Anthro 201: Chapter 13 Migration

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pushes and pulls
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The forces that spur migration from the country of origin and draw immigrants to a particular new destination country
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bridges and barriers
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the factors that enable or inhibit migration
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chain migration
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The movement of people facilitated by the support of networks of family and friends who have already immigrated
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hometown association
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An organization created for mutual support by immigrants fro the same home town or region
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remittance
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resources migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poor countries
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cumulative causation
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An accumulation of factors that create a culture in which migration comes to be expected
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labor immigrant
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a person who moves in search of a low skill and low wage job, often filling and economic niche that native-born workers will not fill
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guest worker program
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A policy that allows labor immigrants to enter a country temporarily to work
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professional immigrant
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A highly trained individual who moves to fill an economic niche in a middle-class profession often marked by shortages in the receiving country
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brain drain
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migration of highly skilled professionals from developing/periphery countries to developed countries to developed/core countries
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social capital
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assets and skills such as language, education, and social networks that an be mobilized in lieu of or as complementary to financial capital
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entrepreneurial immigrant
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a person who moves to a new location to conduct trade and establish a business
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refugee
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a person who has bee forces to move beyond his or her national borders because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disasters
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internally displaced person
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a person who has been forced to move within his or her country of origin because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disasters
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first generation immigrant
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a person who left his or her home country as an adult
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second generation immigrant
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the child of immigrants who is born and raised in the new host country
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1.5-generation immigrant
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The child of immigrants who is born in the families home country but at a young age moves with his or her parents to a new host country
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internal migration
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the movement of people within their own national borders
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transnationalism
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the practice of maintaining active participation in social economic religious and political spheres across national borders
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modern day immigrants can be classified as different types including
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professionals, refugees, entrepreneurs
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recent examination of sex distribution among immigrants show that female immigrants are
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approximately equal to the number of male immigrants
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pull factors in the study of migration are those factors that
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cause someone to immigrate to a particular nation
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remittances, or the money sent back to family by migrants, make up
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a large quantity of money that can offer aid to families and has a significant impact on national economies
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the concept of a migration chain refers to
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a network of people who have already immigrated to a new place that encouraged and supports other immigrants to follow the same path
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push
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better access to health care outside of ones homeland
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barrier
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restrictive immigration or work visa policies
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bridge
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the existence of communication technology connecting a new location with the former homeland
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return migration
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immigrants who, having settled in a new receiving country, reverse course and return home sometimes in the same generation and sometimes in later generations practice this type of migration
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Why does a large portion of Egypts population work outside of Egypt?
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– A weak Egyptian economy – Political uncertainty – Pockets of extreme poverty
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3%
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percent of humans that migrate beyond national borders during their lifetime

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