ANTH Exam 2

Cultural anthropology is composed of which two scholarly components?
Ethnography and Ethnology
Salvage ethnography is more recently called
urgent anthropology
Anthropology has sought to directly to do each of the following except
a. document the practice of culture
b. impose a Western and modern approach to life **
c. document disappearing cultural practices.
d. reconstruct traditional ways of life
e. educate its audience on the importance of culture.
When anthropologists go to the places that they study in order to experience the culture firsthand, it is called
fieldwork
Acculturation is best defined as
a process of unequal culture contact when a smaller culture is forced to adopt some of the ways of the dominant society
Which of the following best defines applied anthropology?
The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems in communities confronting new challenges
Today anthropologists use the phrase “culture at a distance” as a non-ethnographic approach in anthropology that allows the study of other cultures through all of the following except
interviews with immigrants
foreign films and newspapers
photographs
on-location fieldwork**
literature
Andrea Louie studies the ethnic Han group of China by collecting data in San Francisco, Hong Kong, and southern China. This approach is an example of
multi-sited ethnography
The primary method in the anthropologist’s toolkit, regardless of the time period has been
participant observation
What is the first step in doing ethnographic fieldwork
choosing a research question
Because carrying out ethnography is a difficult task, anthropologist advise that
it is best to do your first fieldwork in a culture other than your own
The members of a society who work most closely with the anthropologist to provide an understand of cultural phenomena are called
key consultants
If an anthropologist studies religion and interviews church leaders about how they were called to their positions, and uses non statistical descriptions of the religion as a way of presenting information, the anthropologist is employing what type of data collection?
Qualitative
Why are informal interviews central to ethnographic fieldwork?
they are casual exchanges in which the anthropologists can gain insight into things that matter most to the cultural group
In order to minimize the impact of subjectivity, the anthropologist should not consider
what the anthropologist observes in his/her own culture
Ethical responsibilities for anthropologists does not include
representing the interests of the anthropologist and protect the researcher
Those who study the course of early human evolutionary history are called
paleoanthropologists
The scientific explanation of evolution is not associated with
involving stable forces that contribute to change
Among species, which of the following is distinct to humans?
Cultural adaptation
What is true about our earliest ancestral primates?
Some of the first adaptations in primates were to arboreal environments
In primates, the ability to perceive a three-dimensional world is directly due to
stereoscopic vision
What sensory capacity is not typically associated with primates?
Development of an acute sense of touch
Among bonobos, what does not usually determine an individual’s social rank?
number of surviving offspring
the group of primates that includes all living and extinct apes and humans is called
hominoid
molecular evidence indicate that the division between humans and African apes took place
5-8 million years ago
For human development, which came first?
bipedalism
Australopithecus is NOT associated with which characteristic?
as large as most modern humans
Which consequence is not a characteristic of bipedalism?
was able to run faster and more efficiently than quadrupeds
the oldowan tool tradition was most associated with which human species?
homo habilis
Which species was the first to migrate our of Africa?
homo erectus
What is not considered a “disease of civilization”?
arthritis
In early human development, fire making was not associated with
developing larger and more complex teeth
Which species was a distinct group in the genus Homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000 to 125,000 years ago?
neanderthal
What is not a cultural characteristic associated with Neanderthals?
ability to make and control fire
During what period did anatomically modern humans begin appearing in Africa and Southwest Asia?
Middle Paleolithic
Which period was marked with tool industries including long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms?
Upper Paleolithic
4 examples of Mousterian tools
atlatl, burin, Solutrean biface, and blade tools
Which theory of modern human origins relies mostly on the interpretation of genetic evidence, fossils, and cultural remains?
Recent African origins hypothesis
Cave art from the Upper Paleolithic suggests that
there was a rich tradition of using altered states of consciousness
Why is human race not a valid concept?
actual human variation does not exist
What is not a signal?
Winking from pleasure
Chantek was not able to
communicate through verbal words
The systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language is called
phonetics
Phonology is the
study of language sounds
While the phonologist is making an inventory of permissible sounds in a language, the _______ is deciphering the groups or combinations of sounds that have meant, or that are actually used to convey information.
morphologist
the entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about its meaningful units of sounds and the rules or principled of making phrases and sentences is called its
grammer
The development of different languages from a single ancestral language is called
linguistic divergence
What is an acceptable research topic in the field of historical linguistics?
Whether or not the speakers of Apache and Navajo once spoke a common language
What is not true abound the english language?
English has historically suffered a narrowing and loss of meaning
Approximately how many languages are spoken today?
6,000
In France, a committee exists that has the job of eliminating subversive foreign influences in the form of words borrowed from other languages. English is a major offender. this is an example of
linguistic nationalism
the influence of a person’s class status on what pronunciation he/she uses, a speaker’s choice of more complicated vocal and grammar when he/she is speaking to a professional audience, are all concerns of
sociolinguistics
When we focus on the relationship between language and culture of those who speak it and how they inform each other, we are doing
ethnolinguistics
the term _______ is usually used to refer to varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible.
dialect
“You may wish to stay inside today, Madam; it’s quite cold outside” -butler at work vs. “Shut the door and get inside, Maggie, you’ll freeze your buns off.”- at home. In linguistics, this is an example of
code switching
Anthropologist Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin, drawing on his experience with the language of the Hopi Indians, developed a full-fledged theory now known as the theory of
linguistic relativity
What is correct about kinesics?
cross-cultural research indicates that the body language used when people are greeting each other is similar all over the world
Paralanguage includes not only the way that people say things but also a variety of extralinguistic noinse called
vocalizations
displacement refers to the concept of being able to refer to things that are
not there
the process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called
assimilation