ANTH Exam 2

Cultural anthropology is composed of which two scholarly components?
Ethnography and Ethnology

Salvage ethnography is more recently called
urgent anthropology

Anthropology has sought to directly to do each of the following except
a. document the practice of culture
b. impose a Western and modern approach to life **
c. document disappearing cultural practices.
d. reconstruct traditional ways of life
e. educate its audience on the importance of culture.

When anthropologists go to the places that they study in order to experience the culture firsthand, it is called
fieldwork

Acculturation is best defined as
a process of unequal culture contact when a smaller culture is forced to adopt some of the ways of the dominant society

Which of the following best defines applied anthropology?
The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems in communities confronting new challenges

Today anthropologists use the phrase “culture at a distance” as a non-ethnographic approach in anthropology that allows the study of other cultures through all of the following except
interviews with immigrants
foreign films and newspapers
photographs
on-location fieldwork**
literature

Andrea Louie studies the ethnic Han group of China by collecting data in San Francisco, Hong Kong, and southern China. This approach is an example of
multi-sited ethnography

The primary method in the anthropologist’s toolkit, regardless of the time period has been
participant observation

What is the first step in doing ethnographic fieldwork
choosing a research question

Because carrying out ethnography is a difficult task, anthropologist advise that
it is best to do your first fieldwork in a culture other than your own

The members of a society who work most closely with the anthropologist to provide an understand of cultural phenomena are called
key consultants

If an anthropologist studies religion and interviews church leaders about how they were called to their positions, and uses non statistical descriptions of the religion as a way of presenting information, the anthropologist is employing what type of data collection?
Qualitative

Why are informal interviews central to ethnographic fieldwork?
they are casual exchanges in which the anthropologists can gain insight into things that matter most to the cultural group

In order to minimize the impact of subjectivity, the anthropologist should not consider
what the anthropologist observes in his/her own culture

Ethical responsibilities for anthropologists does not include
representing the interests of the anthropologist and protect the researcher

Those who study the course of early human evolutionary history are called
paleoanthropologists

The scientific explanation of evolution is not associated with
involving stable forces that contribute to change

Among species, which of the following is distinct to humans?
Cultural adaptation

What is true about our earliest ancestral primates?
Some of the first adaptations in primates were to arboreal environments

In primates, the ability to perceive a three-dimensional world is directly due to
stereoscopic vision

What sensory capacity is not typically associated with primates?
Development of an acute sense of touch

Among bonobos, what does not usually determine an individual’s social rank?
number of surviving offspring

the group of primates that includes all living and extinct apes and humans is called
hominoid

molecular evidence indicate that the division between humans and African apes took place
5-8 million years ago

For human development, which came first?
bipedalism

Australopithecus is NOT associated with which characteristic?
as large as most modern humans

Which consequence is not a characteristic of bipedalism?
was able to run faster and more efficiently than quadrupeds

the oldowan tool tradition was most associated with which human species?
homo habilis

Which species was the first to migrate our of Africa?
homo erectus

What is not considered a “disease of civilization”?
arthritis

In early human development, fire making was not associated with
developing larger and more complex teeth

Which species was a distinct group in the genus Homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000 to 125,000 years ago?
neanderthal

What is not a cultural characteristic associated with Neanderthals?
ability to make and control fire

During what period did anatomically modern humans begin appearing in Africa and Southwest Asia?
Middle Paleolithic

Which period was marked with tool industries including long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms?
Upper Paleolithic

4 examples of Mousterian tools
atlatl, burin, Solutrean biface, and blade tools

Which theory of modern human origins relies mostly on the interpretation of genetic evidence, fossils, and cultural remains?
Recent African origins hypothesis

Cave art from the Upper Paleolithic suggests that
there was a rich tradition of using altered states of consciousness

Why is human race not a valid concept?
actual human variation does not exist

What is not a signal?
Winking from pleasure

Chantek was not able to
communicate through verbal words

The systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language is called
phonetics

Phonology is the
study of language sounds

While the phonologist is making an inventory of permissible sounds in a language, the _______ is deciphering the groups or combinations of sounds that have meant, or that are actually used to convey information.
morphologist

the entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about its meaningful units of sounds and the rules or principled of making phrases and sentences is called its
grammer

The development of different languages from a single ancestral language is called
linguistic divergence

What is an acceptable research topic in the field of historical linguistics?
Whether or not the speakers of Apache and Navajo once spoke a common language

What is not true abound the english language?
English has historically suffered a narrowing and loss of meaning

Approximately how many languages are spoken today?
6,000

In France, a committee exists that has the job of eliminating subversive foreign influences in the form of words borrowed from other languages. English is a major offender. this is an example of
linguistic nationalism

the influence of a person’s class status on what pronunciation he/she uses, a speaker’s choice of more complicated vocal and grammar when he/she is speaking to a professional audience, are all concerns of
sociolinguistics

When we focus on the relationship between language and culture of those who speak it and how they inform each other, we are doing
ethnolinguistics

the term _______ is usually used to refer to varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible.
dialect

“You may wish to stay inside today, Madam; it’s quite cold outside” -butler at work vs. “Shut the door and get inside, Maggie, you’ll freeze your buns off.”- at home. In linguistics, this is an example of
code switching

Anthropologist Edward Sapir and his student Benjamin, drawing on his experience with the language of the Hopi Indians, developed a full-fledged theory now known as the theory of
linguistic relativity

What is correct about kinesics?
cross-cultural research indicates that the body language used when people are greeting each other is similar all over the world

Paralanguage includes not only the way that people say things but also a variety of extralinguistic noinse called
vocalizations

displacement refers to the concept of being able to refer to things that are
not there

the process organisms undergo to achieve a beneficial adjustment to a particular environment, which not only leads to biological changes in the organisms but also impacts their environment, is called
assimilation