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Anatomy: Chapter 5 Inegumentary

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In alopecia, new hair growth stops because cell division is inhibited in the_________.
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Hair matrix
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Susan sat out in the sun watching a baseball game. She developed small blisters on her unprotected shoulders and neck. What type of burn is represented by the formation of the blisters?
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second-degree burn
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When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.
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False
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________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires.
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Porphyria
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In general, skin cancer is least likely to develop in which of the following locations?
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scalp
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Which skin appendages aid in cooling the body to prevent overheating on a hot day or during intense exercise?
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eccrine sweat glands
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Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease?
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The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
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Which glands produce ear wax?
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Ceruminous glands
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Hair and nails are made primarily of calcium.
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False
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The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called:
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dermal papillae.
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Which of the following is NOT a layer of the epidermis?
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stratum reticulum
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Sam is so cold that he has “goose bumps.” What causes goose bumps?
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arrector pili muscles pulling hair follicles into an upright position
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A Caucasian patient with pale skin is treated for low blood pressure with medication that elevates the blood pressure; however, the skin’s pallor does not change. Which of the following is the most likely cause of the pallor in this patient?
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Anemia
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A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.
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True
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The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
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99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
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The hypodermis is distinguished by an abundance of ______.
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fat cells
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The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
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stratum basale
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Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play little role in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?
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in the axillary and anogenital area
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The outermost sheath of a hair follicle is the connective tissue root sheath.
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True
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Vernix caseosa is a ________.
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whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
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Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?
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Meissner’s corpuscle
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The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.
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True
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The ________ is a thin translucent band found only in thick skin.
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stratum lucidum
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Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
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Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
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A dendritic or Langerhan cell is a specialized ________.
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phagocytic cell
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Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
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by using the “rule of nines”
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The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes.
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True
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Which of the following would most likely be found in the stratum spinosum?
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dendritic cell
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Which skin pigment is made in the skin itself?
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melanin
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Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?
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Dendritic cells activate the immune system
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A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot.almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?
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basale
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The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function?
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macrophages called dendritic cells (Langerhans Cell)
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Which layer(s) of the skin is(are) damaged in a second-degree burn?
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The epidermis and the superficial region of the dermis are damaged.
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The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
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the reticular layer
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If a large number of whiteheads appear on the skin of the forehead, which of the following would result?
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(all of the above) bacteria on the forehead’s skin would grow and multiply freely the forehead’s skin would become dry fine hairs on the forehead would become brittle
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Sweat is secreted by ________.
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sudoriferous glands
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Which layer is composed primarily of stratified squamous epithelium?
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Epidermis
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The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.
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False
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Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?
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Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
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Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure?
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Meissner’s corpuscles
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What protects the fetus’s skin within the water-filled amniotic sac?
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vernix caseosa
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Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?
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Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
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The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft.
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False
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During the regressive phase of hair growth, the matrix dies and the follicle atrophies.
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true
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Which of the following is a metabolic function of skin?
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synthesis of a vitamin D precursor
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Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________.
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resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
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Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
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Tactile cells anchor the skin to the body.
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The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________
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overexposure to UV radiation
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Our skin helps us to regulate our body temperature.
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True
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Why might soap that has an alkaline base not be healthy for some patients to use daily?
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The base will neutralize the acid on the skin that retards the growth of bacteria, and the removal of the normal microbiota of skin will leave the person exposed to opportunistic pathogens.
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The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
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False
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Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.
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True
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Which stratum of the epidermis is responsible for regenerating the more superficial layers?
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stratum basale
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The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers.
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True
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The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.
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False
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The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________.
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by hormones, especially androgens
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Which is the most common type of skin cancer?
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basal cell carcinoma
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The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
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the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
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What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
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catastrophic fluid loss
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Which of the following represents a difference between eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands?
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The secretions of apocrine sweat glands contain more fat and protein than do the secretions of eccrine sweat glands.
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Which layer of the dermis is directly below the epidermis?
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papillary layer
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Acne is a disorder associated with ________.
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sebaceous glands
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In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin?
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It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
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It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
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False
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The skin is permeable to organic solvents, such as acetone or turpentine, because they ________.
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can dissolve the lipid bilayers of epidermal and dermal cell plasma membranes
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The skin is NOT a ________ barrier?
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Metabolic
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In the presence of sunlight, modified cholesterol is converted into Vitamin D precursors in the skin.
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True
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Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.
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accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
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Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands.
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False
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Which of the following best explains the fact that eyebrows do not grow as long as the hair on the head?
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The hair follicles of the eyebrows are active for only a few months before becoming inactive; the hair follicles in the scalp are active for years before becoming inactive.
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A cancerous growth on the skin will likely exhibit ________.
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asymmetry
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Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?
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eccrine and apocrine
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The design of a person’s epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?
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They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
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Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
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Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
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The skin consists of two main regions. From deep to superficial they are the ________.
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dermis and epidermis
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Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. A blister forms and the burn is painful. Joe’s burn would best be described as a third-degree burn.
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false
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Sebum does NOT ________.
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protect the skin from the damaging effects of UV radiation
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What is the most important role of the arrector pili muscles in humans?
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Cause the hair follicle to stand erect
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The biggest risk factor for the development of skin cancer is excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight.
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True
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Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and metastasize?
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Squamous cell carinoma
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The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
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external root sheath
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When a patient is said to have “third-degree burns,” this indicates that the patient has burns that cover approximately one-third or more of the body.
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False
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The Waldorf family was caught in a fire but escaped. Unfortunately, the father and daughter suffered burns. The father had second-degree burns on his chest, abdomen, and both arms, and third-degree burns on his entire left lower extremity. The daughter suffered first-degree burns on her head and neck and second-degree burns on both lower extremities. What percentage of the daughter’s body received first-degree burns? What part of the daughter’s body has burns to both the dermis and epidermis?
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9% the legs
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Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.
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True
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What is the role of the hair matrix?
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The hair matrix produces hair.
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The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation.
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True
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The most dangerous type of skin cancer is ________.
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melanoma
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The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle.
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False
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The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis?
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fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
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The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
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allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
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Melanin protects skin cell DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
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True
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Which of the following does NOT protect the skin from bacteria?
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the temperature of the skin
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A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
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corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
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Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
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The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
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The source of the fluid that accumulates in a blister is________.
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the plasma of the blood flowing through the numerous dermal blood vessels
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We are told that every surface we touch is teeming with bacterial cells, and bacteria are found in the pools we swim in, the water we wash with, and on the hands of friends. Why are we not inundated with bacterial infections on our skin?
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All of these answers are correct.
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Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
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eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
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Which structures of the dermis give rise to friction ridges (fingerprints)?
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dermal ridges
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The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.
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True
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In a woman that has hirsutism, ________.
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androgens stimulate vellus hair to become terminal hair
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What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?
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nutrition and hormones
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The 68-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital medical floor with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. His wife asks the nurse why his skin looks blue. How would you explain cyanosis to this patient and his wife?
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Cyanosis is a dusky bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs with reduced oxygen levels.
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Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
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True