Anthropology 4.06

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Linguistic anthropology
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the study of the development of language and how people use language to communicate
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larynx
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Voice (or vocalization) is the sound produced by humans and other vertebrates using the lungs and the vocal folds in the larynx, or voice box.
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unique
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Your voice is as unique as your fingerprint. It helps define your personality, mood, and health.
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Pitch
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the highness or lowness of a sound based on the frequency of the sound waves.
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Loudness
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the perceived volume (or amplitude) of the sound, while quality refers to the character or distinctive attributes of a sound
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fluency
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However, by the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders; the majority of these speech disorders have no known cause. One category of speech disorder is fluency disorder, or stuttering, which is characterized by a disruption in the flow of speech. It includes repetitions of speech sounds, hesitations before and during speaking, and the prolonged emphasis of speech sounds. More than 15 million individuals in the world stutter, most of whom began stuttering at a very early age. The majority of speech sound disorders in the preschool years occur in children who are developing normally in all other areas. Speech disorders also may occur in children who have developmental disabilities.
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American Sign Language
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Many children who are deaf in the United States use a natural sign language known as American Sign Language (ASL). ASL shares an underlying organization with spoken language and has its own syntax and grammar. Many adults acquire disorders of language because of stroke, head injury, dementia, or brain tumors
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Comparative linguistics
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the study of how linguistics vary from one place to the next and one speaker to the next.
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Derivation
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the formation of a new word from the stem of another word using prefixes and suffixes.
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Dialect
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a type of speech spoken by a specific group of people in a specific location, district, or region.
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Discourse analysis
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the study of the organization of sentences into texts.
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Ethnolinguistics
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the study of the language of a specific ethnic group within a culture.
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Etymology
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the study of the origin of words.
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Grammatical structure
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refers to the rules of how words are combined to form a sentence
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Historical linguistics
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the study of how languages are related to each other or change over an extended period of time.
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Inflection
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how a word varies in form to show voice, person, tense, number, and case.
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Language
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can be described as anything spoken, written, or presented in a symbol form that communicates information to people.
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lexicon
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the vocabulary of a person, group, subject, or language.
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Linguistic typology
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the creation of statements concerning language change and structure that are universally true and can be applied to the study of any language.
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morpheme
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the smallest part of a word or unit in the grammar of a language.
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Morphology
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the study of the internal structure of words in a language.
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Philology
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the study of ancient languages and written texts.
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phoneme
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the smallest unit in the system of sounds in a language.
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Phonetics
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the study of the speech sounds in a human language.
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Phonology
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the study of the patterns of sounds and how they are organized and used in languages.
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Pragmatics
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the study of what speakers say (utterances) and the meaning of the language they use.
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Semantics
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the study of the meaning or interpretation of words, parts of words, phrases, or sentences.
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Sociolinguistics
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the study of how the use of language affects any or all parts of a culture or a society.
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Sound patterns
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include how words are grouped into sounds.
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Stylistics
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the study of the way a language is written or used.
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Synchronic linguistics
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the study of dialects including morphology, syntax, semantics, grammar, and phonology.
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Syntax
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refers to the organization and arrangement of words and phrases that form the structure of a sentence.
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Words
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are sound patterns that have meaning.

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