve and perpetuate their songs?
answer
a. Systematically recording song repertoires so that they can be learned by young people b. Establishing master-apprentice programs in which younger individuals study with elders c. Developing \"cultural camps\" designed explicitly to transmit cultural knowledge to younger generations Correct: All of the above
question
The Lakota Language Consortium dubbed which of the following cartoons in Lakota?
answer
Bernstein Bears
question
According to Jason Jackson, the Stomp Dance should be considered an endangered form of cultural expression.
answer
False
question
Which of the folllowing is an example of peripheral participation at a powwow?
answer
b. Selling raffle tickets c. Preparing or Serving Food Correct: Both B and C
question
Why was the Yuchi community concerned when Newman Littlebear, a respected elder, was hospitalized?
answer
Mr. Littlebear was the only individual who knew all of the songs necessary to perform an upcoming ceremony.
question
Woodland peoples reject the use of tape recorders and digital recorders for documenting and preserving songs because they do not consider these forms of technology to be traditional.
answer
False
question
When an individual describes a belief or practice as traditional, he or she is:
answer
a. Making a statement about its importance c. Emphasizing its continuity through time within a circumstance in which such continuity has become worthy of comment rather than being taken for granted as an unspoken norm Correct: Both A and C
question
Why does Paikea's grandfather refuse to train her to be chief?
answer
She is female.
question
Which of the following organizations are involved in grassroots efforts to preserve Kiowa language and culture?
answer
a. Old Chief Lonewolf Descendants b. Kiowa Young Men's Association c. Chief Satanta White Bear Descendants Correct: All of the above
question
Raven Tales adapts myths and legends from which of the following Northwest Coast First Nations?
answer
Haida and Kwakwaka'wakw
question
Who is the primary \"target\" audience for Raven Tales?
answer
Children
question
Non-Native viewers do not constitute part of the intended audience for Raven's Tales.
answer
False
question
In Norwest Coast societies the trickster often takes the form of a ____________.
answer
Raven
question
How does the Raven Tales series try to evoke traditional or very old aspects of Northwest Coast myth telling?
answer
a. The storytellers use humor and intrigue to ensure that the performance is lively and entertaining. c. The storytelling events often occur around a campfire. Correct: A and C
question
How is Raven's lack of self control depicted in the episode Bald Eagle?
answer
Raven is always eating fish - even at inopportune times.
question
Which of the following are morals or lessons that the series Ravens Tales tries to teach?
answer
a. The importance of accepting difference b. The consequences of being lazy c. The importance of keeping promises Correct: All of the above
question
How did Kientz and James's deal with the fact that myths and clan symbols are viewed as cultural/ intellectual property by members of Northwest Coast First Nations?
answer
They were careful to approached the appropriate community representatives and to secure their permission to utilize the stories and designs.
question
A myth that explains the origin of a geographic feature or how an animal assumed its current appearance or form is referred to as a(n) _______________.
answer
Etiological Narrative
question
Raven Tales has been criticized for presenting a negative view of indigenous women.
answer
False
question
The fermented oil that Kwakwaka'wakw people use as a condiment is made from which type of fish?
answer
Eulachon or Candle Fish
question
Which of the following is true of foods in Kwakwaka'wakw culture?
answer
A distinction is made between prestigious foods served at feasts and potlatches and common foods that are viewed as suitable only for everyday meals.
question
According to Jonaitis, Kwakwaka'wakw people used food to maintain social stratification, i.e to reinforce the distinction between chiefs and commoners. Which of the following is true?
answer
a. The highest ranking chiefs are always served first. c. Certain foods are reserved for chiefs, such as fern roots served with oil or boiled seal offal (organ meat). Correct: Both a and c
question
How did Kwakwaka'wakw people respond to the availability of commercially produced foods that had not been part of their traditional diet, such as rice?
answer
Manufactured foods were incorporated into the potlatch. Potlatch food came to include both manufactured foods and traditional native foods. Contemporary potlatch cooking includes some Native and some Canadian dishes.
question
Jonaitis would agree with which of the following statements regarding the role of women in the potlatch?
answer
b. Women take an active role in the potlatch. They support their male kin by providing food and elaborately carved wooden serving bowls known as \"house dishes,\" which are considered treasured family heirlooms. c. Women take an active role in the potlatch. They produce vegetal foods like berries and roots. These are considered to be very high-ranking or high status foods. Correct: Both b and c
question
According to Jonaitis, fermented fish oil \"has become a mark of distinction for the Kwakwaka'wakw, clearly differentiating them from non-Native settlers on their land and reconnecting them to their past.\" What allows fish oil to function in this manner?
answer
Few non-Natives have ever tried fish oil and most of those who have find it distasteful and unpalatable. Non-Natives' extreme aversion to fish oil and the Kwakwaka'wakw people's affinity for it allow it to function as a marker of Kwakwaka'wakw ethnic identity.
question
According to Jonaitis, _____________ and ___________ are the two senses that are most difficult to represent in a museum.
answer
Smell and taste
question
Many of the undecorated bowls used by the Kwakwaka'wakw assume the shape of ____________.
answer
Canoes - The bowls are shaped like canoes because the Kwakwaka'wakw view canoes as signs of wealth and abundance.
question
Which of the following is not a way in which food is used to express rivalries during potlatches?
answer
The host might give his rival a small portion of food, forcing him to go home hungry.
question
Which of the following refers to the practice of consuming insects for food?
answer
Entomophagy
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question
The CD \"Deep Forest\" contained samples of music from which of the following Indigenous group?
answer
Baka Pygmies
question
Which of the following is true of Hoodia root?
answer
-The San had traditionally utilized Hoodia. -It was used to develop appetite suppressant pills.
question
In the film Medicine Man, Dr. Robert Campbell discovers a cure for which of the following diseases?
answer
Cancer
question
What is the problem with native plant knowledge?
answer
It is neither protected nor organized.
question
What types of patents are discussed in the article?
answer
a. Process patents b. Composition-of-matter patents c. Plant patents Correct: All of the above
question
Which court case changed the law so that natural phenomena, and therefore plants and plant parts, could be patentable?
answer
Diamond vs. Chakrabarty
question
Knowledge of the natural environment that has developed in the course of a community's long term residence in a specific ecosystem is reffered to as _____________.
answer
TEK
question
A company utilizes an indigenous community's knowledge of a plant to develop a valuable drug, but does not compensate the community. This practice is referred to as:
answer
Biopiracy
question
A prior art database can be used to challenge a patent application on the basis that the application is based solely on prior art and therefore does not meet which of the following requirements?
answer
Novelty requirement
question
What precedent was established in the Bulun Bulun and Malpurrurru vs. R&T Textile case?
answer
The court recognized that Aboriginal clans can sue to prevent the appropriation of contemporary Aboriginal paintings depicting stories of totemic ancestors.
question
Which of the following beliefs about wizadry is shared by the Navajo and some Sub-Saharan African cultures?
answer
- Wizards sometimes use exuviae (hair, nail clippings, excrement) from their intended victims. - Wizards can shape shift, ie take on the form of an animal.
question
According to anthropologist E. Evans-Pritchard, what is the difference between witchcraft and sorcery?
answer
Witchcraft refers to the possibility of injury by malice alone, with no assistance from materials, verbal spells, or other behavior. Sorcery involves the deliberate use of medicines or spells.
question
Which of the following techniques is employed by a Sub-Saharan African culture to ward off wizardry?
answer
The Wambugwe eat in privacy, because a wizard might cast an evil eye on their food.
question
Leaders from which of the following areas are documented as having used the threat of wizardry or sorcery to intimidate their followers and political rivals?
answer
Melaneasia
question
Belief in wizardry can lead social units that have grown too large to fision into smaller units. This is refered to as the ___________ function.
answer
Obstetric
question
One theory regarding the function of wizardry is that it exists to enable people to express aggression.
answer
True
question
In the movie Skinwalkers, Chee and Leaphorn discover an arrowhead embeded in the first murder victim's truck. The arrowhead was made out of what substance?
answer
Human bone
question
A granary collapses crushing a man to death. The Azande attribute the man's misfortune to wizardry. This is an example of the quest for ___________.
answer
Mastery
question
According to Kluckhohn, which group is most likely to be accused of being a wizard in Navajo society?
answer
Wealthy Individuals
question
A skinwalker collects a victim's fingernail clippings and buries them in a grave with a corpse, intending to harm the individual. This is an example of ___________.
answer
Contagious Magic
question
Which of the following is the Comanche term for supernatural power?
answer
Puha
question
Which of the following is true of places that the Comanche consider sacred or special?
answer
They tend to be high places like hills or knolls and therefore prominent features within the prairie landscape.
question
Which of the following plants that grows on the Medicine Mounds figures prominently in Comanche religious rituals?
answer
Red-berried cedar
question
Which of the following types of evidence may be utilized in an attempt to determine if a site or location should be considered a traditional cultural property?
answer
a. Archaeological evidence b. Native American oral history c. Euro-American historical documents Correct: All of the above
question
The importance of traditional cultural properties was recognized in a 1992 amendement to which of the following pieces of legislation?
answer
National Historic Preservation Act
question
The original report on the Medicine Mounds argued that they did not constitute traditional cultural properties. Subsuquently, this decision was reversed. Why was the original determination overturned?
answer
Individuals came forward with accounts that the Comanche continued to visit the Medicine Mounds in the 20th century.
question
Archaeological investigations at the Medicine Mounds yielded which of the following?
answer
Possible rock cairns
question
An archaeologist discovers a knoll in the Black Hills where she believes Kiowa men used to go on vision quests in the early 1700s. Archaeological investigations reveal rock cairns where the men left offerings. An account by a French fur trader who visited the area in 1736 records the presence of the Kiowa in the area and documents the fact that they used the surrounding knolls for vision quests. Kiowa oral history indicates that this particular knoll and several nearby were used for vision quests prior to the tribe migrating onto the Southern Plains in the late 1700s, but that no Kiowa have visited the location in over two hundred years. Based on the available evidence the knoll should be considered a traditional cultural property of the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma.
answer
False
question
According to the authors, which of the following factors may limit the utility of interviews and consultations conducted with members of Native American communities.
answer
Members of a Native American community may be reluctant to discuss religious or spiritual matters with outsiders.
question
According to the authors, why are archaeological investigations unlikely to yield information that will assist in determining if a place is a traditional cultural property?
answer
Sacred places are rarely used as habitation sites. Instead, people visit them for brief periods of time. Therefore, they are unlikely to yield many artifacts and lack any distinct archaeological signature.
question
Both the 1870 and 1890 Ghost Dance movements originated among the ____________.
answer
Northern Pauite
question
Who was the originator of the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
Wovoka
question
Which of the following beliefs was eventually associated with the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
a. The belief that depleted game animals would return. b. The belief that the Native American dead would rise and return. c. The belief that non-Indians would dissappear. Correct: All of the above
question
Why were people drawn to participating in the 1890 Ghost Dance movement?
answer
They hoped to see and talk to their deceased relatives.
question
Which of the following made the Sioux version of the Ghost Dance unique?
answer
An attitude of greater hostility toward Whites
question
According to Russell Thornton, the Ghost Dance should be viewed as an example of mass hysteria - an illogical response to cultural deprivation.
answer
False
question
Approximately how many Sioux were killed during the Wounded Knee massacre?
answer
300
question
Which of the following was not a factor that influenced the Sioux to adopt the Ghost Dance?
answer
The massacre of Sioux people at Wounded Knee
question
According to Thornton, why did Native Americans believe that the resurection of their dead would be beneficial?
answer
The dead would bring back knowledge that had been lost when they died.
question
The defining characteristic of a _________ movement is its emphasis on the expulsion of non-Native ideas and individuals.
answer
Nativistic
question
According to Adams, which of the following is a perspective or consideration that shaped policies regarding Native American education?
answer
-Protestant ideology -Quest for land by Whites
question
Which of the following was one of the two conflicting visions that mid-nineteenth century U.S. policy makers held regarding the future of Native Americans?
answer
Indians as a race were doomed to extinction.
question
__________ is the popular nineteenth century belief that the United States was divinely ordained to take possession of and rule the entire continent.
answer
Manifest Destiny
question
Which of the following best describes educators' attitudes regarding Native American religions?
answer
Educators believed that it was important that Native American students convert to Chrisitianity.
question
Which of the following skills were taught to Native American students?
answer
a. Farming b. Wagon-making c. Sewing Correct: All of the above
question
Why did educational reformers believe that Native American chidren should be compelled to attend off reservation boarding schools?
answer
They believed that if students were isolated from their relatives they would be much less likely to cling to their traditional cultures or persist in speaking their Native languages.
question
Which of the following is true of Carlisle Indian Industrial School?
answer
-It was established in 1878. -Over 10,000 Native Americans attended the school.
question
What belief did eighteenth and nineteenth century policymakers hold regarding the relationship between Native American education and the almost insatiable Euro-American demand for land.
answer
As Native Americans became educated they would become farmers. Because being a farmer requires less land than being a hunter-gatherer, Native Americans would need less land.
question
How do contemporary Native American boarding schools differ from those of the past?
answer
Contemporary boarding schools promote Native American cultures, encouraging students to learn more about their cultures.
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Which of the following is one of the implications of belief in the Civilization-Savagism paradigm?
answer
The conviction that Native American students must be taught that they are inferior to Whites, but that through education they could better themselves.
question
The Miss Indian World competition is held in conjunction with which of the following major powwows?
answer
Gathering of Nations
question
Which of the following was not one of the traditional skills performed by a contestant featured in the documentary Miss Navajo?
answer
Weaving a blanket
question
Which of the following is not part of the Miss Indian World competition?
answer
Swimsuit Competition
question
In her conclusion, Roberts argues that it may be the princesses' ____________ rather than their gender that is being recognized and honored.
answer
Youth
question
According to Roberts, why did the seemingly most qualified queen contestant at the Eastern Shoshone Indian Days fail to win?
answer
Her speech betrayed a lack of commitment to the powwow world and an interest in representing the community outside the realm of powwows.
question
Which of the following statements regarding the behavior expected of powwow princesses is true?
answer
a. She is expected to refrain from snagging at dances and to be discreet in her relationships. c. She greets the powwow participants and spectators and welcomes them to the event. Correct: Both a and c
question
Which of the following is a difference between Native and non-Native beauty pageants?
answer
a. Physical beauty or attractiveness is less important in Native beauty contests than in non-Native contests. b. In Native contests women are given more freedom to express themselves and speak freely than in non-NAtive contests. c. In Native contests emphasis is placed on being able to perform traditional skills. Correct: All of the above
question
What new requirement was introduced into the Miss Navajo pageant by outgoing princess Audra Ettsity?
answer
Sheep butchering
question
Contestants in the Miss Indian World contest represent both their tribes and the broader powwow world.
answer
True
question
Which of the following is an eligibility requirement for entering the Miss Indian World pageant?
answer
a. Must not be married b. Must be between the ages of 18 and 25 c. Must not have any children Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following was not one of the historical events upon which John Ford based one of his films?
answer
Modoc War
question
What was the name of the nine year old girl who was captured by the Comanche in 1836 and later bore a son named Quanah?
answer
Cynthia Ann Parker
question
Which of the following characters in the movie The Searchers expresses racist sentiments similar to those held by Ethan Edwards?
answer
Laurie Jorgensen
question
According to Nolley, why were audiences likely to accept Ford's portrayal of Native Americans and Native American life as historically accurate?
answer
a. They had relatively little prior knowledge of Native American culture and history. c. Ford utilized the names of Native American historical figures, such as Cochise. The public recognized the names, but knew relatively little about these figures. Thus, they had no basis for challenging Ford's depictions of these individuals. Correct: Both a and c
question
Which of the following statements reflects the way in which the diversity of Native American cultures was represented in Hollywood westerns?
answer
Filmmakers largely ignored the uniqueness of different Native American cultures and offered the public representations of generic Indians.
question
Which of the following statements accurately describes John Ford's employment of Native American actors?
answer
a. Unlike other filmmakers, Ford sometimes cast Native American actors in indigenous roles. b. Ford did not cast Native American actors in major speaking roles. c. Ford cast Navajo actors to portray members of other tribes. Correct: All of the above
question
Film critics have argued that racial fears of _____________ were projected onto Native Americans in westerns.
answer
African Americans
question
Which of the following devices or techniques frequently employed in westerns functioned to encourage audiences to identify and sympathize with white rather than Native American characters?
answer
a. The films are narrated by white characters or voices. b. The films feature Euro American music intended to evoke emotional responses, such as folk songs and traditional hymns. c. The films feature imperiled or endangered white women and children. Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following John Ford films offers the most sympathetic portrayal of Native Americans?
answer
Cheyenne Autumn
question
How did the film The Searchers differ from many of Ford's previous films?
answer
Ford finally depicts white violence against Native Americans and suggests that the anger and rage that the Native American characters feel toward whites is, at least to some extent, justified.
question
When did the genre of \"sympathetic westerns\" emerge?
answer
1950s
question
Which of the following of the following opposing forces/ contradictions is addressed in Dances With Wolves?
answer
a. Industrialism and Environmentalism b. Manifest Destiny and the Sacred Homeland c. Assimilation and Ethnic Pride Correct: All of the above
question
Which of the following films is considered to be the first sympathetic western?
answer
Broken Arrow
question
What did Elizabeth Stones' research reveal?
answer
Many individuals with no demonstrable Native American ancestry nevertheless persist in claiming Indian ancestry.
question
What event serves as the pivotal moment in both Lt. Dunbar and Lindsay's transformation into Indians?
answer
Hunting buffalo and eating the liver from a fresh kill
question
Which of the following scenes was cut from the theatrical release of Dances With Wolves?
answer
A scene in which the Lakota warriors hold a dance to celebrate the fact that they had killed a party of white buffalo hunters
question
Baird argues that Dances With Wolves inverts many of the plot elements found in \"traditional\" westerns. However, he notes that the representation of Native Americans as violent savages is preserved in the depiction of the _____________ warriors.
answer
Pawnee
question
How does Dances With Wolves differ from other movies that tell the story of a white man adopted into an Indian community?
answer
Lt. Dunbar marries a white captive rather than a Native American woman.
question
According to Baird, which of the following lines spoken by Dances With Wolves to Kicking Bird recalls Freud's argument regarding family romances?
answer
\"You were the first man I ever wanted to be like.\"
question
According to Baird, which of the following explains the popularity and success of Dances With Wolves?
answer
The plot of the film is based on a persistent, widespread, and powerful American myth - that of the White man who sheds the trappings of European civilization to emulate Native Americans and live a more natural and rewarding existence.
question
Sluka argues that being suspected of being a spy is arguably the single most common threat to personal safety faced by anthropologists in the field.
answer
True
question
Which of the following statements accurately reflects Sluka's understanding of the history of United States anthropologist's involvement in counterinsurgency?
answer
Anthropologists became more involved in counterinsurgency during the 1960s and 1970s. This spawned a considerable backlash. Many in the discipline questioned their colleagues' involvement in counterinsurgency. Consequently, involvement in counterinsurgency work was not the norm in the 1980s and 1990s.
question
According to Sluka, what did McFate find so curious about the relationship between anthropology and counterinsurgency?
answer
That anthropologists were not very involved in counterinsurgency programs and that many spoke out against such programs
question
In the piece Scientists as Spies, Franz Boas takes a firm stance against which of the following activities?
answer
Scientists engaging in clandestine spying in foreign countries while pretending to be conducting scientific research
question
According to Sluka, __________ was a counterinsurgency project that involved the active participation of social scientists.
answer
a. Project Camelot b. Project Agile c. Himalayan Border Countries Project Correct: All of the above
question
The Network of Concerned Anthropologists has spoken out against anthropologists' participation in counterinsurgency. Which of the following is a concern that they have raised?
answer
a. It does not allow for informed consent. b. It endangers those involved - both the researchers and the research subjects. c. The resulting information will not be made publicly available. Instead, it will be controlled by the military. Correct: All of the above
question
What does Boas fear will be the result of scientists engaging in spying?
answer
Foreign nations will suspect all American scientists of being spies, making overseas research more difficult.
question
According to Sluka, the first code of ethics was drafted in response to ________________.
answer
Anthropologists participation in the U.S. government's counterinsurgency programs in Southeast Asia and Latin America.
question
The counterinsurgency program in which social scientists are \"embedded\" with front-line military units is referred to as __________________.
answer
HTS - Human Terrain System
question
Both Jeffery Sluka and Montgomery McFate conducted anthropological research on counterinsurgency in __________________.
answer
Northern Ireland
question
According to Jason Baird Jackson, the paradoxical power of endangerment stems from the fact that when Native American languages, songs, and dances are labeled \"endangered\" community members are seized by a sense of hopelessness and despair and abandon any and all attempts to rescue or preserve them. Thus, a label intended to call attention to the need to document and preserve cultural practices is interpreted as signifying that the loss of these practices is inevitable. The application of the term \"endangered\" paralyzes community members and prevents them from taking action to preserve threatened cultural practices and expressions.
answer
False
question
Which of the following is a strategy that Woodland communities have developed to preserve and perpetuate their songs?
answer
a. Systematically recording song repertoires so that they can be learned by young people b. Establishing master-apprentice programs in which younger individuals study with elders c. Developing \"cultural camps\" designed explicitly to transmit cultural knowledge to younger generations Correct: All of the above
question
The Lakota Language Consortium dubbed which of the following cartoons in Lakota?
answer
Bernstein Bears
question
According to Jason Jackson, the Stomp Dance should be considered an endangered form of cultural expression.
answer
False
question
Which of the folllowing is an example of peripheral participation at a powwow?
answer
b. Selling raffle tickets c. Preparing or Serving Food Correct: Both B and C
question
Why was the Yuchi community concerned when Newman Littlebear, a respected elder, was hospitalized?
answer
Mr. Littlebear was the only individual who knew all of the songs necessary to perform an upcoming ceremony.
question
Woodland peoples reject the use of tape recorders and digital recorders for documenting and preserving songs because they do not consider these forms of technology to be traditional.
answer
False
question
When an individual describes a belief or practice as traditional, he or she is:
answer
a. Making a statement about its importance c. Emphasizing its continuity through time within a circumstance in which such continuity has become worthy of comment rather than being taken for granted as an unspoken norm Correct: Both A and C
question
Why does Paikea's grandfather refuse to train her to be chief?
answer
She is female.
question
Which of the following organizations are involved in grassroots efforts to preserve Kiowa language and culture?
answer
a. Old Chief Lonewolf Descendants b. Kiowa Young Men's Association c. Chief Satanta White Bear Descendants Correct: All of the above
question
Raven Tales adapts myths and legends from which of the following Northwest Coast First Nations?
answer
Haida and Kwakwaka'wakw
question
Who is the primary \"target\" audience for Raven Tales?
answer
Children
question
Non-Native viewers do not constitute part of the intended audience for Raven's Tales.
answer
False
question
In Norwest Coast societies the trickster often takes the form of a ____________.
answer
Raven
question
How does the Raven Tales series try to evoke traditional or very old aspects of Northwest Coast myth telling?
answer
a. The storytellers use humor and intrigue to ensure that the performance is lively and entertaining. c. The storytelling events often occur around a campfire. Correct: A and C
question
How is Raven's lack of self control depicted in the episode Bald Eagle?
answer
Raven is always eating fish - even at inopportune times.
question
Which of the following are morals or lessons that the series Ravens Tales tries to teach?
answer
a. The importance of accepting difference b. The consequences of being lazy c. The importance of keeping promises Correct: All of the above
question
How did Kientz and James's deal with the fact that myths and clan symbols are viewed as cultural/ intellectual property by members of Northwest Coast First Nations?
answer
They were careful to approached the appropriate community representatives and to secure their permission to utilize the stories and designs.
question
A myth that explains the origin of a geographic feature or how an animal assumed its current appearance or form is referred to as a(n) _______________.
answer
Etiological Narrative
question
Raven Tales has been criticized for presenting a negative view of indigenous women.
answer
False
question
The fermented oil that Kwakwaka'wakw people use as a condiment is made from which type of fish?
answer
Eulachon or Candle Fish
question
Which of the following is true of foods in Kwakwaka'wakw culture?
answer
A distinction is made between prestigious foods served at feasts and potlatches and common foods that are viewed as suitable only for everyday meals.
question
According to Jonaitis, Kwakwaka'wakw people used food to maintain social stratification, i.e to reinforce the distinction between chiefs and commoners. Which of the following is true?
answer
a. The highest ranking chiefs are always served first. c. Certain foods are reserved for chiefs, such as fern roots served with oil or boiled seal offal (organ meat). Correct: Both a and c
question
How did Kwakwaka'wakw people respond to the availability of commercially produced foods that had not been part of their traditional diet, such as rice?
answer
Manufactured foods were incorporated into the potlatch. Potlatch food came to include both manufactured foods and traditional native foods. Contemporary potlatch cooking includes some Native and some Canadian dishes.
question
Jonaitis would agree with which of the following statements regarding the role of women in the potlatch?
answer
b. Women take an active role in the potlatch. They support their male kin by providing food and elaborately carved wooden serving bowls known as \"house dishes,\" which are considered treasured family heirlooms. c. Women take an active role in the potlatch. They produce vegetal foods like berries and roots. These are considered to be very high-ranking or high status foods. Correct: Both b and c
question
According to Jonaitis, fermented fish oil \"has become a mark of distinction for the Kwakwaka'wakw, clearly differentiating them from non-Native settlers on their land and reconnecting them to their past.\" What allows fish oil to function in this manner?
answer
Few non-Natives have ever tried fish oil and most of those who have find it distasteful and unpalatable. Non-Natives' extreme aversion to fish oil and the Kwakwaka'wakw people's affinity for it allow it to function as a marker of Kwakwaka'wakw ethnic identity.
question
According to Jonaitis, _____________ and ___________ are the two senses that are most difficult to represent in a museum.
answer
Smell and taste
question
Many of the undecorated bowls used by the Kwakwaka'wakw assume the shape of ____________.
answer
Canoes - The bowls are shaped like canoes because the Kwakwaka'wakw view canoes as signs of wealth and abundance.
question
Which of the following is not a way in which food is used to express rivalries during potlatches?
answer
The host might give his rival a small portion of food, forcing him to go home hungry.
question
Which of the following refers to the practice of consuming insects for food?
answer
Entomophagy