ANTH EXAM #2

hypodescent
aka “one drop rule”; used for determining race
phenotype
The way genes are expressed in a person’s physical form as the result of genotype interaction with environmental factors refers to a
institutional racism
Patterns by which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems
miscegenation
A historical term meant to belittle and vilify “mixed” marriages
racialization
People from the Middle East have been considered “white” in the United States for some time, but since September 11, anyone with brown skin who seems foreign or strange is now considered “different” and possibly an enemy. This is an example of:
racialization
To apply stereotypical traits to a group of people based on their “racial” ancestry is called
Jim Crow
laws implemented after the US Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South, after the end of slavery
clinal
Despite different societies’ efforts to divide people into different biologically discrete groups, genetic evidence shows that human variation is
nation
used in

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the past to describe a group of people but now refers to a country
multiculturalism
Some ethnic groups in the United States have adopted certain parts of American culture but still maintain some parts of their distinct ethnic culture. This is referred to as
situational negotiation of identity
Since ethnicity is not biologically fixed, self-identification with a particular ethnic group can change through what process?
nation-state
Swedish people share a common language, culture, and ideals; therefore, Sweden—the country they live in—illustrates the concept of a
situational negotiation of identity
An individual’s self-identification with a particular group that can shift according to social location is known as
ethnogenesis
The Tutsi and Hutu originally considered themselves a single group of people differing primarily by occupation; however, the Belgium colonial administration began treating the pastoral Tutsi people as different and superior to the Hutu farmers. Eventually, these two groups of people began to see each other as different as well. This is an example of
ethnic boundary markers
Most ethnic groups establish traits that set them apart from others and identify members of their own group. These are known as
multiculturalism
The process though which new immigrants and their children enculturate into the dominant national culture but retain a distinct ethnic culture is referred to as
origin myth
The text notes that the stories of the Mayflower, the first Thanksgiving, the Boston Tea Party, the American Revolution, and the settling of the West are retold to emphasize a shared destiny as well as the values of freedom, exploration, and individualism. These illustrate the concept of a(n)
gender equality and empower women
Among the eight UN Millennial Goals, one that highlights gender issues specifically is to promote
residence
Victims of gender-based violence are most likely to be assaulted in a
hijras
Individuals whose culture identifies them as “neither man nor women” in India are called
stereotypes
The phrases “boys will be boys” and “it’s a girls’ thing” reflect gender _________
15 percent
On average, human men weigh ________ more than women
nannies
According to the text, increased participation in the global economy means that many women who migrate from the global South find work as ________ in industrialized nations.
the roles men and women play in a given culture
Cross-cultural studies indicate that biology predicts
sex
For anthropologists, ________ refers to the observable physical differences between male and female human beings, especially the biological differences related to human reproduction
resisted subordination by speaking out while in a trance state
Through the Zar Cult of Sudan, women
sex tourism
Trips organized through the tourism sector to facilitate commercial sexual relationships between tourists and local residents in destinations around the world are called
work out unresolved childhood issues
All of the women in Patty Kelly’s research in a brothel in Chiapas, Mexico, used the brothel as a way to do all of the following, EXCEPT:
recruiting only married men, who were encouraged to travel with their wives and children in tow
Colonial corporations such as the Dutch East India Company regulated sexual activity and marriage among employees. Their regulations did NOT include
France
The text offers examples of sex tourism destinations around the world. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text?
falling in love
Physical anthropologist Helen Fisher suggests that neurochemicals guide humans through what?
no gene or cluster of genes that determines sexuality
Geneticists have been able to successfully identify:
in cultures worldwide, including Western cultures
Contemporary anthropologists study sexuality:
asexuality
described as a lack of attraction to others
the next generation
Families and kinship networks have the power to provide support and to nurture, as well as to ensure reproduction of what?
ambilineal
a descent group that is constructed through the mother’s side of the family
exogamy
The practice of marriage to an individual outside of a particular group of people
cross-cousins
Cousins who are children of a mother’s brother or father’s sister are considered which type of cousins?
patrilineal
Most people in the world practice which type of descent as their primary strategy to track kin group membership?
marriage
commonly creates socially recognized relationships that may involve physical and emotional intimacy, sexual pleasure, reproduction and raising of children, mutual support and companionship, and shared legal rights to property and inheritance
Bridewealth
________is a gift exchange practice that helps stabilize a marriage by establishing a vested interest for both the groom’s and bride’s extended families in the success of the marriage.
miscegenation
What is a demeaning historical term for interracial marriage?
phenotype
A person may inherit a genetic pattern for above-average height, but may only reach average height due to poor nutrition. This is an expression of that person’s:
white supremacy
The concept that people of European descent are superior to all others is:
individual racism
When a person acts on personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminates against someone based on imagined differences between them, this is referred to as:
racial ideology
In order to make discriminatory ideas and behavior seem reasonable and normal, societies invoke popular ideas about racial differences that are known as:
racial ideology
A set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory behaviors of individuals and institutions to seem reasonable, rational, and normal is referred to as:
ethnic and cultural policies imposed by state leaders
According to the text, what ended five hundred years of peace between Bosnian Muslims, Catholic Croats, and Orthodox Christian Serbs in the former Yugoslavia?
imagined community
The invented sense of connection and shared traditions that underlies identification with a particular ethnic group or nation whose members likely will never meet refers to the concept of:
origin myth
A story that is told about the founding and history of a particular group to reinforce a common sense of identity is called a:
ethnicity
A sense of historical, cultural, and sometimes ancestral connection to a group of people who are imagined to be distinct from those outside the group is known as a(n):
ethnic cleansing
Efforts by representatives of one ethnic or religious group to remove or destroy another group in a particular geographic area are known as:
assimilation
When minorities abandon their separate identity and adopt the culture and norms of the dominant group, they are practicing:
Royal Bafokeng Nation, Inc.
In South Africa, the Bafokeng were able to eventually get much of their land back from the white settlers who had taken it through what means?
male infanticide
Gender violence is widely expressed in all of the following ways, EXCEPT:
is in fact far from complete, even though conditions have improved somewhat
Improved conditions across the globe indicate that the Millennial goal of achieving gender equality:
performance
________ is gender identity displayed through action
true
True or False: Human behavior is a combination of “nature” (biology) and “nurture” (acculturation)
Genitalia
________ is NOT considered a secondary sexual characteristic
women in their thirties
In the United States, ________ are those most subject to nonfatal intimate partner violence
“female” eggs aggressively pursue more “passive” male sperm until conception occurs
Emily Martin’s analysis of the “fairy tale” of the egg and the sperm as presented in U.S. textbooks does NOT indicate that:
women exchanged banana fiber skirts during funerary activities
The restudy of women’s role in the Trobriand Island exchanges indicated that:
mati
Women who form intimate spiritual, emotional, and sexual relationships with other women in Paramaribo, Suriname, are called:
both for procreation and fun
According to contemporary cultural anthropologists, humans in most cultures engage in sexual activity:
dolphins
In addition to humans, which other mammal engages in sexual activity for fun?
diversity, flexibility, and fluidity
Scientists have found that human sexuality is marked by
religious
The lives of European women living in the colonies weren’t restricted in _________ ways
race; sexuality
Sociologist Mignon Moore found that the intersection of ________ and ________ most impacted the identities of the women in her book Invisible Families (2011)
Patty Kelly
Anthropologist ________used her research in a Mexican brothel to encourage a rethinking of the U.S. public policy debate over the criminalization of sex work
Christian teachings
The Victorian ideal of sexuality was heavily influenced by ________
exogamous
Clans that do not permit marriages within the group are considered:
incest taboo
considered a general rule that forbids sexual relations with close relatives
marriage
builds kinship ties between two people who are not typically immediate biological kin
globalization
phenomenon that is currently placing stress on kinship systems worldwide
United States
culture that has generally NOT constructed large social networks based on descent and kinship connections
clan
A type of descent group that is based on a claim to a founding ancestor but lacks genealogical documentation is a
Brazil and the DR
Wealth is a factor in determining race in what two countries?
races
Many societies in the world divide people into groups based on supposed biological and social/intellectual differences. These groups are called:
nativism
The idea that government policies should favor people born in the United States over immigrants such as Mexicans or Canadians (legal or otherwise) is known as:
white privilege
The tendency of people of European descent in the United States to favor people like themselves and give them the benefit of any doubt is known as:
nativism
People who believe that civic policies should favor native-born people over immigrants espouse the concept of:
miscegenation
A marriage between a white person and someone of an “inferior race” was referred to as:
nationalism
When an ethnic community combines with a desire to create and maintain an exclusive territory in a location where a common destiny can be lived out, this is called:
gays and lesbians
Immigrants from India come from many different areas with different languages and customs, but once they arrive in the United States, these previous distinctions become less important and they all begin the process of becoming Indian American, EXCEPT which group of people?
genocide, ethnic cleansing, ethnic conflict, civil war
During the colonial period, colonial powers redrew the political boundaries of much of the world to suit their economic needs and without regard to local ethnic, political, or religious realities. When colonialism ended, these new boundaries became new countries and most had groups claiming multiple ethnicities and identities within these new countries. This has resulted in:
assimilation
In the 1920s, Italian immigrants were considered dark, strange, and often subhuman by the “white” majority in the United States, who were then primarily of northern European descent. But today, the descendents of these immigrants are considered ordinary “white” folk. This demonstrates the concept of:
ethnicity
A group of people who share an idea of cultural and ancestral connection and who see themselves as distinct from people in other groups is described as a(n):
melting pot
What metaphor is used to describe the process of immigrant assimilation into U.S. dominant culture?
stratification
An uneven distribution of power and access to resources, opportunities, rights, and privileges in which gender shapes who has access to a group’s resources, opportunities, rights, and privileges is known as gender:
sexual dimorphism
________ is the term anthropologists use to refer to physical differences in primary and secondary sexual characteristics
Gender stereotypes
culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women
engaged anthropology
Ida Susser’s approach to research on HIV prevention in South Africa exemplifies:
enculturation
The process through which a sense of gender becomes normative and seems natural is called:
cultural constructions
The learned behaviors perceived as masculine or feminine are called:
is a unique status reflecting the intersectionality of race, class, and sexuality
The experience of being a middle-class black lesbian:
sexual violence
Violence perpetuated through sexually related physical assaults such as rape is called:
to have a vacation
NOT a motivation that cultural anthropologist Denise Brennan lists for young, rural, poor Dominican women to migrate to towns like Sosua
“yes means yes”
Students at Antioch College developed a sexual offense policy centered on which of the following guidelines?
the debate over U.S. intervention in Syria
Not an example of sexuality in contemporary media and politics
a continuum of sexual behavior
Harvard-trained biologist and zoologist Alfred Kinsey’s study on human sexuality revealed
Kinship
_____________ includes biological descent and marriage alliances, but also practices such as fostering and fictive kin
consanguineal
Individuals in descent groups whose primary relationships are determined in the United States via “blood” relations are generally called what?
kinship
Discussions regarding same-sex marriage in the United States are a clear example of changing patterns of:
companionate
type of marriage is established based on love rather than strict social obligations
there were only six different ways of organizing relatives.
By collecting kinship data from cultures worldwide, early anthropologists found that:
birth and biology
Similar to membership in a family, citizenship in a nation-state derives mostly from:
a Euro-American ideal
The concept of kinship groups based chiefly on biological assumptions and the nuclear family consisting of solely a mother, a father, and their children is:
colonialism
A system of economic, military, and political control of one country over another is referred to as:
earwax
Geneticists point out that dividing people by skin color is as logical as dividing them by:
Jim Crow
Laws in the United States that allowed such things as “white only” swimming pools, restaurants, schools, beaches, and the like, similar to apartheid in South Africa, were known as:
race
What is a flawed system of classification, with no biological basis, that uses physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups?
ethnic boundary markers
The Indian American community has broken down many old barriers once held in India, but has chosen to deny efforts by the members of the South Asian Lesbian and Gay Alliance (SALGA) to participate in the India Day Parade. This illustrates the concept of:
nation-state
When a group of people share a common culture, sense of ancestry, and country, this political entity is called a:
melting pot
The tendency of many ethnic groups that join American culture to assimilate has been described as a(n):
assimilation
The process by which minorities adopt the patterns and norms of the dominant culture and cease to exist as separate groups is known as:
bullying of boys whose behavior is seen as not sufficiently masculine, even if the boys are heterosexual
A primary component of the “fag discourse” in US high schools is:
hormone therapy, surgery, counseling
Through the 1960s, the American Academy of Pediatrics attempted to manage the condition of children born with genitalia of both sexes through:
Gender ideology
culturally based preconceived notions about the attributes of differences between, and proper roles for, men and women
Two-Spirits
The preferred term for individuals of an alternate gender in Native American cultures is:
gender
Anthropologists define ________ as the expectations of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to individuals
the Kinsey scale
The scale describing a spectrum of human sexuality with exclusively heterosexual behavior on one end and exclusively homosexual behavior on the other is known as:
compatible with marrying women and having families, and as compatible with their Muslim faith
Masu harka and ‘yan daudu see homosexual behavior as:
a Christian dating forum
a cultural constructionist consider studying when investigating human sexuality
This work challenged the assumptions that U.S. attitudes about sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature
Margaret Mead’s work in the islands of the western Pacific contributed to a greater understanding of human sexuality of
kinship
the system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to define their mutual expectations, rights, and responsibilities
linked through affinity and alliance, not through shared biology or common descent.
New kinship groups created through affinal relationships are:
bridewealth and dowry
the two primary forms of gift exchange that formalize and legalize marriages, while establishing a relationship tie or alliance between kinship groups
monogamy
type of marriage consists of one individual married to one other individual only (most commonly one man married to one woman)
between parents and children and siblings
The incest taboo universally prohibits sexual relations:
lineages
The two types of descent groups distinguished by anthropologists are clans and:
in vitro fertilization
type of assisted reproductive technology involves the implantation of a woman’s egg that has been fertilized in a laboratory
genotype
What comprises all of the inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organism’s physical form?
racialization
To categorize, differentiate, and attribute a particular racial character to a person or group of people is referred to as:
colonialism
The British Empire’s military, economic, and political control over Malaysia was an aspect of British:
resisting racism
The experience of the African American community of Corona, New York, who prevented developers from degrading their neighborhoods with an elevated train, is an example of:
imagined communities
Anthropological research reveals that most ethnic groups and nations are recent historical creations, our connection to people within these groups is relatively new, and our shared traditions are recently invented. In addition, most members will never meet each other. Therefore, most nations today are:
origin myth
According to Aztec tradition, they wandered across what is today Mexico until they came to an island with an eagle standing on a cactus with a snake in its mouth. According to their prophecy, this would be their new home. The Aztecs established their capital city on an island in Lake Texcoco, where tradition said they found the eagle. This demonstrates the concept of a(n):
ethnicity
The French have a strong sense of connection to their history, ideals, and culture that binds them together, and this is clearly missing in Iraq. This illustrates the concept of:
England
What country only exists during the ninety minutes its team plays a soccer match?
ethnic cleansing
As part of a territorial conflict in Bosnia, ethnic Croats expelled, imprisoned, or killed the Muslim people who they had lived peacefully next door to for more than five hundred years. This illustrates the concept of:
female
More than 80 percent of victims of domestic violence in the United States are
hair length
Which of the following does not factor into biological differences between men and women?
during the evolutionary process, male aggression became imprinted in human DNA
The “man the hunter, woman the gatherer” debate is based on the idea that:
intersectionality
The way systems of power interconnect to affect individual lives and group experiences is called:
an authentically African lifestyle
Nigerians do not regard homosexuality as:
a manly man
Under the rules of machismo, the machista is considered:
ethnocartography of human sexuality
Mapping the global scope of diverse human sexual beliefs and behaviors is called the:
true
True or false: Mati regard sexuality as a flexible behavior rather than a fixed identity
cognatic descent groups
Ambilineal descent groups such as Samoans, Maori, and Hawaiians are sometimes referred to as:
true
True or false: Kinship is the system that determines who is related to whom in a given society
universal across all cultures in the world
The incest taboo—rules that forbid sexual relations with close relatives such as siblings and parents—is:
father’s
A patrilineal descent group traces kinships through which side of the family?
parallel cousins
Cousins who are children of a father’s brother or a mother’s sister are considered which type of cousin?
99.9 percent
All human beings of every “race” share what percentage of their DNA?
recover land taken by white settlers
The Bafokeng people of South Africa formed the corporation Royal Bafokeng Nation, Inc. to:
never
How long has the Iraqi ethnicity existed in the Middle East?
imagined community
Despite the often obvious ethnic, socioeconomic, occupational, and religious differences, and the fact that most will never meet each other, most people in the United States see themselves as members of a large community called “Americans,” who share common beliefs and traditions. This demonstrates the concept of:
either male or female
The United States requires that individuals identify legally as:
societal adult gender roles
The behaviors encouraged in sports—where boys are rewarded for competitiveness and girls are encouraged to play quietly—reflect:
Boys typically receive more playing time than girls
a way that sports such as T-ball reinforce gender ideals in US children
conceptions of machismo and masculinity are variable and shifting
The discussion of machismo in Latin America in the text indicates that:
weddings
________ are key cultural institutions through which we learn what it means to be heterosexual
the Victorian era
According to the text, the idea that masturbation was a form of self-abuse is most characteristic of which period?
homosexuality
Which of the following is defined as “attraction to and sexual relationships with members of the same sex”?
must be constantly performed to retain one’s social status
In Nicaragua, machismo:
reproductive
Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogacy, and cloning are four forms of which of the following types of technologies?
bridewealth
The practice of exchanging a gift from the groom and his family to the bride’s family in order to formalize and legalize the marriage is called:
descent groups
Early anthropologists considered which of the following groups as key to understanding each culture’s economic, political, and religious dynamics?
marriage
Humans form kinship groups via affinal relationships, which are most commonly achieved through:
cloning
The form of reproductive technology that involves the creation of genetically identical copies of cells or whole organisms is called:
hypodescent
What rule assigns the children of racially “mixed” unions to the subordinate group?
races
Malaysians divide people into three “biological” groups, Brazilians have more than three hundred, and Americans divide people into three, four, or even five of these groups called:
nationalism
The desire of Scots to have their own independent country of Scotland, separate from the United Kingdom, which they are a part of now, illustrates the concept of:
genocide
The deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or religious group is known as:
mothers and relatives who demanded information about the missing
During the El Salvador civil war (1977-1992), the group Co-Madres emerged as a political force that initially formed as a group of:
patriarchal relations in the home were repeated in the workplace
Studies on women’s participation in the industrialized labor force indicate that:
masculine identity is in flux and negotiable
Matthew Gutmann’s research in Mexico indicates that:
emotion
Which of the following characteristics is commonly identified as female rather than male behavior in the United States?
the student movement at Kent State University (Ohio)
Ida Susser’s initial research focused on:
local working-class men
Anthropologist Patty Kelly found that men who visited the brothel in Chiapas were mostly:
white European men
Sex tourists in the Dominican Republic are typically:
Marriage is the legal union between one man and one woman
DOMA, the Defense of Marriage Act, stated that:
college campuses
According to the text, where has seen an increase in attention to policies addressing sexual violence?
four
Early anthropologists identified how many primary systems used to classify relatives in the parental generation, including the bifurcate merging system?
true
True or false: Despite the current high rate of divorce in the United States, marriages in earlier generations did not last any longer than those today.
kinship and family
Nation-states draw heavily on ideas of which of the following in order to create a sense of connection among very different people found within their national borders?
descent
One way in which humans construct kinship groups is by tracking genealogical:
white privilege
In many countries, members of the dominant ethnic or racial group tend to favor other members of their own group, give them the benefit of any doubt, and take what other members say more seriously. Minorities are often discounted as less important or even hostile for insisting on being treated fairly. In the United States, this is called:
colonialism
The British Empire’s military, economic, and political control over Malaysia was an aspect of British:
nationalism
When an ethnic community combines with a desire to create and maintain an exclusive territory in a location where a common destiny can be lived out, this is called:
situational negotiation of identity
Carlos Murphy is from an Irish Mexican family, and he rides with pride on the Sons of Erin float in the St. Patrick’s Day parade and drinks margaritas with his Mexican relatives the next day. This demonstrates the concept of:
ethnogenesis
Argentina used soccer, polo, and the tango to unite different groups of immigrants into a new group of people who identified with each other rather than their old homelands. This demonstrates the concept of:
girls can increase their status by performing masculine behavior
By studying the “fag discourse” in US schools, anthropologists have learned that:
matrilineal
Which of the following is a descent group that is constructed through the mother’s side of the family?
outside of the household, including ways they think about gender roles, the division of labor, religious practices, warfare, politics, migration, and nationalism.
Enculturation that takes place within a family shapes individuals’ lives:
provides further evidence that kinship is constructed rather than biologically inherited.
The process of adoption:
eugenics
A questionable science that claims to be improving the human race by advocating in favor of certain races and unequal treatment for others is:
individual racism
A person who believes that Italians are somehow “inferior” and therefore refuses to give an Italian person a job is demonstrating:
less than 2 percent
Medical data indicate that ________ of individuals are born without the biological traits that make them easily classified biologically as male or female.
older men and young men
Initiation ceremonies among the Sambia of Papua New Guinea involve the transfer of semen between
transgender
People whose gender identity differs from the sex they were assigned at birth may identify as:
constructs
Changing patterns over time demonstrate that marriage, family, and kinship are cultural:
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