Anatomy Final Exam Study Guide

What are the major controlling systems in the body?
endocrine and nervous

Which area of the brain is responsible for much of the body’s hormonal control?

What pathway does a simple reflex travel along?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

What are the major parts of a nerve cell?
dendrites, soma and axon

What is the electrical wave that travels down an axon?
action potential

What is the space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendtrite of another neuron?

What is the chemical that transfers the electrical signal from one neuron to another?

What is the primary integration center in a spinal reflex?
the spinal cord

What is gray matter?
unmyelinated parts of the brain and spinal cord

What is the covering that insulates axons?

What is the function of myelin?
speeds up nerve impulses

What area of the brain is responsible to interpreting information coming from the eyes?
occipital lobe

What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure

What part of brain controls movement?

What part of the brain acts as a thermostat to regulate body temperature?

What is the most common neurotransmitter in the body?

What is the function of the frontal lobe of the brain?
planning, reasoning, and voluntary movement

What are the meningeal layers?
dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater

What is an inflammation of the meninges?

What part of the brain controls our sex and food drive behaviors?
limbic system

All sensory information except olfactory must first travel through what part of the brain before it goes to the cortex?

What are the photoreceptors of the retina?
rods and cones

What point on the retina has no photoreceptors?
blind spot

Which photoreceptor allows humans to see in dim light?

Which photoreceptor allows humans to see in color?

What structure regulates the amount of light that passes to the visual receptors of the eye?

Where are the receptors for hearing located in the ear?

Why can corneas can be transplanted without being rejection?
they have no blood supply

What stimulates olfactory cells and taste buds?
substances in solution (mucus and saliva)

Which division of the autonomic nervous system controls our “fight or flight” response?

Which division of our autonomic nervous system controls our “feed and breed” response?

List the structures of the eye through which light passes to the retina.
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina

What structures make up the brain stem?
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

What are the two types of neuroglia that produce myelin?
Schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS

As an action potential travels down the axon how does the electical charge, polarization, change?
It becomes depolarized.

If a neuron responds at all, it responds completely. This is known as what?
The All or None Principle

What is the master endocrine gland?
pituitary gland

What hormone plays the greatest role in the contractions of the uterus during labor?

Describe endocrine glands.
ductless, well vascularized, small and widely separated in the body, and release hormones directly into the blood

What anabolic hormone stimulates growth of all body tissues especially skeletal muscle and bone?

What is the function of insulin?
lower blood sugar

What is adrenaline?
Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. It is released into the bloodstream in response to stress, such from fear or physical injury. Also called EPINEPHRINE.

What is cortisol?
secreted by the adrenal cortex; it aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy; also called hydrocortisone

What is growth hormone?
Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary; controls size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth

What is melatonin?
Hormone released by pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark

Blood has many function. Maintaining normal pH would be classed as what?

increased white blood cells
If a person has a bacterial infection, what abnormality would a blood test show?

the left ventricle.
Which wall of the heart is thicker to allow it to pump blood at a greater pressure?

What vessels carry blood away from the heart?

delivers materials and regulates all systems of the body
What is the function of the circulatory system?

pulse pressure
What is systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure?

red bone marrow
Where are red blood cells produced?

SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers, bundle of His
List components of the cardiac conduction system.

What structures keep blood flowing in the right direction?

left ventricle, aorta, body, vena cava, right atrium
Describe the flow of blood, starting with the left ventricle.

What vessels are lowest in oxygen?

What is the universal blood recipient?

A, B, O, AB
What types of blood can the universal recipient receive?

What protein found in blood carries oxygen to body tissue?

What is the term for contraction of the heart?

What is the term for relaxation of the heart?

salt, stress, genetics
What are risk factors for high blood pressure?

75 bpm
What is the average normal heart rate?

taking in and eliminating gases from the body
What is the basic function of the respiratory system?

increase of carbon dioxide
What causes a person to breathe?

lubricating the lungs and reducing friction
What is the function of the pleurae of the lungs?

ciliated mucous lining the nose
What prevents a lot of the particles you breath from reaching the lungs?

nose, pharnx, larynx, trachea, bronchii, bronchioles, alveoli
What is the main pathway of air from outside of the body to the capillaries of the lungs?

simple diffusion
How is gas exchanged in the alveoli?

Name a bad habit that can damage the lungs.

What is the term for inflammation of the lungs?

forces air out of lungs, increases the size of the thoracic cavity, increases the internal pressure of the lungs
How does contraction of the diaphragm aid in breathing?

chemical digestion
What type of digestion occurs when enzymes break lipids, carbohydrates and proteins into smaller molecules?

peristaltic waves
What are waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another?

breaks down complex molecules for use by the cells
What is the function of the digestive system?

the pancreas
What gland is involved in helping to break down fats?

What enzyme helps to break down carbohydrates?

What enzyme helps to break down proteins?

What disorder occurs when the colon does not absorb enough water?

What are the finger like extensions lining the small intestine that increase the surface area?

increase absorption
Why is it important to increase the surface area of the small intestine?

Where is bile produced?

emulsifies fat
What does bile do?

maintains homeostasis by regulating the composition , pH and volume of body fluids
What is the function of the urinary system?

ureters and urethra
What tubes conduct urine out of the body?

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

The nitrogenous wastes urea and uric acid are found in what body fluid?

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