Anth – Flashcard Essay

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1. In the textbook, anthropology is defined as the study of
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The study of human nature, society, and past
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Holism in anthropology is defined in the text as
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A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that describes, at the highest and most inclusive level, how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities
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To say that anthropology is comparative means that
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a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similiarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature, society, or past
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4An anthropologist studying a social group observes that people shake hands when greeting one another and concludes that handshaking is universal among human beings. This study is faulty because the anthropologist has not been
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comparative
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5. According to the text, evolution may be understood broadly as
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a characteristic of the anthropological persective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, society, or past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time
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According to the text, culture consists of
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sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society toether with the material artifacts and structures that human beings create and use. Human beings use culture ot adapt and transform the world in which they live.
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7. Studying material culture is important to anthropologists because
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the objects created or shaped by human beings are given meaning by cultural practices
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8. When anthropologists say that human beings are biocultural organisms, they mean that
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Organisms whose defining features are codetermined by biological and cultural factors
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9. Biological anthropologists are interested in
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what makes us different from or similar to other animals
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10. By the early twentieth century, some anthropologists and biologists concluded that the concept of “race” was
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social groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences
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11. The people of society X believe that the people of society Y are inherently inferior to them biologically and prevent them from gaining access to a high level of education and other resources. According to the text, this is an example of
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racism
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12. The anthropological research methodology called participant observation is characterized by
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living in a culture that is not ones own, while observing and recording details
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13. A description of a particular culture is called an
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ethnography
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14. A comparative study of many cultures is called
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ethnology
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15. In a world in which people from different cultural backgrounds come into contact with one another for extended periods, anthropology offers a
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solution to cultural misunderstanding
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16. The roles, activities, and characteristics that a culture assigns to each sex are known as
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gender roles
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17. Anthropologists use the term “gender” to refer to
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the cultural constructions of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex
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18. Most anthropologists reject single-cause explanations of human behavior. Instead, they employ a perspective that is
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19. Globalization is defined by anthropologists as
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the reshaping of local conditions by powerful global forces on an ever intensifying scale
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20. Anthropologists who explore the interconnections among sociocultural, political, economic, and historical conditions that make scientific research both possible and successful are contributing to the field of
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science studies
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1. Evolutionary theory is based on a set of
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material evidence
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2. In your text, evolution is defined as
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the process of change over time
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3. For modern biologists, a species is defined as
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a reproductive community of populations (reproductively isolated from others) that occupies a specific niche in nature
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4. The notion that natural disasters, such as floods, are responsible for the extinction of species, which are then replaced by new species, is known as
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catastrophism
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5. The notion that an understanding of current processes can be used to reconstruct the past history of the earth is known as
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uniformitarianism
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6. The argument that each individual member of a species transforms itself to meet the challenges of a changed environment through the laws of use and disuse and inheritance of acquired characters was made primarily by
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Lamarck
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7. The panda’s elongated wrist bone or “thumb” would be explained by Lamarck’s theory in which of the following ways?
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The pandas would be forced to exercise their thumb bone, and give birth to pandas with strong thumbs
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8. The panda’s elongated wrist bone or “thumb” would be explained by Darwin’s theory in which of the following ways?
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Pandas with larger wrist bones would be more likely to survive, thus reproduce
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9. Which of the following is NOT an element of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?
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Dank memes
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10. In Darwinian terms, who are the fit?
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The ones who reproduce
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11. In modern terms, Mendel’s principle of independent assortment holds that
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a principle of Medielian inheritance in which each pair of particles (genes) for each trait (i.e., one-half of the required pair) from each parent.
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12. Define homozygous and heterozygous
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homozygous: a fertilized egg that receives the same particle or allele from each parent for a particular trait heterozygous: a fertilized egg that receives a different particle or allele from each parent for a particular trait
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13. In genetics, the phenomenon known as crossing over occurs when
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part of one chromosome breaks off and reattaches itself to a different chromosome during meiosis; also called incomplete linkage
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14. A fertilized egg that receives the same allele from each parent for a particular trait is referred to as being
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homozygous
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15. A fertilized egg that receives a different allele from each parent for the same trait is referred to as being
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heterozygous
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16. All the different forms that a particular gene might take are known as
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Alleles
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17. That the allele that gives human red blood cells increased resistance to malarial parasites also reduces the amount of oxygen those cells can carry demonstrates
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mutation
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18. Mutations that neither help nor harm an organism are called
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neutral
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19. Define genotype and phenotype.
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Genotype: the genetic information about particular biological traites encoded in an organism’s DNA Phenotype: The observable, measurable over characteristics of an organism.
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1. The subfield of evolutionary studies that devotes attention to short-term evolutionary changes is
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microevolution
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2. Which of the following statements about the concept of “species” is correct?
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a distinct segment of an evolutionary lineage. Different biologists, working with living and fossil organisms, have devised different criteria to identify boundaries between species.
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3. All of the genes in the bodies of all members of a given species or population make up a
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gene pool
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4. The field that focuses on the study of short-term evolutionary change in a given species is known as
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5. Which of the following is used to describe alleles that come in a range of different forms?
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polymorphous
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6. The distribution of skin pigmentation from the poles to the equator forms a
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cline
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7. According to the text, if humanity cannot be divided into a series of genetically distinct units, then
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race doesn’t exist
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8. Following the completion of the Human Genome Project, a new race concept seems to be developing, based on the classification of
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genotypes
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9. According to Nadia Abu El-Haj, some biomedical researchers in the United States use racial groups as surrogates for individuals who consider themselves to be members of such groups. Why?
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To determine risk for diseases
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10. Anthropologists like Nadia Abu El-Haj and John Hartigan have pointed out that many African Americans view medical research and drug trials in which they are involved to be
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a long overdue biomedical justice
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11. Gene frequencies may be altered if a given population begins to interbreed with another population of the same species. This is known as
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geneflow
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12. Which of the following is an example of genetic drift?
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less frequent geno/phenotypes
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13. Assume that in a small population, 15% of the people are blue-eyed and have brown hair. Assume further that within this population there is an adventurous group that wishes to explore the region and settle down in new territory. Of this adventurous group, 87% are blue-eyed and have brown hair. When they leave, the gene frequencies in the remaining population will change for blue eyes and brown hair in the next generation. This is an example of
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genetic drift
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14. The physiological flexibility that allows organisms to respond to environmental stresses, such as temperature change, is called
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phenotypic plasticity
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15. The example of the sickle cell genotype illustrates
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16. When variations in skin color of indigenous populations of the world are plotted on a map,
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lighter the further away from the equator
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17. Which of the following features are connected with variation in human skin color?
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18. Why is it that scores on IQ tests do not demonstrate racial differences in intelligence?
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Hard to measure intelligence, IQ tests measure cultural intelligence
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19. A change in the way the body functions as a result of physical stress is called
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acclimitization
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20. The process by which one species gradually transforms itself into a new species over time is called
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macroevolution
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21. The theory of punctuated equilibrium is based on the observation that
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equilibrium is interrupted by bursts of speciation
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1. The term used in textbook for physical shape and size of an organism or its body parts is its
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morphology
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2. Wings on birds and bats are an example of
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homoplasy
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3. Genetic inheritance due to common ancestry is called
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homology
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4. What a species eats, how it finds mates, raises its young, relates to companions, and protects itself from predators is known as its
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ecological niche
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5. When males and females of the same species show observable phenotypic differences in, for example, size, the species is said to show
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sexual dimorphism
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6. The form of vision in binocular animals which produces depth perception is known as
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stereoscopic
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7. Which of the following primate groups apparently uses sexual behavior to manipulate relationships rather than to increase reproductive rates?
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Bonobos
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8. Which of the following is NOT an ancestral characteristic of primates?
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vestigial tail
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9. Which of the following is NOT an evolutionary trend in the primate order?
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10. Which of the following has NOT been offered as an explanation for the anatomical attributes of the earliest primates?
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11. Strepsirrhini include
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Mouse lemurs, lemurs, galagos
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12. Haplorhini include
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squirrel monkeys, marmosets, titi monkeys
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13. Which of the following statements about macaques is correct?
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14. Some biological anthropologists object to classifying chimpanzees and humans into the same family, Hominidae, because
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15. The largest of the Oligocene fossil anthropoids is called
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Aegyptopithecus zeuxis
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16. Bilophodont molars are now believed to be
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later developments in old world monkeys
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17. The first hominoids appeared in
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the miocene in africa
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18. Which of the following features correctly describes Proconsul heseltoni?
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about the size of a moddern gibbon, apelike, but its trunk arm and hand resembles those of modern monkeys. fruit eating, tree dwelling, four feet, proto ape

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