Anatomy Final Exam Study Guide

What are the major controlling systems in the body?
endocrine and nervous
Which area of the brain is responsible for much of the body’s hormonal control?
hypothalamus
What pathway does a simple reflex travel along?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
What are the major parts of a nerve cell?
dendrites, soma and axon
What is the electrical wave that travels down an axon?
action potential
What is the space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendtrite of another neuron?
synapse
What is the chemical that transfers the electrical signal from one neuron to another?
neurotransmitter
What is the primary integration center in a spinal reflex?
the spinal cord
What is gray matter?
unmyelinated parts of the brain and spinal cord
What is the covering that insulates axons?
myelin
What is the function of myelin?
speeds up nerve impulses
What area of the brain is responsible to interpreting information coming from the eyes?
occipital lobe
What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure
What part of brain controls movement?
cerebellum
What part of the brain acts as a thermostat to regulate body temperature?
hypothalamus
What is the most common neurotransmitter in the body?
acetylcholine
What is the function of the frontal lobe of the brain?
planning, reasoning, and voluntary movement
What are the meningeal layers?
dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
What is an inflammation of the meninges?
meningitis
What part of the brain controls our sex and food drive behaviors?
limbic system
All sensory information except olfactory must first travel through what part of the brain before it goes to the cortex?
thalamus
What are the photoreceptors of the retina?
rods and cones
What point on the retina has no photoreceptors?
blind spot
Which photoreceptor allows humans to see in dim light?
rods
Which photoreceptor allows humans to see in color?
cones
What structure regulates the amount of light that passes to the visual receptors of the eye?
iris
Where are the receptors for hearing located in the ear?
cochlea
Why can corneas can be transplanted without being rejection?
they have no blood supply
What stimulates olfactory cells and taste buds?
substances in solution (mucus and saliva)
Which division of the autonomic nervous system controls our “fight or flight” response?
sympathetic
Which division of our autonomic nervous system controls our “feed and breed” response?
parasympathetic
List the structures of the eye through which light passes to the retina.
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, retina
What structures make up the brain stem?
midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
What are the two types of neuroglia that produce myelin?
Schwann cells in PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS
As an action potential travels down the axon how does the electical charge, polarization, change?
It becomes depolarized.
If a neuron responds at all, it responds completely. This is known as what?
The All or None Principle
What is the master endocrine gland?
pituitary gland
What hormone plays the greatest role in the contractions of the uterus during labor?
oxytocin
Describe endocrine glands.
ductless, well vascularized, small and widely separated in the body, and release hormones directly into the blood
What anabolic hormone stimulates growth of all body tissues especially skeletal muscle and bone?
thyroid
What is the function of insulin?
lower blood sugar
What is adrenaline?
Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands. It is released into the bloodstream in response to stress, such from fear or physical injury. Also called EPINEPHRINE.
What is cortisol?
secreted by the adrenal cortex; it aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy; also called hydrocortisone
What is growth hormone?
Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary; controls size of an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth
What is melatonin?
Hormone released by pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark
regulatory
Blood has many function. Maintaining normal pH would be classed as what?
increased white blood cells
If a person has a bacterial infection, what abnormality would a blood test show?
the left ventricle.
Which wall of the heart is thicker to allow it to pump blood at a greater pressure?
arteries
What vessels carry blood away from the heart?
delivers materials and regulates all systems of the body
What is the function of the circulatory system?
pulse pressure
What is systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure?
red bone marrow
Where are red blood cells produced?
SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers, bundle of His
List components of the cardiac conduction system.
valves
What structures keep blood flowing in the right direction?
left ventricle, aorta, body, vena cava, right atrium
Describe the flow of blood, starting with the left ventricle.
Veins
What vessels are lowest in oxygen?
AB
What is the universal blood recipient?
A, B, O, AB
What types of blood can the universal recipient receive?
hemoglobin
What protein found in blood carries oxygen to body tissue?
systole
What is the term for contraction of the heart?
diastole
What is the term for relaxation of the heart?
salt, stress, genetics
What are risk factors for high blood pressure?
75 bpm
What is the average normal heart rate?
taking in and eliminating gases from the body
What is the basic function of the respiratory system?
increase of carbon dioxide
What causes a person to breathe?
lubricating the lungs and reducing friction
What is the function of the pleurae of the lungs?
ciliated mucous lining the nose
What prevents a lot of the particles you breath from reaching the lungs?
nose, pharnx, larynx, trachea, bronchii, bronchioles, alveoli
What is the main pathway of air from outside of the body to the capillaries of the lungs?
simple diffusion
How is gas exchanged in the alveoli?
smoking
Name a bad habit that can damage the lungs.
bronchitis
What is the term for inflammation of the lungs?
forces air out of lungs, increases the size of the thoracic cavity, increases the internal pressure of the lungs
How does contraction of the diaphragm aid in breathing?
chemical digestion
What type of digestion occurs when enzymes break lipids, carbohydrates and proteins into smaller molecules?
peristaltic waves
What are waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another?
breaks down complex molecules for use by the cells
What is the function of the digestive system?
the pancreas
What gland is involved in helping to break down fats?
amylase
What enzyme helps to break down carbohydrates?
pepsin
What enzyme helps to break down proteins?
diarrhea
What disorder occurs when the colon does not absorb enough water?
villi
What are the finger like extensions lining the small intestine that increase the surface area?
increase absorption
Why is it important to increase the surface area of the small intestine?
liver
Where is bile produced?
emulsifies fat
What does bile do?
maintains homeostasis by regulating the composition , pH and volume of body fluids
What is the function of the urinary system?
ureters and urethra
What tubes conduct urine out of the body?
nephron
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
urine
The nitrogenous wastes urea and uric acid are found in what body fluid?