ANT 101 CHAPT 9

Marriages based on love and individual choice, as opposed to social obligation, are known as
companionate marriages

In what percentage of human cultures do we see some form of incest taboo?
100 percent

marriage to one person only
monogamy

marriage of a man to more than one woman
polygyny

marriage of a woman to more than one man
polyandry

Which of the following is the way in which a culture creates a system that helps to determine who is related to whom through meaning and power?
kinship

A socially recognized relationship that may involve physical and emotional intimacy as well as legal rights to property and inheritance.
marriage

Marriage between one man and two or more women.
polygyny

Marriage orchestrated by the families of the involved parties.
arranged marriage

Marriage between one woman and two or more men.
polyandry

A relationship between only two partners.
monogamy

Marriage built on love, intimacy, and personal choice rather than social obligation.
companionate marriage

The family group in which one is born, grows up, and develops life skills.
family of orientation

The family group created when one reproduces and within which one rears children.
family of procreation

Cultural rules that forbid sexual relations with certain close relatives.
incest taboo

The gift of goods or money from the bride’s family to the groom’s family as part of the marriage process.
dowry

The gift of goods or money from the groom’s family to the bride’s family as part of the marriage process.
bridewealth

Marriage to someone within the kinship group.
endogamy

Marriage to someone outside the kinship group.
exogamy

A type of descent group based on a claim to a founding ancestor but lacking genealogical documentation.
clan

A kinship group in which primary relationships are traced through consanguineous (“blood”) relatives.
descent group

A type of descent group that traces genealogical connection through generations by linking persons to a founding ancestor.
lineage

A kinship relationship established through marriage and/or alliance, not through biology or common descent.
affinal relationship

The system of meaning and power that cultures create to determine who is related to whom and to define their mutual expectations, rights, and responsibilities.
kinship

The kinship unit of mother, father, and children.
nuclear family

The conception of the nuclear family as the idealized kinship structure in American culture came to prominence
after World War II, when the United States experienced a period of economic expansion.

The recent increase in same-sex marriages in the United States represents
All of these.

In her ethnographic study Families We Choose, Kath Weston demonstrates that kinship networks
can be constructed through personal choice.

The term “endogamy” refers to a marriage pattern by which one is expected to marry a
partner from inside the group.

A matrilineal descent pattern traces descent
through the mother’s line only.

Anthropologists use the term “affinal relationships” to refer to kinship relationships created by
All of these.

The family you are born into is known as the family of __________. The family people construct when they reach adulthood and acquire a mate is the family of __________.
orientation, procreation

descent group constructed through mother’s side of family
matrilineal

descent group constructed through father’s side of family
patrilineal

descent measured through only one side of family (either mother’s or father’s)
unilineal

kinship traced through both mother’s and father’s sides of family
ambilineal

In contrast to the English line of kings and queens, the Scottish had a system that was similar but was unable to establish any one group or ancestral line as undisputed leaders of the country. A large part of the problem was that there was insufficient documentation prior to about the 13th or 14th centuries. This particular type of kinship group is referred to as
a clan

Reproductive technologies are blossoming and include a host of new technologies. Despite the advent of dramatic technologies such as cloning, reproductive technologies have been around for a very long time and include
abortion

Israel has seen an upending of how kinship is constructed and accepted. Reproductive technologies are paid for by insurance. Family planning services are not strongly promoted. And the country has more fertility clinics than any other nation on earth. All of these ideals lead to pressure to reproduce the family and the nation itself. A considerable amount of this pressure
Jewishness passes down matrilineally from mother to child.

In many cultures, the parents of the groom are expected to provide gifts, sometimes substantial, to the bride and her family. This establishes many social expectations—reciprocity, obligation and legitimacy of any offspring. This is known as
bridewealth

We may think of marriage in solely romantic terms, and certainly the bond of marriage can allow for that. While such matters as parenting responsibility, family relations and inheritance all flow from marriage, marriage for many cultures represents something altogether different. Some aspects of marriage, depending on the form, help to
build alliances.

Traditionally, Nuer men could be married to more than one woman at the same time. Which term best describes this practice?
polygyny

In the United States, law and custom forbid marriage to certain family members. These laws and customs perpetuate:
kindred exogamy.

When we talk about marriage between two people who maintain an exclusive relationship with one another while the marriage exists, we’re referring to marriage as a form of
monogamy

Some kinship groups trace their primary relationships via consanguine relatives. Anthropologists call this type of group
a descent group

While kinship is often thought of as a biological and culturally rule-bound process, recent developments have opened the door to kinship that is accomplished
by choice

The 1996 United States Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) sought to define marriage as it was being challenged, particularly in the realm of same-sex couples who wished to be recognized on a legal level. Parts of DOMA were struck down in 2013. Supporters of DOMA felt strongly that same-sex marriage posed a threat to
social order.

The nuclear family today is more myth than fact. Consisting, by definition, of a kinship unit of a mother, father and offspring, many forces have changed this definition. Historically, the nuclear family came into existence
during the industrialization of the nineteenth century.

Blood or consanguinal ties are the most common way we experience kinship. Our “kin” is often taken to mean a brother or sister. Marriage, however, changes all of that. Anthropologists refer to kinship established by marriage as
affinal relationship

For most societies, until quite recently, a marriage was done to meet social obligations. Only recently has love and pleasure become a reason to marry. Anthropology refers to these marital bonds as
companionate marriages

The text points out that biology and marriage are not the only basis for kinship in human societies. Which of the following are examples of other kinship strategies revealed in the chapter?
co-residence and co-feeding leading to adoption or fostering

Different cultures define kinship differently. Common to many is the idea that kinship helps everyone recognize who is related to who, which helps maintain the integrity of the incest taboo. In addition, nearly every culture includes an explicit understanding of how kinship confers rights around matters such as inheritance. More subtly, and often not made explicit in the defining of kinship, are
expectations placed on different relatives, such as mothers, fathers, uncles, etc.

In certain remote parts of Tibet, one woman will become married to all of the brothers in a particular family. Which term best describes this practice?
polyandry

In India, the compulsory practice of a bride’s family providing gifts to the groom’s family upon marriage was outlawed in 1961, as it led to multiple cases of domestic violence. This practice was best known as which of the following terms?
dowry

The long line of kings and queens that have ruled England have sometimes been a colorful source of contention, some having been challenged on the basis of their legitimacy. This particular genealogical tree depends on highly accurate documentation and is often referred to as
a lineage