ANTH222 FINAL

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Fossil
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preserved remains or traces of animals, plants and other organisms from the remote past
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Fossil Formation
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1.Death in good location to preserve 2. Soft Tissue decay, leave hard material 3. Sediments deposited 4. minerals in h20 replace ca & p 5. deposit weight forces out h20 and air, rock hardens 6. uplift and erosion expose
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Fossil variation
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Different ages/maturity Sexual dimorphism Time and temporal variation Adpatation to geographic location Normal range of variation within population Abnormal variation within population Geologic process deformation
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What are the limitations of the fossil record?
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1. Representation of species 2. Conditions for preservation 3. Location 4. Time sequences available
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Cultural Dating
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relative age based on technology
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Dendochronological Dating
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Absolute age Tree rings climate, fire,
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Genetic Dating
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absolute age Molecular clock- dna mutation rate determine splits between different primates
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Chemical Dating
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relative age soil reflect local geology
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Factors to look at when reconstructing ancient environment
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Trying to put species into context why they might have particular adaptation Important to understand adaption and evolution Skeletal form--? habitat--? longer arms better in forested habitat vs open grassland area Climate- clothing
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Features of Early Hominins
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Bipedalism- foramen magnum, pelvis shortened front ot back, long legs, double arched foot, non-opposable big toe (hallux) Non Honing Chewing- apes large projecting canines act like knives, large masticular muscle pulls sideways, thinner tooth enamel-hominids-blunted small teeth, masticular muscle pulls vertical crush, thicker tooth enamel
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Darwins hunting hypothesis
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Bipedalism freed hands for carrying weapons. Humans needed higher intelligence to make tools. Once tools acquired, there was no need for large, projecting canines for hunting or defense
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patchy forest/savannah hypothesis
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Forests got patchy with drying and cooling in E. Africa. Food became more dispersed. Bipedalism allowed for easier travel between forest patches and to carry food.
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provisioning hypothesis
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Monogamous fathers increase reproductive success by providing food and predator protection to mothers and offspring
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Bipedalism
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ADVANTAGES • Increased ability to see • long-distances and over grass • Greater ease to transport • food and offspring • Ability to run long distance • Frees handsfuture tool • making and use • Energy savings DISADVANTAGES More exposure to predators (they see you when you see them) Standing and walking while carrying can lead to back injury, arthritis, and slipped disks over long term Hard on circulatory system to pump to brain and legs (varicose veins) http://youtu.be/826HMLoiE_o • If foot is injured, cannot travel Pre-Australopithecines Woodlands & Forests
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Morphological changes from Pre-Australopithecines to Australopithecines
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Brain- slight increase in size Teeth- Modified Honing to non honing bones- vestigal arboreal traits lost face-no change
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Morphological changes between Australopithecines to Homo
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Brain- big increase in size Teeth- size reduction bones- none face- size reduction
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What are the 6 steps to becoming human?
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Bipedalism Lose large, projecting canines Material Culture- including tools Hyoid Bone evolution allows speech Cooperative hunting with tools. long distances Domestication
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Describe the Obstetrical Dilemma and adaptations
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Problem: bipedalism requires narrow bony, birth canal but increased intelligence requires bigger skull Adapations: Shortened gestation • Relaxin hormone • Rotation in birth canal • Broadened pelvis • Unfused skull in newborn • Birth assistance (social) • Sexual differences in pelvis
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Identify obligate features of the Homo genus.
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more efficient bipedalism, bigger brain, communication...
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What are the evolutionary changes associated with bipedalism and big brains in the Homo genus?
answer
...
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Describe and compare: Homo habilis Homo erectus
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Homo Habilis- Gait similar to Australopithecines •Smaller jaw & teeth •Rounded skull •Bigger brain (up to 650 cc) •Better precision grip •TOOLS! Homo Erectus- New, improved features Teeth, jaws, face smaller Heavy browridge Thicker cranial bone 30% increase in brain Longer leg/shorter arm ratio Increased height A New Species: Homo erectus 1.8 - 0.3 mya The Original Paleolithic Diet Change
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pop quiz #6
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Steno's Law of Superposition establishes the following about geological layers, fossil remains, and artifact deposits A. More recent layers and items will be below less recent ones B. More recent layers and items will be above less recent ones C. The most important remains will be below the less important parts of an assemblage D. No data can be derived from an artifact's or fossil's position in the ground E. The geological layers of rock are not important for determining the relative age of the rock
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Neanderthals
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Lived in glacial conditions Hunting and Foraging- need for lots of calories mousterian tools highly specialized and engineering hyoid similar to modern human kin structure bands, patrilocal mating behavior, long inter-birth intervals cognitive- formal burials Symbolic culture- body decoration, jewelry, music care and compassion for injured/elderly intentional burial- flower pollen/body placement tooth wear indicates part of tool kit Europe= cut amrks suggest cannibalism
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Denisovans
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known only from genetics- tooth/finger bone Wide-ranging in Asia & Australasia 2010
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How much do Neandertals and Denisovans contribute to modern H. sapiens genetics?
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Neandertals: non africans carry 1-3% HLA-A genes (immune system) Denisovans: Melanesians carry 4-6% (Fiji, PNG, Philippines, Aborigines)
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What is the importance of H. floresiensis in hominin evolution?
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Flores, Indonesia 2003 3 1⁄2 ft. tall Brain: 417 cc 95,000 - 17,000 ybp Stone tools, possibly fire • Pygmy elephant preferred food Island Dwarfism- genetic drift combined with long term isolation on small island with limited food resources and no predators
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Archaic Homo sapiens (early & late)
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Africa trends - Brain size increase Tooth size decrease Skeletal robusticity decrease Western Asia & Europe trends- Reflects cooler temperatures First Neanderthals
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Modern Homo sapiens
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Body Complex Tools Specialized hunting Trade Death rituals Communication Symbolic Culture
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Out of Africa II
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Modern biology, behavior, & culture originated in Africa Spread out to Asia & Europe (125,000-50,000 ybp) Why leave? climate shifts made it drier followed food - herds, coast NO GENE FLOW!!
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Multiregional Community
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Modern humans evolved from earlier archaic forms in Africa, Asia, Europe Gene flow between bordering populations Problem: Modern humans & Neanderthals co-existed 10,000 yrs in Europe!!!
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Assimilation
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Borrows from both hypotheses Gene flow with Neanderthals AFTER leaving Africa 2-4% human genome also Denisovans!
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Describe Early Human Migration How does genetic/biological variation factor in?
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out of Africa into the middle east then Asia... and then Europe after Asia then the Americas last through the land bridge connecting alaska to russia and genetic and biological variation factors in based on what traits were regionally favored
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Agriculture Pros
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Development of sedentary societies Increased carrying capacity of the land Create civilization Changes in social structure Craft specialization/Trade
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Agriculture Cons
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Harder Requires more labor Requires more resources Environmentally not sustainable Diseases
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Neolithic Revolution
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settling down manipulation of land and crops control of water introduction of fertilizers
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Industrial Agricultural Movement
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1650-1850's
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Green Revolution
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1940-1960's Changes in technology, research Increased agriculture worldwide Expansion of irrigation Distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides
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Food Movement
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Community Supported Agriculture Farmers' Market Artisanal 100 mile diet Organic Certified organic Hormone free Antibiotic free Free range Grass fed
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Process of Domestication
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plants- wild, weedy, cultivated, domesticated [dependent on human intervention] artificial selection- selection by humans, desirable traits, eligible domesticates- plants and animals with certain features that made them easy to domesticate - long term storage, seeds that can lie dormant and easily gathered, animals would reproduce and grow quickly, people- friendly, sociable with other animals, docile, taste and smell good, animals for transport,draft,food,wool, hides dung
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What makes a civilization?
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Urbanization Organized settlement/ route-ways Controlled population/ Stratification (status) Coordinated 'ritual' or 'religion' (social control) Communication/Literacy -----> Absorption of/ Movement of Influence (Trade) Secure, organized, intensive and/or extensive food production Craft Specialization/ Role division
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Horticulture vs Agriculture
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...
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Foraging
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typically nomadic hunter/gatherer used skins/bones of animals Range population density sustainability --> ! Kung- more diverse in range than farming
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Pastoralism
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Herders Domesticated animals symbiotic relationship nomadic or transhumance range population density sustainability
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horticulture
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now industrialized fallowing simple tools slash and burn may grow variety of crops range population density sustainability
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agriculture
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use of land domestication industrialization what is grown/raised major demographic/social/political/environmental consequences range population density sustainability
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transhumance
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only part of the group moves with the herd, crops/trade, range, population density, sustainability
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Population
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Group of interbreeding individuals that interact with each other and the environment, reproduce, and then die
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Malthus
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Increased food demand leads to decreased food production, as people work more marginal land intensively for less yield DEATH Environemntally deterministic
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Boserup
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Increased demand for food sparks innovation RESULT: SUSTAINABLE POPULATION GROWTH
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Complexity
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Populations in SES Characterized By: 1. Complexity 2. Interconnectivity 3. Adaptive Capacity 4. Non-Deterministic
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population regulating factors
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1. Density Independent: kill population members regardless of pop. density or competition EXvolcanic eruptions, tsunamis, climate events, etc. • Impoverished more vulnerable, lack resource access 2. Density Dependent: mortality rate of population proportional to population size EXcompetition for resources, war, disease
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age structure graphs
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Nutrition basics micro macro water
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MACRONUTRIENTS • Proteins - material for building and repairing body • Carbohydrates - energy to fuel body • Fats - stored energy, insulation, nervous system function, move micronutrients MICRONUTRIENTS • Vitamins - can only make D • Minerals WATER • Clean, potable water preferred • Can get from some foods
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pop quiz question
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breastfeeding
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1. Easy-to-digest nourishment for infants 2. Provides antibodies • Colostrum 3. Sanitary 4. Breastfed children tend to be leaner 5. May protect women from certain types of cancer 6. Natural form of birth control 7. Bonding between mother and child Variation: Lack of breastfeeding correlated to increased malnutrition and death rates Individuals differ: • Low lactation response or inability to breastfeed • Cleft palate can make hard to suckle for baby • Workissues Populations differ: • Cultural values of breast milk healthiness • Devaluation of female activity and body • Ownership of female body • Corporateadvertising • Workissues
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co-sleeping
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Infant or child sleeps in close proximity to adult - parent or other relative - same room or bed Easier for breastfeeding • Thermoregulation by adult for child • Prevents or reduces risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) • Adult acts as developmental bridge
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birthspacing
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breastfeeding suppresses hormones so it naturally spaces out offspring and gives mother recovery time
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urbanization
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megacity
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urban footprint
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urban translation
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impact of urban residencies on non-human animals
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how dynamic has changed between non-humans and humans since move to urban living patterns
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advantages of urban living
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disadvantages of urban living
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exposure
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pathogen
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sedentism
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Density of people and animals increases transmission of communicable/infectious disease NOT diet related, due to SETTLING, but bad diet helped
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porotic hyperostosis
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enamel hypoplasia
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communicable disease
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industrialized agriculture
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social stratification
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dental caries
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anemai
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stunting
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osteoarthritis
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wolff's law
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Bone tissue responds to mechanical demand Work demands influence robusticity
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pelegra
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beri beri
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malocclusion
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intensification
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dental crowding
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costs/benefits of agricultural revolution on individual? on population?
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Agricultural Benefits (Population level) Food availability - bigger populations, surplus, storage Çatalhöyük Rise of cities & civilizations Jericho (Israel) - 11000 ybp Çatalhöyük (Turkey) - 7500-5700 ybp Technology explosion could accumulate big items Written language for record-keeping Social stratification Political centralization & standing armies Costs grow more food hav emore babies increased deands on environment pollution biodiversity lost- overhunting/environment degradation conflict over land,food/water social stratification INDIVIDUAL LEVEL • Benefits • Smaller jaws- related to softer cooked foods • Decreased arthritis • Increased population density & size • Ability to create permanent structures • Settle in one place • Trade • More consistent access to food sources • Costs • Cavities & malocclusion • Decreased strength • Increased disease loads • Exposure to environmental toxins • Environmental degradation • Increased interpersonal conflict • Less variability of food sources • Increased risk of famine
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4 ways agriculture intensified soceity
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5 curses of agriculture on humanity
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bioarchaeological bone evidnece
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acute
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agents
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antibodies
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antigens
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chronic
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disease ecology
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focus on proximal environment/causes to understand health & spread of illness
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emerging disease
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endemic
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epidemic
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epidemiological polarization
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epidemiological transition
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A transition from infectious diseases to chronic, degenerative, or man-made disease as the primary causes of mortality why Improved sanitation - washing hands, better sewer systems, trash collected and shipped, food storage Sanitation Movement in mid-1800s for workers Germ Theory of Disease (Pasteur 1860s) 1847 - doctors begin washing hands before baby delivery
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epidemiology
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germ theory of disease
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hygiene hypohtesis
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Train our immune systems through exposure in childhood Oversanitation and cleanliness prime immune system to overreact
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immunity
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3 Forms of Immunity Adaptive (vaccination, exposure) Passive (breast milk) Innate (genetic) Gut Microbiome likely also provides immunity & other services EXobesity, mental health, malnutrition, antibiotics
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infectious disease
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microbiome
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mornbidity
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mortality
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pandemic
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political economy
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focus on political/economic context (ultimate causes) to understand health & spread of illness structural violence Vulnerability influenced by location & identity!
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reservoir host
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spilover
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structural violence
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social justice
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vectors
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zoonosis
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cline
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Selective pressures vary place to place EX skin pigmentation body shape head shape (Betti et al 2010; Smith 2011) diseases/immunity
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adaptive landscape
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Ancestral adaptive landscape influences modern form EXsolar radiation, climate
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race
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Race is not biological • More variation within, than between Use easily seen features • Real differences not always visible
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racialization
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structural violence
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Structural Violence &... • Economics • Education • Health • Justice
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sex
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Sex - legal, anatomical, and/or biological distinction of male or female (XX, XY)
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intersex
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term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy or physiology that does not fit typical defini
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gender
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Gender - human social, cultural, and psychological qualities that indicate masculinity, femininity, or lack thereof
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cisgender
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gender identity and/or expression fits cultural expectations based on the sex assigned at birth
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transgender
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gender identity and/or expression is different from cultural expectations based on the sex assigned at birth, umbrella term
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fa'afafine
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Traditionally boys raised as girls - choice at 18 - fewer now due to missionization Performed female work & culture roles in family - act as go-betweens Third Gender - self-defined Many work entertainment, politics, teaching, caregiving
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sworn virgins
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merged in Albania/Bosnia in 1400s - lack of male heirs due to death & warfare - take vow of chastity Women take on masculine roles - head of family - carry weapons - own property - conduct business - move freely
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hijira
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See self as female or 3rd gender - take on female identity, roles, dress - some are intersex - most transgendered - some undergo castration Stigmatized by Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 under British Colonial Rule Ceremonial performances Religious blessings (esp. newborns) Begging Sex workers
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two spirits
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Native Americans - took on gender status different from men or women (activities) - held in respect prior to European colonization and missionization - 130 tribes Straddled 2 worlds - shamans & healers - religious leaders - matchmakers - specialized craftspeople Multiple sexualities
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race as a social construction and its impacts
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cholera
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1854 London Cholera epidemic Snow didn't believe Miasma Theory • Used interviews, observations, mapping • Found food and water contamination • Removed handle at Broad St. pump • Epidemic resolved Provided evidence for Pasteur
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question
Fossil
answer
preserved remains or traces of animals, plants and other organisms from the remote past
question
Fossil Formation
answer
1.Death in good location to preserve 2. Soft Tissue decay, leave hard material 3. Sediments deposited 4. minerals in h20 replace ca & p 5. deposit weight forces out h20 and air, rock hardens 6. uplift and erosion expose
question
Fossil variation
answer
Different ages/maturity Sexual dimorphism Time and temporal variation Adpatation to geographic location Normal range of variation within population Abnormal variation within population Geologic process deformation
question
What are the limitations of the fossil record?
answer
1. Representation of species 2. Conditions for preservation 3. Location 4. Time sequences available
question
Cultural Dating
answer
relative age based on technology
question
Dendochronological Dating
answer
Absolute age Tree rings climate, fire,
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Genetic Dating
answer
absolute age Molecular clock- dna mutation rate determine splits between different primates
question
Chemical Dating
answer
relative age soil reflect local geology
question
Factors to look at when reconstructing ancient environment
answer
Trying to put species into context why they might have particular adaptation Important to understand adaption and evolution Skeletal form--? habitat--? longer arms better in forested habitat vs open grassland area Climate- clothing
question
Features of Early Hominins
answer
Bipedalism- foramen magnum, pelvis shortened front ot back, long legs, double arched foot, non-opposable big toe (hallux) Non Honing Chewing- apes large projecting canines act like knives, large masticular muscle pulls sideways, thinner tooth enamel-hominids-blunted small teeth, masticular muscle pulls vertical crush, thicker tooth enamel
question
Darwins hunting hypothesis
answer
Bipedalism freed hands for carrying weapons. Humans needed higher intelligence to make tools. Once tools acquired, there was no need for large, projecting canines for hunting or defense
question
patchy forest/savannah hypothesis
answer
Forests got patchy with drying and cooling in E. Africa. Food became more dispersed. Bipedalism allowed for easier travel between forest patches and to carry food.
question
provisioning hypothesis
answer
Monogamous fathers increase reproductive success by providing food and predator protection to mothers and offspring
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Bipedalism
answer
ADVANTAGES • Increased ability to see • long-distances and over grass • Greater ease to transport • food and offspring • Ability to run long distance • Frees handsfuture tool • making and use • Energy savings DISADVANTAGES More exposure to predators (they see you when you see them) Standing and walking while carrying can lead to back injury, arthritis, and slipped disks over long term Hard on circulatory system to pump to brain and legs (varicose veins) http://youtu.be/826HMLoiE_o • If foot is injured, cannot travel Pre-Australopithecines Woodlands & Forests
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Morphological changes from Pre-Australopithecines to Australopithecines
answer
Brain- slight increase in size Teeth- Modified Honing to non honing bones- vestigal arboreal traits lost face-no change
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Morphological changes between Australopithecines to Homo
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Brain- big increase in size Teeth- size reduction bones- none face- size reduction
question
What are the 6 steps to becoming human?
answer
Bipedalism Lose large, projecting canines Material Culture- including tools Hyoid Bone evolution allows speech Cooperative hunting with tools. long distances Domestication
question
Describe the Obstetrical Dilemma and adaptations
answer
Problem: bipedalism requires narrow bony, birth canal but increased intelligence requires bigger skull Adapations: Shortened gestation • Relaxin hormone • Rotation in birth canal • Broadened pelvis • Unfused skull in newborn • Birth assistance (social) • Sexual differences in pelvis
question
Identify obligate features of the Homo genus.
answer
more efficient bipedalism, bigger brain, communication...
question
What are the evolutionary changes associated with bipedalism and big brains in the Homo genus?
answer
...
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Describe and compare: Homo habilis Homo erectus
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Homo Habilis- Gait similar to Australopithecines •Smaller jaw & teeth •Rounded skull •Bigger brain (up to 650 cc) •Better precision grip •TOOLS! Homo Erectus- New, improved features Teeth, jaws, face smaller Heavy browridge Thicker cranial bone 30% increase in brain Longer leg/shorter arm ratio Increased height A New Species: Homo erectus 1.8 - 0.3 mya The Original Paleolithic Diet Change
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pop quiz #6
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Steno's Law of Superposition establishes the following about geological layers, fossil remains, and artifact deposits A. More recent layers and items will be below less recent ones B. More recent layers and items will be above less recent ones C. The most important remains will be below the less important parts of an assemblage D. No data can be derived from an artifact's or fossil's position in the ground E. The geological layers of rock are not important for determining the relative age of the rock
question
Neanderthals
answer
Lived in glacial conditions Hunting and Foraging- need for lots of calories mousterian tools highly specialized and engineering hyoid similar to modern human kin structure bands, patrilocal mating behavior, long inter-birth intervals cognitive- formal burials Symbolic culture- body decoration, jewelry, music care and compassion for injured/elderly intentional burial- flower pollen/body placement tooth wear indicates part of tool kit Europe= cut amrks suggest cannibalism
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Denisovans
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known only from genetics- tooth/finger bone Wide-ranging in Asia & Australasia 2010
question
How much do Neandertals and Denisovans contribute to modern H. sapiens genetics?
answer
Neandertals: non africans carry 1-3% HLA-A genes (immune system) Denisovans: Melanesians carry 4-6% (Fiji, PNG, Philippines, Aborigines)
question
What is the importance of H. floresiensis in hominin evolution?
answer
Flores, Indonesia 2003 3 1⁄2 ft. tall Brain: 417 cc 95,000 - 17,000 ybp Stone tools, possibly fire • Pygmy elephant preferred food Island Dwarfism- genetic drift combined with long term isolation on small island with limited food resources and no predators
question
Archaic Homo sapiens (early & late)
answer
Africa trends - Brain size increase Tooth size decrease Skeletal robusticity decrease Western Asia & Europe trends- Reflects cooler temperatures First Neanderthals
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Modern Homo sapiens
answer
Body Complex Tools Specialized hunting Trade Death rituals Communication Symbolic Culture
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Out of Africa II
answer
Modern biology, behavior, & culture originated in Africa Spread out to Asia & Europe (125,000-50,000 ybp) Why leave? climate shifts made it drier followed food - herds, coast NO GENE FLOW!!
question
Multiregional Community
answer
Modern humans evolved from earlier archaic forms in Africa, Asia, Europe Gene flow between bordering populations Problem: Modern humans & Neanderthals co-existed 10,000 yrs in Europe!!!
question
Assimilation
answer
Borrows from both hypotheses Gene flow with Neanderthals AFTER leaving Africa 2-4% human genome also Denisovans!
question
Describe Early Human Migration How does genetic/biological variation factor in?
answer
out of Africa into the middle east then Asia... and then Europe after Asia then the Americas last through the land bridge connecting alaska to russia and genetic and biological variation factors in based on what traits were regionally favored
question
Agriculture Pros
answer
Development of sedentary societies Increased carrying capacity of the land Create civilization Changes in social structure Craft specialization/Trade
question
Agriculture Cons
answer
Harder Requires more labor Requires more resources Environmentally not sustainable Diseases
question
Neolithic Revolution
answer
settling down manipulation of land and crops control of water introduction of fertilizers
question
Industrial Agricultural Movement
answer
1650-1850's
question
Green Revolution
answer
1940-1960's Changes in technology, research Increased agriculture worldwide Expansion of irrigation Distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, pesticides
question
Food Movement
answer
Community Supported Agriculture Farmers' Market Artisanal 100 mile diet Organic Certified organic Hormone free Antibiotic free Free range Grass fed
question
Process of Domestication
answer
plants- wild, weedy, cultivated, domesticated [dependent on human intervention] artificial selection- selection by humans, desirable traits, eligible domesticates- plants and animals with certain features that made them easy to domesticate - long term storage, seeds that can lie dormant and easily gathered, animals would reproduce and grow quickly, people- friendly, sociable with other animals, docile, taste and smell good, animals for transport,draft,food,wool, hides dung
question
What makes a civilization?
answer
Urbanization Organized settlement/ route-ways Controlled population/ Stratification (status) Coordinated 'ritual' or 'religion' (social control) Communication/Literacy -----> Absorption of/ Movement of Influence (Trade) Secure, organized, intensive and/or extensive food production Craft Specialization/ Role division
question
Horticulture vs Agriculture
answer
...
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Foraging
answer
typically nomadic hunter/gatherer used skins/bones of animals Range population density sustainability --> ! Kung- more diverse in range than farming
question
Pastoralism
answer
Herders Domesticated animals symbiotic relationship nomadic or transhumance range population density sustainability
question
horticulture
answer
now industrialized fallowing simple tools slash and burn may grow variety of crops range population density sustainability
question
agriculture
answer
use of land domestication industrialization what is grown/raised major demographic/social/political/environmental consequences range population density sustainability
question
transhumance
answer
only part of the group moves with the herd, crops/trade, range, population density, sustainability
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Population
answer
Group of interbreeding individuals that interact with each other and the environment, reproduce, and then die
question
Malthus
answer
Increased food demand leads to decreased food production, as people work more marginal land intensively for less yield DEATH Environemntally deterministic
question
Boserup
answer
Increased demand for food sparks innovation RESULT: SUSTAINABLE POPULATION GROWTH
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Complexity
answer
Populations in SES Characterized By: 1. Complexity 2. Interconnectivity 3. Adaptive Capacity 4. Non-Deterministic
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population regulating factors
answer
1. Density Independent: kill population members regardless of pop. density or competition EXvolcanic eruptions, tsunamis, climate events, etc. • Impoverished more vulnerable, lack resource access 2. Density Dependent: mortality rate of population proportional to population size EXcompetition for resources, war, disease
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age structure graphs
answer
...
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Nutrition basics micro macro water
answer
MACRONUTRIENTS • Proteins - material for building and repairing body • Carbohydrates - energy to fuel body • Fats - stored energy, insulation, nervous system function, move micronutrients MICRONUTRIENTS • Vitamins - can only make D • Minerals WATER • Clean, potable water preferred • Can get from some foods
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pop quiz question
answer
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breastfeeding
answer
1. Easy-to-digest nourishment for infants 2. Provides antibodies • Colostrum 3. Sanitary 4. Breastfed children tend to be leaner 5. May protect women from certain types of cancer 6. Natural form of birth control 7. Bonding between mother and child Variation: Lack of breastfeeding correlated to increased malnutrition and death rates Individuals differ: • Low lactation response or inability to breastfeed • Cleft palate can make hard to suckle for baby • Workissues Populations differ: • Cultural values of breast milk healthiness • Devaluation of female activity and body • Ownership of female body • Corporateadvertising • Workissues
question
co-sleeping
answer
Infant or child sleeps in close proximity to adult - parent or other relative - same room or bed Easier for breastfeeding • Thermoregulation by adult for child • Prevents or reduces risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) • Adult acts as developmental bridge
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birthspacing
answer
breastfeeding suppresses hormones so it naturally spaces out offspring and gives mother recovery time
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urbanization
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megacity
answer
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urban footprint
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urban translation
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impact of urban residencies on non-human animals
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how dynamic has changed between non-humans and humans since move to urban living patterns
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advantages of urban living
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disadvantages of urban living
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exposure
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pathogen
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sedentism
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Density of people and animals increases transmission of communicable/infectious disease NOT diet related, due to SETTLING, but bad diet helped
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porotic hyperostosis
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enamel hypoplasia
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communicable disease
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industrialized agriculture
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social stratification
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dental caries
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anemai
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stunting
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osteoarthritis
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wolff's law
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Bone tissue responds to mechanical demand Work demands influence robusticity
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pelegra
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beri beri
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malocclusion
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intensification
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dental crowding
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costs/benefits of agricultural revolution on individual? on population?
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Agricultural Benefits (Population level) Food availability - bigger populations, surplus, storage Çatalhöyük Rise of cities & civilizations Jericho (Israel) - 11000 ybp Çatalhöyük (Turkey) - 7500-5700 ybp Technology explosion could accumulate big items Written language for record-keeping Social stratification Political centralization & standing armies Costs grow more food hav emore babies increased deands on environment pollution biodiversity lost- overhunting/environment degradation conflict over land,food/water social stratification INDIVIDUAL LEVEL • Benefits • Smaller jaws- related to softer cooked foods • Decreased arthritis • Increased population density & size • Ability to create permanent structures • Settle in one place • Trade • More consistent access to food sources • Costs • Cavities & malocclusion • Decreased strength • Increased disease loads • Exposure to environmental toxins • Environmental degradation • Increased interpersonal conflict • Less variability of food sources • Increased risk of famine
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4 ways agriculture intensified soceity
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5 curses of agriculture on humanity
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bioarchaeological bone evidnece
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acute
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agents
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antibodies
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antigens
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chronic
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disease ecology
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focus on proximal environment/causes to understand health & spread of illness
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emerging disease
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endemic
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epidemic
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epidemiological polarization
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epidemiological transition
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A transition from infectious diseases to chronic, degenerative, or man-made disease as the primary causes of mortality why Improved sanitation - washing hands, better sewer systems, trash collected and shipped, food storage Sanitation Movement in mid-1800s for workers Germ Theory of Disease (Pasteur 1860s) 1847 - doctors begin washing hands before baby delivery
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epidemiology
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germ theory of disease
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hygiene hypohtesis
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Train our immune systems through exposure in childhood Oversanitation and cleanliness prime immune system to overreact
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immunity
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3 Forms of Immunity Adaptive (vaccination, exposure) Passive (breast milk) Innate (genetic) Gut Microbiome likely also provides immunity & other services EXobesity, mental health, malnutrition, antibiotics
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infectious disease
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microbiome
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mornbidity
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mortality
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pandemic
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political economy
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focus on political/economic context (ultimate causes) to understand health & spread of illness structural violence Vulnerability influenced by location & identity!
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reservoir host
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spilover
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structural violence
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social justice
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vectors
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zoonosis
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cline
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Selective pressures vary place to place EX skin pigmentation body shape head shape (Betti et al 2010; Smith 2011) diseases/immunity
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adaptive landscape
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Ancestral adaptive landscape influences modern form EXsolar radiation, climate
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race
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Race is not biological • More variation within, than between Use easily seen features • Real differences not always visible
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racialization
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structural violence
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Structural Violence &... • Economics • Education • Health • Justice
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sex
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Sex - legal, anatomical, and/or biological distinction of male or female (XX, XY)
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intersex
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term used for a variety of conditions in which a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy or physiology that does not fit typical defini
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gender
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Gender - human social, cultural, and psychological qualities that indicate masculinity, femininity, or lack thereof
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cisgender
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gender identity and/or expression fits cultural expectations based on the sex assigned at birth
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transgender
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gender identity and/or expression is different from cultural expectations based on the sex assigned at birth, umbrella term
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fa'afafine
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Traditionally boys raised as girls - choice at 18 - fewer now due to missionization Performed female work & culture roles in family - act as go-betweens Third Gender - self-defined Many work entertainment, politics, teaching, caregiving
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sworn virgins
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merged in Albania/Bosnia in 1400s - lack of male heirs due to death & warfare - take vow of chastity Women take on masculine roles - head of family - carry weapons - own property - conduct business - move freely
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hijira
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See self as female or 3rd gender - take on female identity, roles, dress - some are intersex - most transgendered - some undergo castration Stigmatized by Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 under British Colonial Rule Ceremonial performances Religious blessings (esp. newborns) Begging Sex workers
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two spirits
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Native Americans - took on gender status different from men or women (activities) - held in respect prior to European colonization and missionization - 130 tribes Straddled 2 worlds - shamans & healers - religious leaders - matchmakers - specialized craftspeople Multiple sexualities
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race as a social construction and its impacts
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cholera
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1854 London Cholera epidemic Snow didn't believe Miasma Theory • Used interviews, observations, mapping • Found food and water contamination • Removed handle at Broad St. pump • Epidemic resolved Provided evidence for Pasteur