ANTH101 Chapter 1 pt.2

What are three key attributes related to human uniqueness?
a. eating, sleeping, and watching television
b. increased hunting, speech, and dependence on domesticated food
c. hunting, avoiding predators, and tool making
d. sleeping, hunting, and making clothing

How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
Biocultural anthropology combines cultural studies with archaeology.
b. Biocultural anthropology studies the interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture; cultural anthropology studies diverse cultures and societies.
It is strictly a biological science.
It considers culture to be a by-product of our biological histories.

Which is the study of evolution and variation in humans?
a. physical anthropology
b. archaeology
c. linguistic anthropology
d. cultural anthropology

According to Darwin, natural selection operates at the level of:
a. individuals.

Cuvier, Lamarck, and Erasmus Darwin all shared an idea of evolution; however, their ideas all lacked:
the longevity necessary for evolution to take place.
a basic understanding of inheritance.
an understanding of variation.
d. a mechanism for evolutionary change.

Mendel’s plant experiments demonstrated that:
traits inherited from each parent blended together in the offspring.
DNA was the molecule carrying the genetic code.
peas were a poor choice for understanding basic hereditary principles.
c. traits are passed on from parent to offspring as discrete units.

The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomic group (primates) was:
Charles Darwin.
Georges Cuvier.
Carolus Linnaeus.
Robert Hooke.

Uniformitarianism is the theory that:
the earth is very old, based on geologic evidence from stratigraphic layers in Scotland.
the natural processes operating today are the same as the natural processes that operated in the past.
the uniformity of species is derived from the common ancestor of all species.
processes such as earthquakes are evidence supporting catastrophism as proposed by Lamarck.

In your textbook, the lower frequency of sickle-cell anemia among present-day Americans of West African ancestry as compared to people living in West Africa blacks is attributed to:
genetic drift.
gene flow.
new mutations.
none of the above

Gene flow differs from genetic drift because it is the:
random change in the frequency of alleles.
random change in a gene or chromosome.
guiding force of evolution.
spread of new genetic material from one gene pool to another.

In his work on pea plants, Mendel found that plant height was inherited independently of the type or color of the seed coat. This finding:
applies only to genes on the same chromosome.
demonstrates the law of independent assortment.
explains gene linkage.
explains inheritance only in simple organisms.

Hox genes:
appear to function in similar ways across diverse groups of organisms.
function only in fruit flies.
control which amino acids get plugged into polypeptide chains.
control the development of language in humans.

Genetic analysis of haplotypes and variants among living and precontact Native Americans indicates that Native Americans:
underwent a huge decline in genetic diversity after Columbus’s arrival in the New World.
living today appear to be as diverse genetically as their ancient ancestors thousands of years ago.
have a genetic structure and haplogroups that are quite recent.
living today appear to be more diverse genetically than their ancient ancestors.

Which of the evolutionary forces is most likely to decrease variation between populations?
gene flow
the founder effect
natural selection

A random change in allele frequencies over time is known as:
genetic drift.
gene flow.
gene migration.

The obesity pandemic is primarily due to:
the increased ability to produce and consume inexpensive, high-fat foods.
a lack of physical exercise.
a combination of lower calories and more exercise.
the production of high-calorie, low-fat foods even though people still have a high exercise level.

Dark skin (a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples) is likely a response to ultraviolet radiation, because UV radiation can cause:
skin cancer.

R. C. Lewontin found that human “races” have no taxonomic significance. He demonstrated this through:
research indicating that most genetic variation is found among human races.
research indicating that race categories accounted for a very small percentage of variation found across human populations.
the examination of variation in multiple human skull characteristics.
research that examined genetic diversity across different species of mammals.

The dental pattern of Old World higher primates is:

The cladistic primate classification includes:
anthropods and haplorhines.
hominoids and chordata.
strepsirhines and haplorhines.
pongidae and omomyidae.

Strepsirhines have a special lower incisor called a:
two-ridge tooth.
tooth comb.

Relative to body size, primate brain size is:
proportional to human brain size.
more or less the same in large and small primates.
smaller than in other large mammals.
larger among great apes than among other primates.

The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
colobus monkeys.
howler monkeys.

A feature unique to human teeth and human ancestors’ teeth is:
the presence of a canine-premolar honing complex.
a canine that shows no wear on any surface.
the Y-5 cusp pattern.
a canine that shows wear on the tip.

The rhinarium is present in:
ring-tail lemurs.
howler monkeys.

While observing primates at the zoo, you notice that the particular monkey you are watching uses its hands, feet, and tail to grasp branches while moving throughout the trees in its enclosure. This is most likely a(n):
Old World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
lesser ape, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.
New World monkey, because these are the only monkeys that live in trees.
New World monkey, because many of these species have a tail with grasping abilities similar to those observed in nonhuman primate hands and feet.

The cladistic classification of apes and humans:
includes three subfamilies within hominids: pongines, gorillines, and hominines.
uses the term hominid to describe only humans and their ancestors.
divides hominoids into hylobatids, pongids, and hominids.
includes tarsiers, lemurs, and lorises.

Anthropoids differ from prosimians in that they:
You Answered
have more teeth.
Correct Answer
have better color vision.
are less dimorphic sexually.
have a smaller brain relative to body size.

Modern humans have misaligned teeth because of
a. the development of agriculture.
b. the invention of pottery.
c. a change in muscle and bone in the jaw.
d. All of the above

Domesticated C3 plants include all of the following except
a. wheat.
b. barley.
c. corn.
d. rice.

Plant domestication brought with it the invention of
a. alcohol.
b. bacon.
c. candy.
d. dairy.

One of the advantages of the invention of agriculture for human adaptation is
a. the elimination of disease.
b. the ability to feed a larger number of people.
c. the increase in biodiversity of plants.
d. All of the above

Disadvantages of the invention of agriculture for human adaptation include
a. an increase in interpersonal violence.
b. the lack of a surplus food supply.
c. the inability of agriculture to feed a large number of people.
d. All of the above

Modern human evolution has been marked by a(n) ______________ in the size of the face and jaw and a(n) ______________ in cultural complexity.
a. decrease / stasis
b. increase / decrease
c. decrease / increase
d. stasis / increase

You find a cache of skeletons from an agricultural site in the United States. What would you expect to see in the cross section of the femur?
Topic: n/a
a. An increase in the size because of hard work associated with farming
b. A decrease in the size because farming is less stressful than hunting
c. I would want to know more about the geographic location of the site, because different kinds of food production can lead to either an increase or a decrease in the size.
d. None of the above
Note: Depending on the kind of activity a person is engaged in, the cross section of a bone may increase or decrease in size. That is, variation in food production methods means a variation in activity patterns that produce variation in femoral cross sections.

Diseases that continue to plague modern humans because of overcrowding include all of the following except
a. caries.
b. measles.
c. flu.
d. smallpox.

An increase in dental caries in North America came about because of the increase in consumption of
a. wheat.
b. corn.
c. rice.
d. sugar.

Compared to hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists have higher rates of
a. periosteal reactions.
b. enamel hypoplasias.
c. dental caries.
d. All of the above

With all the disadvantages to farming, why did humans continue to do so?
a. It allowed women to bear more children.
b. It allowed them freedom to move when they wanted to.
c. It made them grow taller.
d. It reduced their disease load.

Iron-deficiency anemia can result from
a. dietary stress.
b. parasites.
c. both a and b.
d. neither a nor b.

The treponematoses are a category of disease that include
a. leprosy.
b. syphilis.
c. hookworm.
d. periostitis.

The shift from foraging to farming is associated with the time period called the
a. Paleolithic.
b. Chalcolithic.
c. Mesolithic.
d. Neolithic.

You are interested in tracking the spread of maize agriculture throughout the eastern United States, so your professor suggests that you might want to study human skeletons and look into
a. stable isotope analysis of carbon.
b. the rate of dental caries.
c. frequencies of iron-deficiency anemia.
d. All of the above
Note: Analyzing skeletal tissue for carbon isotopes can tell you whether C4 plants such as maize (corn) were important to an individual’s diet. Dental caries rates also tend to rise with the introduction of maize agriculture, as corn is sticky and has a lot of sugar. Finally, consumption of a lot of corn can inhibit iron absorption, leading to iron-deficiency anemia. Using all three of these methods would help you figure out more about the spread of maize agriculture in the eastern United States.

Your mother points out to you a magazine article that says that better nutrition is the reason modern Americans are taller than Americans of two centuries ago. You tell her that
a. while this is true, other factors such as a reduction in infectious diseases also contribute to the increase in height.
b. this is not true, because the obesity epidemic has started to make Americans shorter.
c. the truth is that we are far less healthy than we were when agriculture first began.
d. All of the above
Note – Good nutrition is a key factor in allowing bones and teeth to reach their full genetic potential, but other factors are also at work, such as a reduction in infectious diseases. Nutrition and infectious diseases are related in that poor nutrition worsens infection and infection worsens nutrition.

In a biology class, your friend had to read Jared Diamond’s essay The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race, which details the drawbacks of sedentary life and agriculture. Your friend wants to know why humans continued to farm in the face of disease and other issues. You reply that
a. agriculture led to an increase in peaceful relations between groups because there was less competition for food.
b. having reliable access to food and being able to produce more calories per unit of land available led to population increase.
c. farming for food was better for the environment than was hunting and gathering.
d. All of the above
Note – In addition to an increase in disease, sedentary agriculture brought with it an increase in interpersonal violence and environmental degradation. The only clear benefit of agriculture is the ability of groups to produce a lot of food and have consistent access to food, which can lead to an increase in population and smaller birth spacing.

Many of the bones from the prehistoric Cowboy Wash site in Colorado show evidence of cannibalism. Dr. Larsen suggests that environmental stresses may have led to a reduction in agricultural yields, causing a surge in interpersonal conflict over land. This is certainly not the only explanation for cannibalism, however, because
a. eating meat was necessary for human evolution, and eating human meat sped up the process.
b. cannibalism is a modern phenomenon engaged in by psychopaths.
c. evidence of cannibalism is found long before the advent of agriculture.
d. All of the above
Note – the earliest evidence of cannibalism comes from the site of Gran Dolina in Spain, dating to about 300,000 years ago. This was long before the advent of agriculture. Dr. Larsen could be right that the Cowboy Wash cannibalism is related to environmental stress and agriculture, but it is not the only explanation for this practice.

While reading an article for your archaeology class, you come across a section in which the author lays out a claim for the dolichocephalic Mesolithic foragers being replaced by the brachycephalic agriculturalists in Nubia. This claim that “short-headed” people came in and replaced all the “long-headed” people is likely false because
a. short-headed people would have been at an evolutionary disadvantage.
b. craniofacial changes can be attributed to long-term changes in diet rather than to wholesale population replacement.
c. long-headed people were more successful at combat because of their anatomical characteristics.
d. All of the above
Note – The masticatory-functional hypothesis states that changes in diet, particularly to softer foods, affected the shape of the human skull. As people used their chewing muscles less and less, changes occurred that made the skull higher and shorter (brachycephalic) as compared to shorter and longer (dolichocephalic) in the times before cooking and domestication of plants and animals.

The principle of faunal succession was created by
a. William Smith.
b. Thomas Jefferson.
c. Georges Cuvier.
d. Charles Lyell.

The study of what happens to the remains of an organism is called
a. geology.
b. paleontology.
c. fossilization.
d. taphonomy.

Rapid evolutionary change during long, static periods is known as
a. stasis.
b. gradualism.
c. punctuated equilibrium.
d. adaptation.

Before the formation of the seven continents of the world, there was a supercontinent called

According to Bishop Ussher, when was Earth was created?
a. 4.6 billion years ago
b. 6.4 million years ago
c. 40,000 years ago
d. 6,000 years ago
Note: Ussher thought the world was created in 4004 BC, or about 6,000 years ago.

The law of superposition created by Nicolaus Steno helped lay the foundations for
a. relative dating.
b. absolute dating.
c. numerical aging.

All of the following are relative methods of dating except
a. stratigraphic correlation.
b. fluorine dating.
c. radiocarbon dating.
d. faunal dating.

All of the following are absolute methods of dating except
a. tree ring dating.
b. cultural dating.
c. fission-track dating.
d. amino acid dating..

Which of the following elements can be used in radiometric dating?
a. Uranium (U)
b. Potassium (K)
c. Argon (Ar)
d. All of the above

To calculate the numerical age of a fossil specimen that you believe dates to about 2 mya, which of the following methods would you choose?
a. Fission-track dating
b. Carbon-14 dating
c. Dendrochronology
d. Any of the above
Note: (Fission-track dating can date material up to about 3 million years old, whereas carbon-14 can date material to only about 75,000 years old and dendrochronology to only 12,000 years old)

Your professor is planning to undertake chemical isotope analysis for her latest paleoanthropology project. When you ask her for more details, she invites you to guess the topic of her project based on this fact alone. You suggest that her project may be about
a. figuring out the age of a fossil hominid.
b. determining the kinds of food a hominid ate.
c. understanding what type of habitat a hominid lived in.
d. Any of the above
– Physical anthropologists use chemical isotope analysis not only to answer questions about the antiquity of an artifact or a fossil but also to understand the diet and habitat of humans, hominids, and apes in the past.

A volcanic eruption on the coast of Japan in 1850 deposits a layer of ash on top of a layer of red clay, and the ash is covered by a layer of silt in a tsunami in 1902. Archaeologists find a coin between the ash and silt, and they find a small pot between the ash and clay. Given this sequence of events, which of the following is true?
a. The pot is younger than the coin.
b. The pot is older than the coin.
c. The pot and the coin are the same age.
d. The coin is older than the pot.
(The red clay is the oldest layer, with the ash layer dating to 1850 and the silt layer to 1902. Based on this stratigraphy, the coin was deposited between 1850and 1902, and the pot was deposited before 1850. The pot is therefore older than the coin.)

5,730 years is the ______________ of the carbon-14 radioisotope.
Topic: n/a
a. palaeomagnetic date
b. numerical age
c. half-life
d. atomic mass unit

The molecular clock indicates that humans and chimpanzees diverged about ____ mya.
a. 6
b. 14
c. 18
d. 25

You want to undertake a project to study the past environment in which the Inuit lived in Greenland. Your professor suggests that you think about climate, specifically that you
a. measure the amount of snow melt in the past few centuries.
b. figure out if there has been a change in cloud cover.
c. gauge the rainfall in the last decade over Iceland.
d. test microorganisms in the ocean to estimate temperature fluctuations.
Note: Understanding cloud cover would tell you little, if anything, about the environment in which the Inuit lived, as would the rainfall over a different country. Snow melt may be important for understanding global warming and climate change, but you should specifically focus on testing oceanic microorganisms, which record information as oxygen isotopes about the temperature of the water. Geologists can take core samples from the ocean and obtain information about temperature at many different points in the past.

While studying for your physical anthropology midterm, your classmate tells you that the bones of Lucy, a famous australopithecine specimen that dates to about 3.2 million years ago, were dated based on carbon-14 analysis. You note that this is incorrect because
a. carbon-14 analysis cannot provide accurate date estimates that far into the past.
b. Lucy is a fossil hominid, meaning her bones are no longer actually bone but rather rock.
c. palaeomagnetic dating is the only way to arrive at that numerical age.
d. All of the above
Fossils are living organisms that have wholly or partially been transformed into rock. Lucy does not have bones with organic material necessary for carbon-14 dating. This specimen is also far too old for C-14 dating to be accurate, as well as for any other technique but palaeomagnetic dating. Your classmate is therefore incorrect for all of the reasons listed.

The era in which we are living is the
a. Cenozoic.
b. Mesozoic.
c. Paleozoic.
d. Holocene.

For fossilization to occur, bones should meet the following taphonomic requirement(s):
a. The bones must remain exposed for a long period of time.
b. The bones must be found in acidic soil.
c. The bones must remain in an anoxic environment.
d. All of the above

20. Fossils are most commonly found in
a. South Africa.
b. sedimentary rock.
c. human bone.
d. All of the above.

A team of paleoanthropologists has concluded based on skeletal anatomy that the new species they found, Oreopithecus, lived in an arboreal habitat. This conclusion may have been based largely on the apes’
a. squat torso.
b. long arm bones.
c. opposable toes.
d. large cranial capacity.
( Fossil apes whose arm bones are long were likely adapted to an arboreal habitat, one in which the dominant form of vegetation was trees.)

The arboreal hypothesis of primate origins explains that
a. a heightened sense of smell was important for finding food in the forest.
b. grasping hands and feet were necessary for living in trees.
c. greater intelligence allowed primates to locomote on two feet.
d. None of the above

As a corollary to the idea that primates emerged as an adaptation to an arboreal environment, Matt Cartmill proposed that
a. catching small prey was more important in primate evolution than living in the trees.
b. picking fruit was more important in primate evolution than catching small prey.
c. living in the trees was more important in primate evolution than picking fruit.
d. None of the above

Euprimates, the first true primates, consisted of the following two groups:
a. Platyrrhines and Catarrhines
b. Adapids and Anthropoids
c. Plesiadapiforms and Omomyids
d. Omomyids and Adapids

Higher primates most likely evolved from
a. Anthropoids.
b. Omomyids.
c. Adapids.
d. None of the above

Robert Sussman’s angiosperm radiation hypothesis is based on the finding that
a. primate evolution was jump-started by the elongation of the radii, the lower arm bones, necessary for swinging through the trees.
b. the first primates preyed on small insects called angiosperms.
c. fruit was a newly available food source in the Cenozoic era.
d. None of the above

The Fayum primates in the Oligocene epoch were the
a. Oligopithecids.
b. Propliopithecids.
c. Parapithecids.
d. All of the above

Which of the following is not a hypothesis for how anthropoids got to South America?
a. North American ancestors migrated south, evolving into platyrrhines.
b. African ancestors reached South America by using the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.
c. Platyrrhines and catarrhines evolved independently.
d. African ancestors crossed Antarctica and entered South America at Patagonia.

Which of the following is uniquely human?
a. Power grip
b. Precision grip
c. Opposable thumb
d. All of the above

The first primate fossil to be described by a scientist was recorded by
a. Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.
b. Carolus Linnaeus.
c. Charles Lyell.
d. Georges Cuvier.

While flipping through the channels, you stop on a television program about primate evolution. The host says that there is a 6-million-year gap in the fossil evidence between the latest Oligocene catarrhines and the earliest Miocene proconsulids, which could mean that primates disappeared from Earth and evolved anew some time later. Your roommate comes running when you start yelling at the television,
a. “The primates in that 6-million-year gap were evolving in South America, not Africa!”
b. “It’s unlikely that anything important evolved in that time, so the gap in the fossil record doesn’t matter!”
c. “The resemblance between the Fayum catarrhines and the Miocene proconsulids in skull form and dentition suggests an evolutionary relationship, even if the direct fossil evidence isn’t there!”
d. “These primates were whisked away by aliens and put back a few million years later, so of course there is no fossil evidence!”
Note: Sometimes, television programs about evolution use sensationalism to draw in viewers. The host’s suggestion that primates disappeared and then re-evolved into a strikingly similar form in just 6 million years runs counter to what we’ve learned about evolution in the past few chapters. Your roommate may think you’re crazy for yelling at the television, but the cranial and dental continuities between the latest catarrhines and earliest proconsulids suggest that there may be fossil evidence that can fill the gap, but we just haven’t found it yet.

Eocene primates differ from Paleocene primates in the following way(s):
a. Increased vision
b. Reduced sense of smell
c. Larger brain
d. All of the above

The common ancestor of all later catarrhines, Old World monkeys, and hominids was likely
a. Aegyptopithecus.
b. Proconsul.
c. Eosimias.
d. Dryopithecus.

A valid criticism of the idea that anthropoids evolved independently in Africa and South America is that
a. organisms cannot evolve into similar forms independently.
b. Africa’s fossil record dates back only 6 million years, so it is impossible to trace independent evolution of primates in these two areas.
c. there are striking similarities between Old and New World primates not only in phenotype but also in genotype.
d. None of the above
Note There is a physical, anatomical resemblance between New and Old World monkeys. Although phenotypic similarities can arise even with very different genotypes, there is also DNA evidence that there is a strong relationship between the New and Old World monkeys. Both of these lines of evidence seem to negate the possibility that anthropoids evolved independently in Africa and South America.

From 12 to 8 mya, Dryopithecids were found in _____________ while Sivapithecids were found in _____________.
a. North America / South America
b. Asia / Europe
c. South America / North America
d. Europe / Asia

The largest primate that ever lived, named for its massive size, was
a. Oreopithecus.
b. Eosimias.
c. Aegyptopithecus.
d. None of the above

A valid criticism of the arboreal hypothesis of primate origins is that
a. the opossum is also an arboreal mammal but did not develop uniquely primate traits.
b. arboreal animals do not eat fruit, which was prevalent in early Cenozoic.
c. insects and other small creatures do not live in arboreal habitats.
d. All of the above
Note Although the arboreal hypothesis of primate origins still carries a lot of weight today, Matt Cartmill and others have pointed out that other arboreal mammals, like squirrels and opossums, have not evolved the traits that are unique to primates.

Your classmate, whose part-time job entails reorganizing the paleoanthropology lab on campus, asks you to take a look at a skeleton that she thinks is from a primate. After noting the absence of a postorbital bar, nails, and an opposable thumb, you tell her that
a. the skeleton is from an Old World monkey.
b. she should label this skeleton as a plesiadapiform rather than as a primate.
c. the skull is probably from an Eocene euprimate.
d. there is no way that the skull and the hands are from the same animal.
Note: Plesiadapiforms were most likely not primates, as evidenced by their different skeletal anatomy, such as the lack of flat nails, opposable digits, and a postorbital bar in the skull.

While walking across campus, you overhear a guy telling his girlfriend that the origin of every human ancestor was in Africa. You stop him and explain that he is not completely correct because
a. monkeys evolved separately in Africa and the Americas.
b. mtDNA evidence traces the human lineage to Oreopithecus in Italy.
c. based on the current fossil evidence, Asia could equally likely be the place where higher primates originated.
d. plesiadapiforms lived in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
While it is true that plesiadapiforms have been found in different parts of the globe, they do not appear to be the direct ancestors of higher primates. The basal anthropoids, a good contender for the origins of higher primates, have been found in both Asia and Africa, and it is not currently clear which one came first or if they evolved independently.

Your biology instructor says in class that the fossil remains of primates from the Eocene demonstrate that they were nothing like the primates of today. After class, you argue with him, noting that
a. a variety of primate traits, such as convergent eyes, grasping digits, and a large brain, are common to both Eocene primates and those of today.
b. 56 million years is not enough time for modern primates to have changed much from their Eocene ancestors.
c. there are no fossil remains of Eocene primates, so it is not possible to compare them to modern primates.
d. All of the above
Note: The differences between possible primate ancestors in the Paleocene and the Eocene mammals that likely gave rise to higher primates are staggering, indicating a giant leap in evolution in the Eocene. Yet many of the characteristics of Eocene primates, in particular the anatomy of the skull and dentition, are quite similar to those of primates today.

The short calcaneus bone of Eosimias demonstrates that
a. the primate moved more like a baboon than like a tarsier.
b. this animal is more likely to be a human ancestor than a lemur is.
c. the ankle of this animal is anthropoid-like.
d. All of the above
Note: The heel bone of Eosimias, or the calcaneus, was shorter and squatter than that of lemurs and tarsiers. Its resemblance to a baboon’s calcaneus suggests Eosimias had a locomotive pattern more like a baboon than like a tarsier, and it also suggests that Eosimias is an anthropoid ancestor

Humans differ from apes because
a. humans use language. b. apes have a complex material culture. c. humans have less advanced cognition. d. All of the above

The _____________ fossil, mistakenly thought of as the missing link between humans and apes, had a large cranial capacity but ape-like dentition.
a. Australopithecus africanus b. Orrorin c. Lucy d. Piltdown

The _____________ hypothesis about hominid bipedalism states that energy-efficient walking on two legs arose so that hominids could search for food that was dispersed as a result of climatic changes at the end of the Miocene.
a. Provisioning b. Hunting c. patchy forest d. All of the above

The _____________ hypothesis proposed by Owen Lovejoy states that the advantages of males carrying food and bringing it to females and young could have contributed to the rise of bipedalism.
a. Provisioning b. Hunting c. patchy forest d. All of the above

Bipedalism’s advantages over quadrupedalism include
a. increased ability to see greater distances. b. ability to run long distances. c. free hands for tool use.d. All of the above

Bipedalism has disadvantages to quadrupedalism, including
a. difficulty in transporting food. b. inability to manufacture tools. c. development of arthritis and back injuries. d. All of the above

The oldest pre-australopithecine, or a fossil link between late Miocene apes and australopithecines, found to date is
a. Eoanthropus dawsoni. b. Sahelanthropus tchadensis. c. Orrorin tugenensis. d. Ardipithecus ramidus.

The oldest australopithecine species is
a. A. anamensis. b. A. africanus. c. A. afarensis. d. A. garhi.

The best-known australopithecine, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar, is
a. A. anamensis. b. A. garhi. c. A. africanus. d. A. afarensis.

Robust australopithecine species include
a. A. aethiopicus. b. A. anamensis. c. A. garhi. D. All of above

Robust australopithecines differ from earlier australopithecines in their
a. smaller front teeth. b. larger faces. c. larger back teeth. d. All of the above

The genus Australopithecine includes hominids that lived about
a. 7-4 mya. b. 4-1 mya. c. 2 mya – 10,000 yBP. d. 8-6 mya.

The Oldowan tool complex is attributed to __________________, making that hominid species the first to use tools.
a. A. garhi b. A. anamensis c. A. africanus d. A. boisei

______________ arose around 3.5 mya and gave rise to at least two branches of hominids: later australopithecines and the genus Homo.
a. A. garhi b. A. anamensis c. A. ramidus d. A. afarensis

Kamoya Kimeu, a Kenyan whose Hominid Gang has found numerous fossil remains, worked primarily with
a. Alan Walker. b. Tim White. c. Richard Leakey. d. Raymond Dart.

Your old roommate is in Australia on a one-year study abroad program. She excitedly skypes you and says her Aborigine friend mentioned an australopithecine skull he discovered while on “walkabout” in the desert. The skull has a small brain and wear on the tip of the canines. You respond that
a. there is no evidence that australopithecines ever left Africa.
b. only members of the Homo species have wear on the tip of the canines.
c. Australia was still part of Pangaea when australopithecines evolved.
d. the only people qualified to spot fossils are specially trained paleoanthropologists.
Note . Both australopithecines and pre-australopithecines have relatively small brains and wear at the tip of the canines. There is absolutely no current fossil evidence to indicate that australopithecines ever left Africa, likely owing to their dependence on the specific habitats found there and their small brain size. Hominids did not leave Africa until Homo erectus.

While walking through a natural history museum, your little cousin points out the skull of an australopithecine with a large crest on the top and asks you what its purpose was. To simplify a complicated evolutionary trait, you tell your cousin that
a. the crest made it easier for these hominids to see in three dimensions.
b. these hominids had muscles to eat hard foods such as nuts.
c. the crest is the result of upright posture necessary for bipedalism.
d. these hominids fought a lot, and the crest helped protect the brain.
Note: The sagittal crest is a raised ridge of bone that runs from front to back on the skulls of robust australopithecines. It served as an attachment point for massive chewing muscles, meaning these australopithecines could chew and grind hard foods, such as nuts, rather than subsisting on softer foods such as fruit.

In an argument with your parents, they claim that the only difference between australopithecines and early Homo species is a bigger brain in the latter. You argue that there are other differences, such as
a. the australopithecine species that led to Homo had a specialized diet.
b. there is no evidence that australopithecines could use tools, whereas Homo could.
c. in addition to a larger brain, early Homo species have a smaller face and smaller teeth.
d. australopithecines were not bipedal.
note: Both the later australopithecines and the early Homo species that arose from them had generalized, flexible diets and were bipedal hominids. There is growing evidence that some australopithecine species used tools such as the Oldowan Complex, although later Homo tool styles are more advanced. The earlier Homo species differ from australopithecines not only in their larger brain but also in such characteristics as a smaller face and smaller teeth.

Your mom has started complaining to you about her varicose veins and is thinking about surgery. You try to convince her not to by noting that
a. only old people get varicose veins.
b. humans have evolved giant brains only to squander them on worrying about their looks.
c. people might not mind varicose veins as much if they realized they were a direct consequence of bipedality.
d. a change in diet to one with more fruit, such as eaten by australopithecines, could help her problem.
Bipedality has placed a burden on humans’ circulatory systems, which are required to pump blood from the heart to the head and the feet. One result of this overworking of the circulatory system is bulging or varicose veins. If people had to choose between some varicose veins and bipedal locomotion, perhaps they would realize that the former are worth putting up with to move around on two feet.

Charles Darwin hypothesized that bipedalism arose so that hominids would have two free hands to create and carry weapons. The fossil evidence that now refutes this hypothesis includes
a. the probable use of Oldowan tools by A. garhi. b. the small brain and large canines of Ardipithecus.
c. the human-like skull and ape-like teeth of the Piltdown skeleton. d. All of the above
Ardipithecus was bipedal yet had a small brain and large canines, which precluded its ability and need to create weapons. The modern evidence from this fossil species and others shows that bipedalism predated a reduction in canines and an increase in brain size, contrary to Darwin’s hypothesis.

Your physical anthropology professor asks you to arrange a bag of foot bones in anatomical position. When you finish, she asks you what you can tell from this right foot. You say that this hominid
a. was committed to life on the ground. b. could not grasp tree branches.
c. had fully modern bipedal locomotion. d. lived in the trees part of the time.
These foot bones are from Ardipithecus and demonstrate that this pre-australopithecine had a divergent big toe, much like that of apes. This indicates that Ardi did not have fully modern bipedal locomotion and that this species lived at least part of the time in an arboreal environment.

This early researcher’s scientific approach to the origin of humans, searching for fossils to test his hypothesis rather than comparative animal anatomy, helped create the discipline of paleoanthropology.
a. Dubois b. Darwin c. Haeckel d. Huxley

Homo habilis differs from earlier australopithecines because
a. it had a large chewing complex. b. it could walk on two legs.
c. it had a larger brain. d. All of the above

The first hominid species to disperse from Africa, where it originated, was
a. A. anamensis. b. A. afarensis. c. H. habilis. d. H. erectus.

H. erectus’s change in limb proportions, to a body with short arms and long legs, indicates
a. retention of climbing and brachiating abilities. b. fully modern bipedal locomotion.
c. a life spent in the trees. d. quadrupedal walking.

Fossils of H. erectus have been found at which of these sites in Ethiopia:
a. Bodo b. Buia c. Bouri d. All of the above

The rapid spread of H. erectus out of Africa can be attributed in part to
a. material culture and tool use. b. environmental degradation in Africa.
c. language capabilities. d. All of the above

Evidence of fire use at Zhoukoudian included
a. burned plants. b. Charcoal. c. burned animal bones. d. All of the above

The main reason that H. erectus increased in stature and body size over H. habilis is
a. lack of disease. b. access to animal protein. c. need to see over tall grasses. d. All of the above

Evidence of tool use in H. habilis includes
a. muscle markers on the hand bones. b. stone tools present in fossil sites.
c. expanding brain size d. All of the above

It is possible that australopithecines went extinct and Homo flourished because of
a. Cannibalism . b. bipedal locomotion. c. habitat changes. d. All of the above

H. erectus specimen from Turkey dating to about 500,000 yBP demonstrates the antiquity of _______________, a disease still prevalent today.
a. Tuberculosis b. Leprosy c. syphilis d. smallpox

______ H. erectus were more robust than _____ H. erectus.
a. Asian / European b. African / Asian c. European / African d. African / North American

H. erectus’s brain increased about ________ compared to H. habilis’s.
a. 30% b. 75% c. 100% d. 200%

If a fully clothed Nariokotome boy were walking down the streets of New York City, which feature would indicate that he was not a modern human?
a. His large teeth b. His height c. The way he walked d. None of the above
The Nariokotome boy was already about 5’6″ when he died as an adolescent; his teeth were large but not outside the normal range of modern humans’ teeth; and he had fully modern bipedalism. Therefore, none of these three features

H. erectus was originally known as
a. Java man. b. Peking man. c. Pithecanthropus erectus. d. All of the above

Your roommate, a staunch vegetarian, argues that eating meat is unhealthy. You counter this argument by noting that the latest research in paleoanthropology suggests that
a. cattle were healthier in ancient times, with no evidence of diseases such as tuberculosis.
b. we might not be the tall, big-brained humans we are today had our hominid ancestors not eaten meat.
c. our hominid ancestors did not eat much meat but had life expectancies only up to age 40-50.
d. All of the above
Although meat-eating predated Homo erectus, it is thought that the greater access that H. erectus had to animal protein – owing to better tools for killing and skinning animals and to harnessing fire to cook meat – contributed to H. erectus’s advantage in height and brain size over its H. habilis forebears.

You come across a website that states Homo rudolfensis was a slightly larger version of Homo erectus found in Canada in the eighteenth century. Based on your knowledge of physical anthropology, though, you know that this website is bunk because
a. Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis are the same species.
b. only Homo sapiens reached North America.
c. fossil hominids were not found until the nineteenth century.
d. All of the above
You know that H. rudolfensis is actually a more robust version of the already known H. habilis, and you know that neither H. habilis nor H. erectus made it to North America. The history of hominid fossil finds summarized at the beginning of the chapter further indicates that paleoanthropology did not start until the end of the nineteenth century, with most finds happening in the twentieth century.

Paleoanthropologists have found stone tool marks on Homo erectus bones, and this bit of information has been spun on TV as “cannibal hominids.” A valid criticism of this sensationalistic conclusion is
a. the teeth of predators can make marks identical to those of stone tools.
b. contemporaneous Australopithecus anamensis may have made the cuts, and cannibalism implies within-species meat eating.
c. the tool marks only indicate that flesh was removed, not whether it was consumed.
d. All of the above
The tool marks found on Homo erectus bones, such as the Bodo cranium, show that flesh was cut off of bone. However, the marks cannot tell us for what purpose the flesh was removed – perhaps for eating (cannibalism), perhaps for a burial ritual, perhaps for another reason. Predator teeth can make similar marks as stone tools, but under a microscope it is easy to tell them apart based on the morphology of the grooves, and A. anamensis did not overlap in time with H. erectus.

If you wanted to know what the landscape was like when Homo erectus walked Earth a million years ago, you might try to find evidence by studying
a. the fossilized bones of contemporaneous local animals.
b. microorganisms from the ocean floor.
c. the plants available for Homo erectus to consume.
d. All of the above
All of these are valid methods for attempting to understand landscape and climate in the past. Fossilized animal bones can imply a landscape; for example, the presence of giraffe ancestors suggests large acacia trees. We also learned in previous chapters that oxygen isotope analysis of microorganisms can yield key information about temperature, and that the relative percentage of C3 versus C4 plants can change with climate.

Paleoanthropologists know that Acheulian hand axes were used to butcher animals because
a. pieces of hand axes have been found in fossilized hippos.
b. the wear patterns on ancient tools are similar to those that can be replicated experimentally.
c. analysis of the blood on the hand axes reveals it is animal rather than human.
d. All of the above

In modern experiments, paleoanthropologists have re-created stone tools and used them to butcher an animal. When they examined these tools under a microscope, the wear pattern resulting from butchering is identical to the wear pattern seen on the Acheulian hand axes, implying that Homo erectus butchered animals.

An evolutionary argument for why women today need assistance in giving birth may be that
a. the large brains of Homo sapiens infants necessitate a different pattern of childbirth events than seen in earlier hominids and primates.
b. the shape of the female pelvic inlet and outlet are incompatible with fully modern bipedalism.
c. primates’ larger shoulders help make way for the head, resulting in an easier delivery.
d. the shortened labor stage of human childbirth means the infant arrives quickly and without warning.
Note: Human females are specifically adapted to be bipedal and to give birth to large-brained babies. However, their childbirth pattern is different than that of earlier hominids and primates: a human baby has to rotate and maneuver through the pelvic canal, and this results in a protracted, painful labor. Women are therefore usually assisted in birth by a physician, nurse, midwife, or other care provider.

Modern H. sapiens differ from the archaic form in having
a. a high, vertical forehead.
b. a mental eminence.
c. no occipital bun.
d. All of the above

Fossils found in a cave at Gran Dolina, Spain, show evidence of
Topic: n/a
a. speaking ability.
b. pottery production.
c. cannibalism.
d. All of the above

Neandertal remains from Shanidar cave in northern Iraq provide the first evidence of
a. care for the injured.
b. cannibalism.
c. speaking ability.
d. All of the above

Evidence that ancient hominids practiced cannibalism comes from
Topic: n/a
a. Gran Dolina, Spain.
b. Krapina, Croatia.
c. Moula-Guercy, France.
d. All of the above

Neandertals were well-adapted to cold, owing to body changes such as
a. large, wide noses.
b. short, wide bodies.
c. short limbs.
d. All of the above

The Out of Africa model of modern human origins states that modern humans
a. spread from Africa and replaced all other populations with no gene flow.
b. evolved in place in different regions through gene flow.
c. and Neandertals became one population through gene flow.
d. stayed in Africa.

The Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans states that
a. modern humans left Africa and killed all the other H. sapiens populations they found.
b. gene flow is the key to evolution, turning archaic H. sapiens into modern humans in various parts of the world.
c. Neandertals and modern humans never interbred, staying in their respective regions.
d. modern humans originated in Europe and spread to Africa and Asia.

The Assimilation model of the origin of modern humans states that
a. H. sapiens is an evolutionary dead end.
b. gene flow is not important in understanding where humans originated.
c. Neandertals can still be found today in Europe.
d. modern humans evolved in Africa and spread to Europe and Asia, where they interbred with Neandertals.

Early modern humans moved into North and South America because of
a. population increase.
b. competition for food.
c. climate change.
d. All of the above

The earliest modern humans in Australia, dating to 40,000 yBP, were found at
Topic: n/a
a. Borneo.
b. Tasmania.
c. Lake Mungo.
d. Kow Swamp.

Modern humans likely migrated to the Americas via
a. walking across the Bering land bridge.
b. rafts of vegetation from Africa.
c. walking into South America at Patagonia.
d. None of the above

Modern humans migrated into North America around
a. 50,000 yBP.
b. 15,000 yBP.
c. 5,000 yBP.
d. 500 AD.

One of the tools of modern humans in the Americas was the
a. Acheulian hand axe.
b. Oldowan single-edge chopper.
c. Folsom fluted point.
d. Mousterian flint flake.

The “Hobbit” skeleton found on the Indonesian island of Flores has been interpreted as
a. an offshoot of H. erectus based on the size of the cranium.
b. a new species based on the morphology of the wrist bones.
c. a fake, based on the australopithecine-like brain.
d. a monkey, based on the presence of a tail.

Neandertals differed from archaic H. sapiens in their
a. inability to speak.
b. careless treatment of the dead.
c. small cranial capacity.
d. None of the above

During your internship with the Medical Examiner’s Office, you observe the ME attempt to identify an unknown individual based on skeletal remains. The ME asserts confidently that the deceased was of Asian or Native American ancestry. How does she know this, based only on the skeleton?
a. The individual has shovel-shaped incisors, a heritable trait often found in East Asians and their descendants.
b. The occipital bun indicates that this person was not as highly evolved as Caucasians.
c. The individual’s diminutive stature suggests s/he was actually Homo floresiensis, a species known only from Indonesia.
d. The facial structure of this person indicates s/he lived in a hot, dry climate.

Note: Shovel-shaped incisors are quite common in individuals of Asian and Native American descent, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two groups. Occipital buns are found in Neandertals but not in modern humans; H. floresiensis is indeed from Indonesia but is not a modern species; and the facial structure of the earliest Americans shows adaptations to a cold, dry climate.

A valid critique of the Out of Africa model of human evolution based on recent research is that
a. dietary specialization would not have allowed Homo sapiens to leave Africa.
b. Africa has greater genetic diversity than Europe.
c. there was gene flow between Neandertals and modern Homo sapiens.
d. All of the above
Note: he latest genetic evidence suggests that there was gene flow between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans in Europe. The Out of Africa model does not include gene flow between geographically separate

While watching a television program on Neandertal origins, you hear molecular geneticist Matthias Krings state that mtDNA analysis found two dozen base pairs were different between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans, indicating we are not related to Neandertals. Your roommate asks you if this is true, and you reply that
a. molecular geneticists are not qualified to talk about human origins because they lack information about the fossil record.
b. the mtDNA analysis is true but testing of nuclear DNA has found some similarities between Neandertals and modern humans.
c. there is no genetic or cultural evidence that Neandertals were anything like modern humans.
d. All of the above

Note: Although mtDNA analysis has found that Neandertals and modern humans are not closely related, mtDNA reflects only a small portion of the genome. Analysis of the nuclear DNA of one Neandertal individual, on the other hand, has shown some overlap with modern DNA, indicating there was gene flow between the two groups. Until more mtDNA and nuclear DNA analyses are done, however, we will not know for sure how much gene flow was present.

A valid critique of the Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans can be found in the fossil record, which shows that
a. modern variation originated in Africa based on the Herto skeleton.
b. Neandertals and modern Homo sapiens are not anatomically similar.
c. the Gran Dolina skeletons from Spain were cannibals.
d. All of the above

When they were first found, Neandertals were depicted as stupid, hairy, knuckle-dragging brutes. Evidence that refutes this depiction includes
a. the limb positioning of the La-Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal.
b. the hyoid bone of the Kebara Neandertal.
c. the 1,740cc brain of the Amud Neandertal.
d. All of the above

Neandertals were very similar to modern humans: they appear to have buried their dead, as indicated by the flexed burial position of the La-Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal; they could probably speak, as indicated by the hyoid bone of the Kebara Neandertal; and they were highly intelligent, as suggested by the large cranial capacity of the Amud Neandertal.

Some people think the reconstruction of Kennewick Man’s skull looks a bit like Patrick Stewart, the actor who played Captain Picard on Star Trek. The cranial morphology of Kennewick Man, however, shows
a. a long and narrow skull indicating a direct line to modern Native Americans.
b. a robust face and jaws that are not found in modern European men.
c. worn teeth generally associated with modern African women.
d. None of the above

Note: : Kennewick Man does have a long and narrow skull, but this cranial morphology is surprisingly different from that of modern Native Americans, who have short, round skulls and gracile faces and jaws. Although the reconstruction arguably makes Kennewick Man appear Caucasian, the morphology of his skull and jaws suggests large attachment sites for chewing muscles, which are not usually found in modern populations.

Physical anthropologists can understand human biological variation by looking at changes in:
a. genes
b. health
c. lifestyle
d. all of the above

For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report?
a. Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis.
b. Your report uses the scientific method.
c. Your report does not identify past literature on the topic.
d. Your report uses all four fields of anthropological inquiry.

Note: Using the scientific method, you would first create a hypothesis (e.g., the length of gorilla thighbones could provide information on the sex of the animal); then test your hypothesis (by measuring the thighbones); and then draw your conclusions (that males have longer thighbones than females do). In this example, your professor might be disappointed that you did not first state your hypothesis.

The four branches of anthropology are:
a. linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, and paleontology.
b. cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology.
c. paleontology, biological anthropology, physical anthropology, and linguistic anthropology.
d. physical anthropology, ethnography, cultural anthropology, and archaeology.

Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research?
a. sociolinguistics
b. interdisciplinary science
c. the biocultural approach
d. archaeological excavation

Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human _________.
a. bones / nature
b. evolution / variation
c. culture / language
d. pottery / stone tools

A physical anthropologist would study which of the following?
a. modern hunter-gatherers in Africa
b. skeletons from ancient Rome
c. primate behavior
d. all of the above

Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominid ancestors from apes. What is a possible reason for this?
a. Physical anthropologists do not study modern humans; they study only ancient hominids.
b. Human evolution occurs only in Africa and thus cannot help us to understand contemporary people.
c. Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival.
d. The origin of bipedal walking in our hominid ancestors is more important than variation in genes for disease-susceptibility among modern people.
Note: Although our hominid ancestors used tools and therefore depended on culture for survival, they also physically adapted to their environment over the long term. As modern humans, we have great control over our environment through cultural means; for example, heaters allow us to live in cold environments. Recent genetic changes tend to occur on a smaller scale than the monumental changes (such as bipedal walking) that are the hallmarks of humanness in our early ancestors. Some physical anthropologists are therefore less interested in modern genetic change.
Which of the fo

Which of the following would a physical anthropologist NOT study to learn more about humans?
a. pottery and stone tools
b. bones and teeth
c. disease and nutrition
d. genes and reproduction

___________ created the discipline of American anthropology.
a. Rudolf Virchow
b. Franz Boas
c. Margaret Mead
d. Alfred Kroeber

Which of the following is NOT a uniquely human activity?
a. gossiping with friends
b. making a bookshelf
c. growing corn
d. climbing a tree

A scientific hypothesis can:
a. predict future outcomes.
b. be refuted by new information.
c. help to explain observed phenomena.
d. all of the above

New research in Ethiopia in 2001 changed the way we think about human origins by demonstrating that the earliest hominids lived in:
a. wetlands.
b. grasslands.
c. woodlands.
d. none of the above

Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in their proper order?
a. Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis.
b. State a hypothesis; test the hypothesis; collect data; identify a problem.
c. Identify a problem; collect data; state a hypothesis; test the hypothesis.
d. Collect data; state a hypothesis; test the hypothesis; identify a problem.

Modern humans lost the typical primate honing-canine used for food processing because of which invention?
a. agriculture
b. stone tools
c. bipedalism
d. hunting

Your best friend’s great-uncle went missing in action during his Pacific tour of duty during World War II. Your friend wants to find out what happened to these enlisted men and women and to bring them home. What course of study would you suggest that your friend pursue in college?
a. cultural anthropology
b. ethnographic anthropology
c. bioarchaeology
d. forensic anthropology

Physical anthropologists study only Africa, where humans evolved.
a. true
b. false

Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present.
a. true
b. false

Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are equivalent.
a. true
b. false

The environment does not affect humans’ biological makeup.
a. true
b. false

A scientific theory is nothing more than a guess.
a. true
b. false

This naturalist spent five years on the HMS Beagle.
a. Georges Cuvier
b. Charles Darwin
c. Charles Lyell
d. Erasmus Darwin

Darwin studied species of ____________ in the ____________ Islands when coming up with his ideas about evolution.
a. turtles / Falkland
b. dinosaurs / Cyclades
c. finches / Galapagos
d. snakes / Seychelles

The “peppered” moths of northern England range from light-colored to dark-colored. During the Industrial Revolution, soot and smoke covered trees, and the peppered moth population became predominantly dark-colored, as these moths were better able to avoid predation by blending into their surroundings. This example illustrates which force of evolution?
a. Genetic drift
b. Mutation
c. Gene flow
d. Natural selection

In coming up with an idea of evolution, Darwin drew on information from
a. geology and paleontology.
b. taxonomy and systematics.
c. demography.
d. All of the above

Uniformitarianism, an important idea in geology, was proposed by these two scientists.
a. Hutton and Lyell
b. Cuvier and Darwin
c. Lamarck and Malthus
d. Linnaeus and Hooke

While home for winter break, you start telling your grandmother about your physical anthropology class. She once heard about a man who became a bodybuilder and then produced muscular children, and she asks you to explain how this could happen. You say that
a. inheritance of acquired characteristics is a fundamental tenet of Darwin’s theory of evolution.
b. this is an example of Lamarckism, which has some kernels of truth about evolution but is not a wholly accurate theory.
c. Malthus’s ideas about how food supply limits population growth mean that a bodybuilder will be more successful at procuring food and reproducing.
d. This illustrates Mendel’s idea that inherited traits are not blended.
Note: Lamarck’s theory of evolution, while it contained some ideas that are true to this day, also included an idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics. A muscular man passing along his muscles to his children or a giraffe stretching its neck to reach high leaves are canonical examples of Lamarckism.

The study of taxonomy was enriched by the work of
a. Carolus Linnaeus.
b. Thomas Malthus.
c. James Hutton.
d. All of the above

According to Linnean taxonomy, humans are in the genus and species
a. Homo neanderthalensis.
b. Homo habilis.
c. Homo sapiens.
d. Homo erectus.

Your cousin insists that he ran into your doppelganger—the spitting image of you— at the mall. You counter this assertion with your knowledge of physical anthropology by replying that
a. the principle of blending inheritance states that only siblings can look alike.
b. natural selection would not allow look-alikes to exist because of the risk of competition for food.
c. both Malthus and Darwin observed that variation exists within a species and no two members are exactly alike.
d. his assertion is based in Lamarckism, a highly discredited theory of evolution.

Note: Although two people can bear a striking resemblance to one another, particularly in the case of identical twins, there are sure to be small phenotypic differences in their appearance that differentiate them. Both Malthus and Darwin observed that no two individuals of a species are exactly alike.

The only source of new genetic material is
a. sexual reproduction.
b. DNA.
c. blending.
d. mutation.

Darwin believed that ________________ was the primary cause of evolution.
a. natural selection
b. mutation
c. genetics
d. fossil evidence

Darwin did not know about genes but believed that traits passed from parents to offspring by particles called
a. alleles.
b. gemmules.
c. blenders.
d. phenotypes.

Your history professor is interested in genealogy and tells your class that, on his mother’s side, he is descended from the original Amish population in Pennsylvania, a religious and insular group of people who tended to marry within their social circle. He also notes that many of his extended family members have the condition polydactyly, an extra finger or toe.

The high frequency of polydactyly in your professor’s ancestry is an example of _____ in the Pennsylvania Amish.
a. mutation
b. gene flow
c. genetic drift
d. natural selection


Note: In the 1744 migration of the Amish to Pennsylvania, two members of the population shared a recessive trait for polydactylism. Over time, the allele frequencies of the population changed and were magnified by the small size of the Amish population. This founder effect (when a small pool of alleles from the population’s founders influence the future genetic makeup of the population) is a well-documented case of genetic drift.

One of the theories put forth to explain the evolution of modern humans is that Homo sapiens arose more or less simultaneously in a variety of major geographical locales in the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) through interbreeding of populations. A criticism of this theory based on the forces of evolution is that
a. natural selection would have eliminated African Homo sapiens because of a lack of food on the continent.
b. random mutation would have created three different subspecies – European, African, and Asian Homo sapiens – that could not interbreed.
c. genetic drift says that the small populations of Homo sapiens that left Africa would have been more affected by a change in allele frequencies than the larger African population, so the European and Asian populations would be different from the African Homo sapiens.
d. there would have been insufficient gene flow among the relatively few Homo sapiens in the world to maintain a single gene pool.

Note: For Homo sapiens to arise simultaneously in three different areas of the world, there would have to be a significant amount of gene flow introduced through interbreeding of the populations. A criticism of the so-called multiregional evolution (which you will learn more about in chapter 12) is that there was insufficient gene flow among Homo erectus populations to evolve independently into Homo sapiens.

The four forces of evolution are
a. genetic drift, allele frequency, natural selection, and mutation.
b. gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and natural selection.
c. natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and demographic change.
d. mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and genotype.

In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes.
a. True
b. False

Note: The genotypes BB and Bb will both produce brown eyes because the B allele is dominant. Only with a genotype of bb will the child have blue eyes.

Darwin’s ideas about evolution and Mendel’s research in genetics are combined into what we now call the idea of blending inheritance.
a. True
b. False

Swine flu (H1N1) is the result of viral evolution.
a. True
b. False

Darwin’s ideas helped stimulate research in the fields of biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and physical anthropology.
a. True
b. False

Comparing the skeletons of Aegyptopithecus and Oreopithecus, two extinct species of primates, can provide physical anthropologists information about the human past.
a. True
b. False

The somatic type of eukaryotic cells makes up
a. bone and muscle.
b. skin and fat.
c. hair and brain.
d. All of the above

Human and chimpanzee DNA is about _________ similar.
Topic: n/a
a. 100%
b. 98%
c. 90%
d. 75%

You and your roommate learned that you shared the same maternal ancestor 15,000 years ago in Europe after doing a genetic analysis on your respective
a. mtDNA.
b. nuclear DNA.
c. mRNA.
d. SNPs.

Note: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) traces a person’s maternal line as it is inherited only from one’s mother. Two people’s maternal lines may converge as in this example, indicating a shared maternal ancestor at some point in the past.

If one side of the DNA ladder includes the sequence CTAATGT, the complementary base configuration for this sequence will be

Note: The DNA bases are complementary, meaning adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C). Replacing the letters in CTAATGT with their complements yields GATTACA.
As you’re waiti

As you’re waiting at the doctor’s office, you overhear another patient discussing with the doctor how unlucky he is to be going bald at such a young age. The doctor counters this assertion and explains that
a. it is not unlucky but rather unfortunate that we do not yet understand the cause of baldness.
b. luck has nothing to do with it; rather an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) can code for susceptibility to baldness, so his problem is genetic.
c. only men over the age of 50 go bald, so the patient is exaggerating.
d. baldness is common in Asian populations, so the patient must have Asian ancestry.
Note: Tendency to go bald is a genetically linked trait and one of the more than 350,000 SNPs that have been isolated in the human genome.

The human karyotype consists of ______ pairs of chromosomes.
a. 23
b. 46
c. 48
d. 24

If you wanted to sequence the genome of Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old “Iceman” mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you be most likely to use?
a. DNA
c. PCR
d. SNP

Note: To sequence ancient DNA, is it often necessary to amplify the little that remains. The most useful technique for amplifying ancient DNA is PCR – polymerase chain reaction.

Blocks of genetic material that do not recombine and are passed on for generations are called
a. phenotypes.
b. genotypes.
c. karyotypes.
d. haplotypes.

Structural proteins found in the human body are responsible for all of the following except
a. when you went through puberty.
b. the shape of your femur.
c. the size of your wisdom teeth.
d. whether your hair is straight or curly.

Note: Structural proteins help form a person’s physical attributes, like bone shape, tooth size, and hair form, whereas regulatory or functional proteins include hormones, which control puberty, menopause, and other changes

Regulatory or functional proteins include
a. lactase.
b. testosterone.
c. antibodies.
d. All of the above

In protein synthesis, ___________ refers to “unzipping” the DNA and ____________ refers to the formation of polypeptide chains.
Topic: n/a
a. division / replication
b. transcription / translation
c. meiosis / mitosis
d. translocation / nondisjunction

In RNA, _________ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base.
a. valine
b. cysteine
c. uracil
d. cytosine

During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a “freaks of nature” display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. You explain to your friend that this condition was likely caused by a mutation in the man’s
a. proteins.
b. haplogroups.
c. polypeptides.
d. homeotic genes.

Note – The homeotic or Hox genes control a person’s embryonic development. Mutations in the Hox genes can cause abnormalities in body development, such as differences in the placement of limbs. The “freak of nature” in the exhibit likely had a simple mutation in his Hox genes.

If a man and a woman who both have the AB blood phenotype have a child, the one blood type that child cannot have is
a. A.
b. B.
c. AB.
d. O.

Note: Parents with the AB phenotype can pass on either the A or the B allele to an offspring. The child of AB parents can then have the genotypes AA, BB, or AB, which translate into the phenotypes A, B, and AB. There is no way the child can have the OO genotype or the O phenotype.
Your friend w

Your friend who is also taking a physical anthropology class tells you over dinner one night that after learning about dominant and recessive traits, she is certain she is adopted, because
a. her father has a free-hanging earlobe, but she has an attached earlobe.
b. both of her parents can roll their tongues, but she cannot.
c. both of her parents have cleft chins, but she does not.
d. her mother has dimples, but she does not.

Note: To display a dominant trait like no cleft in the chin, at least one parent has to display that dominant trait. Your friend’s parents both have the recessive trait for cleft chin, meaning they could not have genetically passed on the dominant trait and are therefore almost certainly not her biological parents.

The largest organelles in a cell are the mitochondria.
a. True
b. False

The assertion that each parent provides one allele for any inherited trait is known as the Law of Segregation.
a. True
b. False

The potato and the guinea pig have more chromosomes than humans do.
a. True
b. False

An online article that your professor asked you to critique states that African Americans cannot contract malaria, even if they go to endemic areas, because of a genetic trait that confers protection from the disease. Your response is that this article is incorrect because
a. African Americans have lost the allele for normal red blood cells through genetic drift from their ancestral African population.
b. balanced polymorphism means that not all African Americans are heterozygous for the sickle cell trait.
c. protection from malaria cannot be conferred by genes.
d. African Americans are more likely to have thalassemia, which does not protect a person completely from contracting malaria.

Note: The heterozygous individuals for the sickle cell gene have a better chance of overcoming or not contracting malaria than both categories of homozygous individuals. This means that both alleles – the sickling allele and the normal allele – are maintained at a relatively constant frequency, indicating the heterozygote is a balanced polymorphism. As the homozygous people do not have protection against malaria, it is incorrect to make a blanket statement that all African Americans are immune from malaria.

Another name for a reproductive population is
a. deme.
b. species.
c. haplogroup.
d. genus.

Members of a population that can breed and produce viable offspring are considered to be of the same
a. allogroup.
b. matriline.
c. patriline.
d. species.

If 70% of the hypothetical population passed along allele B, the dominant allele for brown eyes, and 30% passed along allele b, the recessive allele for blue eyes, the proportion of the subsequent generation with brown eyes would be ___________ given Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Topic: n/a
a. 28%
b. 70%
c. 91%
d. 99%

Note: The Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium states that p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. In this formula, you would let p equal the proportion of the population passing along allele B (.7) and q equal the proportion passing along b (.3). Solving for the equation gives genotypes of .49 (BB), .42 (Bb), and .09 (bb). Brown eyes are dominant, meaning this phenotype is expressed in the BB and Bb genotypes; therefore, 91% of the new generation has brown eyes.
At Thanksgivin

At Thanksgiving dinner, your dad tells the old story about how your great-grandmother’s longevity was related to a daily breakfast of coffee and grapefruit plus broccoli every night with dinner. No one else in your extended family lived to over 100 like she did, and your dad insists that this is because everyone else in the family has failed in their attempt to follow her diet plan. You speak up this Thanksgiving and offer your hypothesis that the dietary failure of the subsequent generations suggests that
a. your great-grandmother was a PTC-nontaster whereas everyone else in your family can taste PTC.
b. everyone else in the family is affected by balanced polymorphism, where they have evolved genes to be healthier during life no matter what they eat but also have a shortened lifespan.
c. natural selection has removed the genes that code for adherence to a dietary regime from the recent generations of your family.
d. changes in farming practices have adversely affected the quality and taste of coffee, grapefruit, and broccoli over the past few generations.

Note: Individuals who are homozygous recessive for the PTC-tasting gene cannot taste this chemical. Although PTC is not found in food, the chemicals in foods such as coffee, grapefruit, and broccoli produce a similar bitter flavor in people who can taste PTC. Your grandmother was likely a PTC-nontaster and enjoyed eating these foods without a bitter aftertaste. The remainder of your family is likely heterozygous or homozygous dominant for the gene, meaning eating these foods several times a day every day would be unpalatable. There is likely no link between your great-grandmother’s longevity and these specific diet foods, although pointing this out may make you unpopular at family gatherings.

The two main types of mutations are
a. synonymous and nonsynonymous.c
b. frameshift and transposable.
c. spontaneous and induced.
d. point and synonymous.

The three patterns of natural selection are
a. one-way, disruptive, and stabilizing.
b. disruptive, equilibrium, and directional.
c. mutation, stabilizing, and directional.
d. stabilizing, directional, and disruptive.

Which of the following abnormalities is not linked to malaria?
a. Sickle-cell anemia
b. Leucism
c. Thalassemia
d. Favism

Your cousin just started a part-time job at a blood bank. He tells you that a surprisingly large number of Native Americans come in to donate blood. You explain to him that, based on what you learned in physical anthropology class, this is not all that surprising because
a. owing to a founder effect, many Native American populations have high frequencies of the O blood type.
b. gene flow between Native Americans and European Americans but not vice versa means that Natives are the universal donors.
c. the AB blood type was selected for in the Native American population as a genetic adaptation in response to the smallpox that Europeans brought.
d. many Native American lands are on toxic waste dumps that cause a higher frequency of mutations and result in a high proportion of people with the A blood type.

Founder effect: a special kind of genetic drift, p. 112. In chapter 3, you learned that the O blood type is the universal donor, meaning people with A, AB, and B blood types, in addition to O, can receive O blood. Due to a founder effect in the gene pool of Native Americans, in many places the frequency of the O blood type is nearly 100%. Your cousin noticed that many Native Americans were coming in to donate blood because many of them are universal donors.

Huntington’s chorea is a genetically linked debilitating degenerative disorder with an onset usually after the fourth decade of life. The reason that this disease has not been eliminated through natural selection and is actually quite prevalent among communities in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, is
a. the mutated gene is recessive and therefore tough to eliminate from a population.
b. the onset of the disease after prime childbearing years means it is largely unaffected by natural selection.
c. gene flow between the populations around Lake Maracaibo and European settlers maintains the gene in a balanced polymorphism.
d. there has not been enough time since the introduction of the disease for genetic drift to isolate the gene.

Note: Since Huntington’s occurs generally after humans’ prime childbearing years, people continue to pass on the gene that causes this condition. In the populations of Lake Maracaibo, genetic drift has contributed to the frequency of Huntington’s because a majority of the people are descended from a woman who had carried the allele.

At the end of last semester, your professor had a baby. In class, she notes that her baby weighed 7.2 lbs at birth. The other babies in the nursery that week weighed 7.0 lbs, 6.8 lbs, 9.2 lbs, 7.5 lbs, and 7.3 lbs. When she asks what phenomenon this pattern of birth weights represents, you raise your hand and correctly answer
a. no selection.
b. disruptive selection.
c. directional selection.
d. stabilizing selection.

Note: Baby birth weight is an excellent example of stabilizing selection, which favors the average version of a trait. Babies that are too light may need medical intervention to survive, and babies that are too heavy may cause complications with delivery. Stabilizing selection keeps these problems at either end of the weight spectrum to a minimum.

The case of the peppered moth and industrial melanism during the Industrial Revolution in England illustrates
a. directional selection favoring the nonmelanic over the melanic form of the moth.
b. greater fitness of the nonmelanic form of the moth.
c. change in frequency of the nonmelanic genotype.
d. All of the above

Note: The nonmelanic genotype frequency changed during the Industrial Revolution as those moths were more prone to predation and thus were taken out of the gene pool. The genotype frequency favored the melanic form of the moth, which had better fitness.

The genotype that confers protection against malaria while allowing an individual to survive and reproduce is
a. AA.
b. AS.
c. SS.
d. All of the above

Compared to the normal male karyotype, a man affected by Klinefelter’s syndrome has
a. one more Y chromosome.
b. an extra X and an extra Y chromosome.
c. two extra X chromosomes.
d. one more X chromosome.

Note: A man with Klinefelter’s syndrome has a total of 47 chromosomes, as he has an additional X chromosome compared to normal males.

opulations in which reproduction within the group is encouraged are called
a. endogamous.
b. exogamous.
c. bigamous.
d. polygamous.

The gene pool includes only the beneficial traits in a population.
a. True
b. False

A change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next is an example of evolution.
a. True
b. False

Lactase deficiency is the most common protein deficiency in the world.
a. True
b. False

Mutation is the only source of new genetic material.
a. True
b. False

Recent research indicates malaria was present in the Americas prior to Columbus.
a. True
b. False

The different appearance of these two (melanic and nonmelanic) moths illustrates a change in _____________ caused by _______________.
a. phenotype/ genetic drift
b. genotype/ gene flow
c. phenotype/ directional selection
d. genotype/ mutation

significant genetic change in horses over millions of years, which is also called
a. directional evolution.
b. nondirectional evolution.
c. microevolution.
d. macroevolution

The concept of race began
a. with the ancient Greeks.
b. during the Renaissance.
c. in antebellum America.
d. when the Romans discovered Egypt.

In the 1700s, _____________ developed a scientific classification of race.
a. Lewontin
b. Linnaeus
c. Boas
d. Blumenbach

Frank Livingstone, a noted physical anthropologist, is famous for having said about human diversity in appearance: “There are no _________; there are only ___________.”
a. skin colors / races
b. clines / variations
c. races / clines
d. phenotypes / genotypes

In high school, your parents insisted that you were an adolescent and therefore incapable of living an adult life. You argued, on the other hand, that although you were not yet 18,
a. the onset of puberty had already signaled your adult reproductive capabilities.
b. your brain was already full size.
c. your complete permanent dentition meant you could eat all adult food.
d. All of the above
Note: By the adolescent stage of development, most people have at least started their pubertal transition to an adult body and generally have a full-size brain and all their permanent teeth (save, perhaps, the wisdom teeth). There is therefore a difference between the “adult” growth stage that physical anthropologists talk about and “being an adult,” which is a more amorphous cultural concept.

The medullary cavity of a bone exists in the
a. diaphysis.
b. epiphysis.
c. growth plate.
d. minerals.

One of your classmates asks you for your notes from physical anthropology class. She says she was absent because her mother broke her hip and needed help around the house. This is not the first time the student has been absent for this reason. What would you ask her in an attempt to figure out if her mother is predisposed to osteoporosis?
a. Has your mother already gone through menopause?
b. Is your mother a heavy smoker?
c. Does your mother take a calcium supplement?
d. All of the above

Note: There are several factors that can predispose someone to osteoporosis, including (as mentioned in the textbook) smoking, hormone fluctuations, and lack of calcium necessary for good bone health.

The period of time from about 20 years old to the end of the reproductive years is called
a. prime.
b. adolescence.
c. senescence.
d. None of the above

Your older sister recently had a baby and is confused about when she should wean her daughter. Based on what you learned in physical anthropology class about the timing and characteristics of life history stages in humans, you tell her that
a. she should wean your niece by 6 weeks of age.
b. the neonatal period is the ideal time for weaning.
c. weaning marks the transition to juvenile status.
d. None of the above

Note: Breastfeeding is generally encouraged for 6-¬12 months or longer; weaning takes place at a variety of times but tends to be complete by about 2 to 3 years old, or the transition from infancy to childhood.

According to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules, all of the following are true except
a. the Berbers of Morocco have long limbs to dissipate heat.
b. the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed.
c. the Yupik of Alaska have short, squat bodies to retain heat.
d. the Igbo of Nigeria have narrow bodies.

Note: These rules say that people who live in warm climates are likelier to have long limbs and a higher surface-area-to-body ratio than those who live in cold climates, to better dissipate heat. The incorrect response is thus that the Inuit, who live in a cold climate, are tall and long-limbed.

The disease rickets, which affects bone mineralization, results from a deficiency in
a. vitamin A.
b. vitamin B.
c. vitamin C.
d. vitamin D.

There is an old adage that “a fat baby is a healthy baby.” A critique of this statement might be that
a. the health of an infant is based on the health of the mother and her breast milk.
b. large baby body size is healthy only in cold climates.
c. baby fat can prevent the body from synthesizing vitamin D, leading to rickets.
d. overnutrition is linked to an increase in diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure.

Done: With the increased ability to produce inexpensive food that is high in calories and fat, many developed countries, including theUnited States, have a major problem with obesity or overnutrition. Infants need greater fat stores than adults, but the trend in overnutrition reaches down to even this age group. In the past, a fat baby represented a well-fed baby; in the present, a fat baby could be an overnourished baby.

One of your classmates moved to the United States from Somalia as a kid in the late 1990s. After seeing a picture of his family, you notice that he and his sister must have been undernourished for several years. You arrive at this conclusion because
Topic: n/a
a. your classmate always brings a large sandwich to class.
b. your classmate and his sister are both much shorter than their parents.
c. your classmate has brown hair, while his sister has black hair.
d. your classmate and his sister are both obese.

Note: The picture of your classmate and his family showed that he and his sister were much shorter than their parents. Height is a sensitive indicator of diet and health, and you conclude that he and his sister must have been undernourished for a period of time during their childhood development, perhaps as a result of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s that disrupted agriculture and food distribution in the country.

A gradual change in phenotype over a geographical area is called a
a. cline.
b. race.
c. divergence.
d. group.

A major criticism that can be leveled against Johann Blumenbach’s racial typology is that
a. he only had two major categories: light skinned people and dark-skinned people.
b. Mongoloids and Malays are geographically close together and therefore should not be separate races.
c. his five types did not take into account thousands of years of human evolution.
d. his taxonomy was not Linnaean in nature.

Note: Blumenbach conflated modern people with ancient people in creating his taxonomy. In the early 1900s, Franz Boas finally showed that human biology is not static over time and that it is difficult to apply the Linnaean taxonomic approach to humans.

The growth and development of females is more sensitive to stressors in the environment than the growth and development of males.
a. True
b. False

Human adaptation occurs at four levels: genetic, developmental, acclimatization, and cultural.
a. True
b. False

Hair loss and sweating are both thermoregulatory adaptations to heat in humans.
a. True
b. False

Vasoconstriction results in the red face of a person in a hot environment.
a. True
b. False

In general, populations living between 0-20°N latitude have the darkest skin color.
a. True
b. False

Which of the following is not true of primates?
a. Primates are adapted to live in diverse climates.
b. Primates inhabit every continent.
c. Primates eat many different foods.
d. Primates spend time with their offspring.

On a visit to the zoo, you overhear a teacher telling a young student that the chimpanzees climb and swing on branches because
a. their inability to move bipedally requires them to stay in the trees.
b. their good sense of touch lets them grip trees.
c. their poor sense of smell means moving around on the ground is dangerous.

Note: Primates have an enhanced sense of touch, which allows them (and us) to feel the shape of objects, such as potential food items, as well as to grab and grip both small and large objects.

Visual differences between primates and other animals include
a. overlapping vision fields.
b. eyes on the side of the head.
c. monochromatic vision.
d. All of the above

The dental formula for Old World primates, including humans, is
a. 3 / 1 / 3 / 3.
b. 2 / 1 / 3 / 3.
c. 2 / 1 / 2 / 3.
d. 3 / 1 / 4 / 3.

Primates’ enhanced ___________ led to a reduced sense of ___________.
a. hearing / smell
b. vision / touch
c. hearing / vision
d. vision / smell

The fact that humans are related to chimpanzees can be seen in Linnaean taxonomy, where both are
a. in the superfamily Hominoidea.
b. from the family Cercopithecidae.
c. of the suborder Prosimii.
d. All of the above

Your sister calls you crying because she just hit an animal with her car and she thinks it was a ring-tailed lemur. You calm her down by saying that
Topic: n/a
a. she should not worry about it because lemurs are not endangered.
b. lemurs are extinct, so she definitely did not hit one.
c. lemurs exist in the wild only in Madagascar, so she probably hit a raccoon.
d. of all the primates, only lemurs are afraid of asphalt and would not be in the road.

Note: Lemurs are endangered but are not yet extinct. They are found in the wild only in Madagascar (although there are zoos and primate centers around the world with lemurs in captivity), so your sister most likely hit a raccoon, which can be mistaken for a ring-tailed lemur.

Anthropoids differ from prosimians in all the following ways except that they
a. have larger brains than prosimians.
b. have more teeth than prosimians.
c. are more sexually dimorphic than prosimians.
d. see in color, and prosimians do not.

Hominoids include
a. orangutans.
b. chimpanzees.
c. gorillas.
d. All of the above

One of your friends is originally from Ecuador. When he was a kid, he would sneak into the forest and watch howler monkeys. On one of these trips, though, he insists that he and his friends found a human skull. As he describes it, you realize it was not human because
a. it lacked a sagittal crest.
b. the eye sockets were at the front of the face rather than on the side.
c. the foramen magnum was not located at the bottom of the skull.
d. All of the above

Note: Human skulls have a large hole (the foramen magnum, into which the spinal cord passes) directly at the base of the skull. This allows the skull to balance on top of the body, which is necessary in bipedal walking. The placement of the foramen magnum is therefore a clear indicator of whether an animal was quadrupedal like a howler monkey or bipedal like a human.

Primates that are adapted for eating large amounts of plants and leaves can be distinguished by their
a. sagittal crests.
b. incisor-like canines.
c. lack of a diastema.
d. tooth combs.

Note: The sagittal crest anchors the temporalis muscle, a major muscle in mastication. Gorillas and other primates that spend a lot of time chewing plants and leaves tend to have a sagittal crest resulting from their constant use of their c

At the primate exhibit at the zoo, you notice a slew of monkeys dangling from branches by their tails. The information plaque notes that they are colobus, gibbons, and orangutans. When you read this, you immediately seek out the zookeeper to complain about the error because
a. gibbons cannot live with colobus monkeys and orangutans.
b. none of those monkeys have prehensile tails.
c. all three species of monkey are extinct.
d. these monkeys are all bipedal.

Only New World monkeys have the prehensile tails necessary to hang upside down from a tree. The zookeeper has made an error in identifying the monkeys on display.

It is possible to tell an ape skeleton from a human skeleton based on
a. the position of the foramen magnum.
b. the shape of the pelvis.
c. the length of the limbs.
d. All of the above

According to British anatomist Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, the main tendencies that help to define what a primate is include:
a. parental investment; similar dental specializations; and small brains.
b. prehensile fingers, toes, and tails; dietary plasticity; and enhanced sense of vision.
c. the ability to eat a wide variety of foods; investing time and effort into offspring; and adaptations to life in the trees.
d. All of the above

The teeth of Old World monkeys and apes differ in that
a. apes have a Y-5 pattern of cusps, whereas Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern.
b. Old World monkeys have a 2/1/3/3 dental formula, whereas apes have 2/1/2/3.
c. apes have a tooth comb, but Old World monkeys do not.
d. Old World monkeys have a diastema, whereas apes do not.

Whereas apes have a Y-5 tooth pattern, Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern. Both have a 2/1/2/3 dental formula and a diastema, and neither have tooth combs.

Fingerprints help enhance primates’ sense of touch.
a. True
b. False

All primates have opposable toes.
a. True
b. False

Male primates use their canines for eating food and for scaring enemies.
a. True
b. False

Hominoids do not have tails.
a. True
b. False

One of the main differences observable between human dentition and the dentition of other primates is humans’ lack of a/an
a. diastema.
b. loph.
c. occlusion.
d. cusp.

According to the map of primate distribution throughout the world, there are no primates in
a. Asia.
b. Antarctica.
c. Europe.
d. South America.

During an internship at the Jane Goodall Institute, you are tasked with observing the residence patterns of the chimpanzees in Gombe National Park. At the end of the summer, you have learned all of the chimps’ names and have recorded all of the following groups of chimps living together except
a. Lulu, Butch, Rocky, and Paco.
b. Athena, Cindy, Kay, and Lulu.
c. Butch, Cindy, Athena, and Lulu.
d. Butch, Rocky, Paco, and Simon.
The only social grouping that primates do not generally exhibit in the wild is a multifemale residence pattern. You saw the patterns of one-female, multimale (answer a); one-male, multifemale (answer c); and all-male (answer d).

The key factor(s) that contribute to a female primate’s success at feeding include
a. food quality.
b. distribution of food.
c. food availability.
d. All of the above

Which of the following is true about chimpanzee tool use?
a. Chimpanzees interact with the environment using only their bodies.
b. Chimpanzee material culture is not useful for understanding past humans.
c. Chimpanzees use tools mostly for acquiring food.
d. Chimpanzees do not make tools.

Researchers have found that many primates can learn how to fashion tools and pass this information along to younger members of their society, indicating other primates may tell us more about ancient humans’
a. material culture.
b. hunting cooperation.
c. sexual reproduction.
d. group parenting.

When there is competition among primates for mates,
a. females may form an all-female residence pattern.
b. males may learn to use tools.
c. females may produce more offspring.
d. males may become larger.

The primate residence pattern of one-female, multimale can also be described as
a. monogamous.
b. polyandrous.
c. polygynous.
d. polygamous.

At the primate habitat at the zoo, your friend comments that the orangutans seem to be monogamous or mated for life. You take one look at these apes and assert that you friend is wrong when
a. the male orangutan bares his large canines and rears up to show he is twice the size of the female.
b. the female orangutan takes her offspring and runs away.
c. the male orangutan steals food from the female.
d. the female orangutan bangs on the glass.

Note: In primate species, sexual dimorphism and residence pattern are related. There is less sexual dimorphism between male and female primates that typically enter into monogamous pairings, whereas there is a greater amount of sexual dimorphism in primates such as orangutans, which tend to be solitary. Orangutan males tend to be about twice the size of females and have large canines; when you noted the disparity in body size, you were easily able to correct your friend’s misconception about the residence pattern of orangutans.

Dominance hierarchies among female primates are especially important with respect to
a. resources for raising offspring.
b. access to mates.
c. food procurement.
d. All of the above

While swimming in the ocean with your friends, one of them starts to struggle to stay above the water. Your other friend braves a strong undertow, and both emerge safely on the beach. When the lifeguard arrives, he chastises your friend for brazenly jumping into the surf, but you praise your friend’s instincts, noting that
a. putting one’s life at risk for a friend is a legal obligation.
b. watching a friend drown would have reduced the collective fitness of the group.
c. cooperative behaviors such as altruism have a long history in both human and primate societies.
d. predation by sharks has a deleterious effect on those human social groups that reside near the beach.

Note: By putting his life at risk to save someone else, your friend has demonstrated altruism. Altruistic acts have been observed in primate and human societies and also include giving warning calls, grooming, sharing food, and taking care of children and the elderly.

Chimpanzees are known to hunt other animals for their meat. A chimpanzee group will have the most success in which of the following scenarios?
a. Ten juvenile chimps go in search of a baboon.
b. A solitary male chimp tracks a bushbuck.
c. Five female chimps split up and separately hunt bushpigs.
d. A dozen male chimps hunt juvenile red colobus monkeys.
Note: While a solitary adult male chimp may have about a 33% success rate catching another animal, a group of ten or more males will have nearly a 100% success rate. Additionally, chimps appear to prefer (or are preferentially able to capture) red colobus monkeys, particularly the juveniles of the group, so answer d represents the scenario that maximizes the chimps’ chances of capturing food.

Female primates with good nutrition have
a. offspring at later ages.
b. shorter intervals between birth of offspring.
c. less healthy offspring.
d. a shorter life span.

A female primate has a better chance of feeding herself and her young when
a. large patches of fruit-bearing trees dot the landscape.
b. she lives in a temperate climate.
c. she can easily find mature trees and grasses.
d. All of the above
Note: everybody needs it, but the burden is on mom, p. 201. Primate feeding success is based on food quality, distribution, and availability. Food is more consistently available in equatorial (tropical) regions of the world, and food from young leaves and grasses is easily digestible, so answers b and c are incorrect. Answer a implies good distribution of food resources in the landscape and thus represents the best chance of a primate feeding herself and her young.

Primate behavior studies targeting the mother/infant bond suggest that
a. physical development in infants with wire surrogate mothers is slowed.
b. infants will choose to starve rather than to take milk from a wire surrogate mother.
c. growing up with a wire surrogate mother causes infants to lack social skills.
d. primate behavior is all “nature” with no input from “nurture.”

Note; Harlow’s studies have shown that primates that grow up without a mother will be physically normal but socially abnormal, indicating primate behavior is the result of both nature (i.e., genetics) and nurture (i.e., how a primate was raised).

During a class presentation on communication among apes, your classmate makes an error while listing examples of this behavior. Based on your knowledge of primate communication in general, which of the following is incorrect?
a. Diana monkeys can modify other species’ words.
b. Diana monkeys can count to five by stomping on the ground.
c. Chimpanzees grasp one another’s hand during grooming.

Note: Primate communication involves visual, tactile, auditory, and chemical channels. All of the examples except answer b fit in with the way that primates generally communicate.

During your first week as an intern at Gombe National Park, you fail to spot any chimpanzees, even in areas replete with food that the chimps are known to frequent. Dejected, you tell your supervisor, who reassures you that it will get better when
a. the female chimpanzees return to the area after giving birth in the next jungle.
b. chimpanzee hunting season is over.
c. the chimpanzees become habituated to your presence.
d. a smarter generation of chimpanzees is born.

Note: It may take months, as it did Jane Goodall, to let the chimpanzees get used to your presence, especially if they have not seen many humans before. Once the chimps have habituated themselves to your presence, you will likely see more of them and will see them more frequently.

Natural selection is related to primate communication in that
a. the fittest members of a group will have the strongest vocal chords.
b. primates that cannot communicate verbally will be ostracized by their group.
c. the ability to communicate allows primates to pass on information necessary for survival.
d. the calls that primates make have been honed through the millennia by selection against deleterious semantics.

Natural selection, in short, favors any primate behavior that enhances survival and reproduction. One key behavior we have learned about is the ability to communicate. Communication of information about food, danger, and other factors affecting a primate’s life is therefore a beneficial trait, and it is thought that natural selection favors primate communication.

The average life span of humans is about
a. twice as long as other primates’.
b. 90 years.
c. one-third as long as lemurs’.
d. three times as long as chimpanzees’.

The average human lives around 70 years, which is nearly twice as long as chimps (with an average lifespan of 44 years) and more than twice as long as gibbons and lemurs.

A polygynous primate society will tend to have a residence pattern of
a. one-female, multimale.
b. one-male, multifemale.
c. one-male, one-female.
d. all-female.

Sometimes male primates will kill infant primates
a. to gain access to receptive, fertile females.
b. as practice for killing adult primates.
c. if there are too many male infants born in a particular year.
d. as a way to advance in an all-male group.

Chimpanzees have been trained to communicate with humans through
a. English.
b. charades.
c. American Sign Language.
d. pantomime.

Grooming involves:
the development of alliances between males only.
bonding between individuals of the same rank, picking through the skin and hair of another individual.
bonding between two members of a social group, calming or appeasing the primate being groomed if he or she has a higher dominance.
the development of alliances between females only.

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