Flashcards and Answers – Anth 101: Quiz 1 (Midterm Prep) Essay

question

Ethnography is A. the firsthand, personal study of local settings. B. the process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations. C. the study of interrelationships among all living things in an environment. D. a policy aimed at removing groups that are culturally different from a country. E. the cross-cultural comparison of cultural data.
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A. the firsthand, personal study of local settings.
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Anthropology’s comparative, biocultural perspective A. allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem. B. is the reason it has traditionally studied nonindustrialized societies. C. is insignificant, since evolution is studied by biological anthropologists while culture is studied by cultural anthropologists. D. is a product of the participant observation approach. E. places it in the humanities.
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A. allows the inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem.
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Ethnology is A. the study of human speech sounds. B. the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology. C. the most important subfield of anthropology. D. the study of ancient ethnic groups. E. a synonym for ethnography.
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B. the comparative, generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology.
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What are the four main subdisciplines of anthropology? A. Medical anthropology, ethnography, ethnology, and cultural anthropology B. Archaeology, biological anthropology, applied linguistics, and applied anthropology C. Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology D. Genetic anthropology, physical anthropology, psychological anthropology, linguistic anthropology E. Primatology, ethnology, cultural anthropology, and paleopathology
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C. Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
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What do anthropological archaeologists study? A. Language B. Race C. Biological adaptation D. Modern cultural diversity E. Material remains
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E. Material remains
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President Barack Obama’s mother, Dr. Ann Dunham, was a(n) A. primatologist. B. cultural and applied anthropologist. C. biological anthropologist. D. medical anthropologist. E. archaeologist.
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B. cultural and applied anthropologist.
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Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four-field anthropology? A. It has a holistic approach. B. It has a broad cross-cultural comparison. C. It is the study of human biology, culture, and language. D. It is a science and a humanity. E. It has an exclusive focus on contemporary cultures.
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E. It has an exclusive focus on contemporary cultures.
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Biological anthropologists study all of the following except A. ancient languages. B. human biological plasticity. C. primates. D. human evolution. E. human genetics.
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A. ancient languages.
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The study of interactions among past living things in a past environment is A. paleoanthropology. B. paleoecology. C. garbology. D. social archaeology. E. adaptive anthropology.
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B. paleoecology.
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Which of the following statements about anthropology is not true? A. Anthropology is the exploration of human diversity in time and space. B. Anthropology studies the whole of the human condition. C. Anthropologists focus in part on the diversity that arises through human adaptability. D. Anthropology’s biocultural approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors. E. Anthropology offers a comparative, cross-cultural perspective to the study of the human condition.
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D. Anthropology’s biocultural approach entails finding evolutionary explanations for all human behaviors.
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What distinction does Kottak draw between culture and society? A. Culture is the result of higher education, whereas society is shared by all people. B. People share society with other animals, but culture is distinctly human. C. Culture is genetically programmed, whereas society is transmitted through social learning. D. People attain culture through international travel but society is the social environment of their native land. E. Society rests more upon certain features of human biology than culture does.
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B. People share society with other animals, but culture is distinctly human.
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What is the term for the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses? A. Ethnology B. Ethnography C. Cultural resource management D. Adaptation E. Phenotype
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D. Adaptation
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The tendency of people living in the Peruvian Andes to develop a voluminous chest and lungs for life at very high altitudes provides an example of a(n) A. genetic adaptation. B. long-term physiological adaptation. C. short-term physiological adaptation. D. cultural adaptation. E. archaeological adaptation.
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A. genetic adaptation
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The pressurized cabin of an airplane flying at high altitude provides an example of a(n) A. genetic adaptation. B. long-term physiological adaptation. C. short-term physiological adaptation. D. cultural adaptation. E. archaeological adaptation.
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D. cultural adaptation.
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A systematic field of study that uses experiment, observation, and deduction to produce reliable explanations of phenomena is A. culture. B. religion. C. humanities. D. science. E. folk lore.
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D. science.
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Which question was important in the origins of American anthropology? A. How are the Neandertals related to us? B. Where did Native Americans come from? C. When and where did food production first begin? D. How much beer do people in Arizona drink today? E. Where do ideals of attractiveness come from?
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B. Where did Native Americans come from?
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What is a biocultural perspective? A. The notion that humans no longer rely on biological adaptation. B. The inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches. C. Using the fact that culture is completely dominant over biological change. D. It is synonymous with scientific research. E. The idea that girls should be gymnasts and boys should play football.
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B. The inclusion of both biological and cultural approaches.
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Which of the following countries is least likely to send female swimmers to the Olympics? A. United States B. Germany C. the Netherlands D. Norway E. Brazil
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E. Brazil
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Rathje’s garbology project A. studies the stratification of landfills. B. is archaeology of modern people. C. answered the question why people leave things behind for archaeologists to find. D. is a study of potsherds. E. was conducted in ancient Egypt.
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B. is archaeology of modern people.
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A scientist who studies the fossil record of human evolution is a(n) A. paleoanthropologist. B. archaeologist. C. ethnologist. D. treasure hunter. E. primatologist.
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A. paleoanthropologist.
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The study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation is called A. historic linguistics. B. applied linguistics. C. cultural resource management. D. adaptation. E. sociolinguistics.
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E. sociolinguistics.
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The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is known as A. applied anthropology. B. economic anthropology. C. conceptual anthropology. D. sociobiology. E. participant observation.
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A. applied anthropology.
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Cultural resource management is an example of applied A. ethnology. B. biological anthropology. C. archaeology. D. linguistic anthropology. E. ethnography.
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C. archaeology
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Anthropology is a holistic discipline in that it A. has traditionally focused on nonindustrial societies. B. deals with human culture. C. does not attempt to make generalizations about humanity. D. now focuses on industrial societies. E. studies human biological, cultural, and linguistic variation across both time and space.
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E. studies human biological, cultural, and linguistic variation across both time and space.
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An anthropologist is studying ethnic-religious conflict in contemporary Sri Lanka. She or he is most likely a(n) A. cultural anthropologist. B. linguistic anthropologist. C. paleoanthropologist. D. archaeological anthropologist. E. biological anthropologist.
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A. cultural anthropologist.
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Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture? A. Genetic transmission B. Unconscious acquisition C. Through observation D. Through direct instruction E. Conscious acquisition
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A. Genetic transmission
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The process by which children learn culture is known as A. acculturation. B. cultural transmission. C. enculturation. D. ethnoabsorption. E. diffusion.
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C. enculturation.
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What anthropological approach focuses on how people with different motives, intentions, and degrees of power and influence manage to create and transform the society in which they live? A. Cultural relativism B. Experimental anthropology C. Interpretive anthropology D. Neoevolutionism E. Practice theory
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E. Practice theory
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Which of the following would be considered an example of civic culture? A. Television shows B. Process of voting to elect leaders C. McDonald’s D. Unspoken dress codes for funerals E. A musical performance at the city civic center
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B. Process of voting to elect leaders
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What do anthropologists mean when they say culture is shared? A. Culture is an attribute of particular individuals. B. Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups. C. Culture is what ensures that all people raised in the same society have the same opinions. D. Culture is universally regarded as more important than the concept of the individual. E. Enculturation is accomplished by more than one person.
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B. Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups.
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What is the term for a sign that has no necessary or natural connection to the thing it stands for or signifies? A. Morpheme B. Lexicon C. Phoneme D. Symbol E. Collateral
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D. Symbol
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What is cultural relativism? A. A cultural universal, based upon the human capacity to use symbols B. The argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture C. A cultural particular, based upon the interrelatedness of humans D. The opposite of participant observation E. The same thing as ethnocentrism, but it applies only to family structures
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B. The argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
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Which of the following is a cultural universal? A. Hypodescent B. Hyperdescent C. Bifurcate merging kinship terminologies D. Transhumance E. Some kind of family
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E. Some kind of family
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What is ethnocentrism? A. Viewing another culture by their own standards B. Viewing another culture in terms of your own culture and values C. Viewing another culture by government standards D. Viewing a culture by the universal moral code that we all follow E. Viewing a culture through rose-colored glasses
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B. Viewing another culture in terms of your own culture and values
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What are cultural particulars? A. Features of a culture that are isolated from other features in the same culture B. Features unique to a given culture, not shared with any others C. Different levels of culture D. The most general aspect of culture patterns E. Cultural features exhibited by individuals rather than groups
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B. Features unique to a given culture, not shared with any others
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Which of the following statements about culture is not true? A. All human groups have culture. B. Culture provides the particular way that groups of humans deal with biological needs. C. Human groups differ in their capacities for culture. D. The capacity for culture is shared by all humans. E. Cultural learning is uniquely elaborated among humans.
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C. Human groups differ in their capacities for culture.
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Which of the following statements about culture is not true? A. It is a distinctive possession of humanity. B. It is acquired by all humans as members of society through enculturation. C. It encompasses shared, symbol-based, learned behavior and beliefs transmitted across generations. D. Everyone is cultured. E. It is transmitted genetically.
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E. It is transmitted genetically.
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Which of the following statements about cultural relativism is not true? A. Cultural relativism argues that cultural values vary between cultures. B. Cultural relativism argues that some cultures are relatively better than others. C. Cultural relativism argues that we shouldn’t use our own standards to judge conduct in other cultures. D. Cultural relativism argues that no one culture is better than any other. E. Cultural relativism argues that each culture is a unique, integrated whole.
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B. Cultural relativism argues that some cultures are relatively better than others.
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How are cultural rights different from human rights? A. Human rights are real, while cultural rights are just perceived. B. Cultural rights are morally based, while human rights are methodologically based. C. Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals. D. Cultural rights are more clear-cut than human rights. E. The term cultural rights is a politically correct synonym for human rights.
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C. Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals.
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Which of the following is a cultural generality? A. Life in groups B. The use of fire C. Incest taboo D. Use of symbols E. Nuclear family
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E. Nuclear family
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What kind of diffusion takes place when two cultures trade, intermarry, or wage war on one another? A. Forced diffusion B. Direct diffusion C. Indirect diffusion D. Enculturated diffusion E. Bilateral diffusion
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B. Direct diffusion
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What is the term for cultural change that results when two or more cultures have continuous firsthand contact? A. Acculturation B. Enculturation C. Independent invention D. Colonization E. Imperialism
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A. Acculturation
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What is the term for processes that are causing nations and people to be increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent? A. Acculturation B. Diffusion C. Globalization D. Enculturation E. Independent invention
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C. Globalization
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Although rap music began in the United States, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this? A. Acculturation B. Enculturation C. Independent invention D. Colonization E. Diffusion
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E. Diffusion
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The emergence of agriculture in at least seven different regions of the world is an example of A. acculturation. B. enculturation. C. independent invention. D. colonization. E. diffusion.
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C. independent invention.
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What people say they do or should do (as opposed to what they actually do) is known as A. imagined culture. B. ethnocentrism. C. agency. D. ideal culture. E. verbal culture.
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D. ideal culture.
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What term refers to the different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups within the same complex society? A. Subcultures B. Globalization C. Diffusion D. Hypodescent E. Pidgins
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A. Subcultures
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What kinds of people do anthropologists consider to be “cultured”? A. Educated people B. Key cultural consultants C. Ethnocentric people D. Culturally sensitive people E. All people
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E. All people
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What mechanism of cultural change is responsible for pidgin English? A. Enculturation B. Acculturation C. Independent invention D. Migration E. Diffusion
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B. Acculturation
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What term refers to the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems? A. Enculturation B. Acculturation C. Independent invention D. Globalization E. Diffusion
answer

C. Independent invention

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