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Anatomy and Physiology of Speech and Hearing Mechanisms

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types of connective tissue
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tendons ligaments cartilage bone
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nearest; closer to the body
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proximal
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prefix for “not having something”
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a-
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pertaining to one side
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lateral
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non-elastic, tough fibers
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tendons
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blood carries _______ of metabolism away fro the cells of the body
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bi-products
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(os)
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bone
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how are the different tissues categorized by?
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different amounts of kinds of intercellular material and different shapes of cells
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cilia has a _______ function
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cleansing
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this cartilage forms structures like the larynx and trachea
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hyoid cartilage
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toward the outward surface or part
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peripheral
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suffix for “inflammation”
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-itis
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what are all the anatomical positions?
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superior/inferior cranial/caudal dorsal/ventral posterior/anterior proximal/distal medial/lateral
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head
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cranial
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power units of cells
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mitochondria
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a vertical longitudinal slice that divides the body into a left and right part
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sagittal section
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simple epithelium
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single layer
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these orientations don’t change
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absolute orientations
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glandular (e.g. salivary, sweat, mucous) has a _________ function
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secretory
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cartilage is part of what system?
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skeletal
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(arthro)
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joints
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prefix for “within”
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intra-
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a horizontal section that divides the body into an upper and lower part
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transverse section
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this cartilage is milky-white
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hyoid cartilage
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what are the vital functions of the inner ear system?
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balance and hearing
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the respiratory system provides the ________ for speech
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power
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joints that allow moderate flexion between bones (vertebrae of the spinal column)
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amphiarthroidial
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what are the different types of joints?
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syntarthroidial, amphiarthroidial, and diarthroidial
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supports epithelial cells and joins epithelium to connective tissues
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basilar membrane
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connects muscles to other muscles, muscles to bones, and muscles to cartilages
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tendons
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away from the center
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distal
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this cartilage is yellowish
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elastic cartilage
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what are the elementary tissues?
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epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous, vascular
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toward the front, away from the back
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anterior
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what are the vital functions of the articulatory system?
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alimentation (nourishment) and taste
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prefix for “below”
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sub-
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what systems are part of speech production?
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articulatory system, laryngeal system, and respiratory system
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this joint allos the brain and skull to expand in newborns
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syntarthroidial
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sheets of cells resting on a callogen-based membranous surface (cells may be flat, cube-shaped, cylindrical, pear-shaped, ciliated)
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epithelial tissue
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the inner ear developed an _______ that is finely tuned to the sound of the human voice
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auditory mechanism
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what are the different vascular tissues?
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blood and lymph
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a longitudinal vertical slice that divides the body into a front and back part
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coronal (frontal) section
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brings nutrients to the cells of the body
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blood
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compound epithelium
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multiple layers
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the intercellular matrix of bones is largely composed of _______
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inorganic salts
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toward the back; away from the front
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posterior
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prefix for “under, beneath, deficient”
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hypo-
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what are the vital functions of the laryngeal system?
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protection of trachea during swallowing and assistance for heavy lifting and pushing
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this type of joint is moveable or synovial
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diarthroidial
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toward the surface
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superficial
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what composes the cell structure?
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DNA, mitochondria, chromosomes, nucleus
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below
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inferior
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toward the backbone
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dorsal
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these orientations depend on how you are facing
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relative orientations
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connections between bones and bones, cartilages and cartilages, and bones and cartilages
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joints
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what are all the anatomical planes?
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coronal (frontal), sagittal, and transverse
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the articulatory system provides the _______ for speech
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filter
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what are the characteristics of living things?
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metabolism, reproduction, mobility, irritability, growth
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situated on the lower or abdominal surface
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ventral
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near the midline
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medial
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bind and support various structures in the body, mostly intercellular matrix of various kinds (fibers, minerals, collagen, fat) within which are the cells
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connective tissue
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above
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superior
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lying on the front
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prone
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what are the different types of cartilages?
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hyoid, elastic, and fibro-cartilage
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lying on the back
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supine
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main portion of skeletal system
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bone
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groups of cells that have a common function
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tissues
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joints that allow movement between bones or cartilages (e.g. elbow, laryngeal cartilages; can bend almost 180 degrees)
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diarthroidial
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prefix for “above/excessive”
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hyper-
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lymphocytes; defense against disease
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lymph
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joints between bones of cranium (brain case)
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syntarthroidial
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prefix for “opposite side”
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contra-
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_______ basic types of tissue with subordinate groups within each type
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5
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this cartilage has collagen fibers in its intercellular matrix and may “ossify” or harden over time
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hyalin cartilage
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type of joint that is flexible
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amphiarthroidial
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this connective tissue is strong and rigid
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bone
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a muscle that attaches to itself
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aponeurosis (tendon)
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lining of body cavities has _______ (e.g. stomach) and _______ (e.g. mouth, trachea) functions
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absorptive, protective
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toward the tail; away from the head
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caudal
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type of joint that is fibrous or immoveable
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syntarthroidial
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what are the vital functions of the respiratory system?
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exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, thermoregulation, and aid to olfaction
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this cartilage has elastic fibers and forms the pinna, nose, and epiglottis
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elastic cartilage
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this connective tissue withstands great pressure, but tears easily
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cartilage
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prefix for “around”
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peri-
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elastic, flexible fibers
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ligaments
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connect bone to bone, cartilage to cartilage, and bone to cartilage
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ligaments
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skin has a _______ function
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protective
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prefix for “away from”
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ab-
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surfaces between the vertebrae and sufaces of the temporo-mandibular joint (separates vertebrae and back)
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fibro-cartilage
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prefix for “on the same side”
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ipsi-
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prefix for “between”
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inter-
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“chondro”
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cartilage
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prefix for “together/towards”
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ad-
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the laryngeal system provides the _______ for speech
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sound
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away from the surface, toward the center
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deep
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prefix for “through”
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trans-
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the more fixed end of the muscle
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origin
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low muscle tone
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hypotonia
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area where trachea divides into bronchi
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carina
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all ribs are attached to the _______
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vertebrae
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neurons respond to external stimuli and send bioelectrical signals to the brina through a chain of _______ neurons
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afferent
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collections of tissues that work together in functional unity
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organs
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the spot on the neuron where the electrical signal jumps
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nodes of ranvier
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collections of organs or tissue aggregates that work together in functional unity
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systems
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what are the two types of pleura?
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visceral and parietal
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name the naming conventions
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naming by origin and insertion, naming by function, naming by location
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which lung is more susceptible to inhaling objects that are not supposed to be there?
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right
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neurons carry bioelectrical signals from the brain to other parts of the body through a chain of _______ neurons
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efferent
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the direction in which the muscle lies
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course
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muscle attachments
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origin, insertion, course
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colar bone = _______ scapula = _______
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clavicle shoulder blade
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a coated surface that keeps the signal on a neuron going in the correct direction
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myelin
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the base of the neuron that takes in the signal
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dendrites
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which long goes more straight down?
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right
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the end of the muscle that moves the most
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insertion
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going towards the brain
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afferent
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-itis = ________
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inflammation
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the cells comprising the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
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neurons
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area where the synaptic transition takes place on a neuron. it attaches to more dendrites and the process occurs all over again
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axon terminal
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the amount of contraction present even when a muscle is not being actively used
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tone
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area in the left lung where the heart is
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cardiac impression
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deoxygenated blood = _______ oxygenated blood = _______
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blue red
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going towards the periphery
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efferent
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tissues that provide movement in the body
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muscles
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what does the upper airway consist of?
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oral cavity, nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, epiglottis, vocal cords
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air is forced out of the lungs as the thoracic cavity contracts
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exhalation (expiration)
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muscles we control to effect movement, e.g. running, chewing, articulating speech, appear stripped
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striated muscles
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_______ pleura covers the lungs
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visceral
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air is drawn into the lungs as the thoracic cavity expands
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inhalation (inspiration)
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where the actual exchange of gas takes place
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alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
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_______ pleura lines the inside of the ribcage
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parietal
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what do the two pleuras produce?
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serum
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what are the components of the skeletal structure of the ribs?
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rib cage, sternum, thoracic spine, pectoral girdle: clavicle and scapula
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what makes up the sternum?
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manubrium, sternum, xiphoid process
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how many ribs are there altogether?
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12
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ribs serve as a _______ function
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protective
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these muscles are involuntary or visceral and form a milking action
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smooth
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how many sections does the right lung have? left?
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3, 2
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this type of muscle is voluntary, somatic, or skeletal
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striated
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what are the prefixes for “muscle”
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myo, mylo, sarco
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as bronchi continues to bifurcate, it stopes becoming cartilage and becomes more _______
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membranous
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this muscle forms many of the internal organs over which we do not have voluntary control, e.g. esophagus, intestines, muscles within the blood vessels; appear unstriped
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smooth
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area between the lungs
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mediastinum
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the trachea is in _______ of the esophagus
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front
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these muscles have characteristics of striated and smooth muscles; forms the heart
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cardiac muscles
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what are the different muscle cell types?
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striated, smooth, cardiac
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these ribs attach only to the vertebrae
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floating ribs
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pertaining to ribs
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costal
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muscles of inspiration pull the ribs _______
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up
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the force per unit applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface
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pressure
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what are the units of pressure?
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pascals (Pa), pounds per square in (PSI), manometric units (cm or in of H2O)
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these ribs attach to the vertebrae and the rib above it
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false ribs
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muscles of exhalation pull the ribs ______
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down
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when breathing in, chest _______, ribs _______, diaphragm _______
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expands move up contracts, comes down
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the process by which the body takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
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respiration
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what are all of the intercostal muscles?
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external and internal interchondral interosseous
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what are the external intercostals? are they used for inhalation or expiration?
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interosseous = inhalation
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what are the internal intercostals? are they used for inhalation or exhalation?
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interchondral = inhalation interosseous = exhalation
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which intercostal muscles are muscles of expiration?
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interosseous internal intercostal muscles
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of the intercostal muscles, which are the muscles of inspiration?
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external intercostal muscles and interchondral internal intercostal muscles
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spirometer measures the _______
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volume
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manometer measures the _______
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pressure
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magnetometer measures the _______
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displacement of the chest and abdominal walls
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the abdominal muscles are only used during exhalation or inhalation?
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exhalation
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what are the muscles of respiration?
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intercostals, abdominals, diaphragm, and supporting muscles
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the quantity of air that can be contained in a vessel or space
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volume
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what is volume measured in?
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liters (l), milliliters (ml), cubic centimeters (cc)
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pressure within the alveoli
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alveolar pressure
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the part of the skeletal system that protects the viscera of the thorax includes the…
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sternum, ribs, clavicle, scapula, thoracic vertebrae
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how many floating ribs are there?
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2
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middle of tidal breathing
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equilibrium
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how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
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12
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any muscles that depress the ribs and reduce the inside dimensions of the thorax promote _______
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expiration/exhalation
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discrete amounts of air in the lungs as a result of specific respiratory actions
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volumes
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the part of the air passageway existing within the respiratory system includes the…
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trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, air sacs, alveoli
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neumotachygraph measures the _______
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rate of airflow
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plethysmograph measures the _______
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capacity
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how many false ribs are there?
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3
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pressure inside the mouth
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intra-oral pressure
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start as cartilage, then ossify and fuse together as you get older; makes up the sternum
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manubrium, sternum, xiphoid process
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any muscles that help enlarge the rib cage promote _______
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inspiration/inhalation
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pressure below the glottis/vocal folds; need pressure build up to phonate
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subglottal pressure
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what is the most important muscle of inhalation?
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diaphragm
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the volume of air that moves through a given area in a unit of time
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air flow
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what units is air flow measured in?
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liters per sec (l/s), milliliters per sec (ml/s), milliliters per min (ml/m)
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the volume of air that can be forced out of the lungs with maximal effort after the expiration phase of tidal breathing
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expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
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the volume of air exchanged during a given task
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tidal volume (TV)
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the volume of air that can be inspired with maximal effort after the inspiration phase of tidal breathing
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inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
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how many true ribs are there?
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7
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what sticks to the lungs and rib cages?
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pleura
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when breathing out, chest _______, ribs _______, and diaphragm _______
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contracts, move down, relaxes (comes up)
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measuring stick by which we measure all the other pressures
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atmospheric pressure
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a passive process that uses relaxation of the muscles of inhalation to force the air out of the lungs
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exhalation/expiration
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these ribs attach to the sternum and the vertebrae
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true ribs
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the volume of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiration
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residual volume (RV)
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inhalation is primarily an active muscular process that depends on the participation of the _______ and on increasing the internal dimensions of the _______ to permit air to enter the lungs
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pleura, thoracic cavity
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separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
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diaphragm
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inspiratory muscles contract with greater effort to _______ more and relax to _______
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inhale, exhale
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a narrow device equipped with a light and a small camera that can be inserted down the throat to take pictures of laryngeal function
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endoscope
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an endoscope with a stroboscopic light source that permits the viewer to observe phonation in what appears to be slow motion
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stroboscope
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a procedure in which a light sensor placed on the neck near the level of the glottis measures a light source that shines through the glottis during abduction and phonation
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translumination
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speakers can produce a larger dynamic range of intensity at the _______
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mid-range of pitch
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speakers can vary intensity by as much as _______
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70 dB
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the sound intensity level of the voice will increase by about _______ when subglottal pressure is _______
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8 to 12 dB; doubled
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to lower pitch below habitual pitch, the _______ must contract
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vocalis
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anchor the arytenoid cartilages during cricothyroid action to achieve high pitch
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posterior cricoarytenoids (PCAs)
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mass per unit length must be decreased by a factor of _______ in order to _______ the frequency vibration — _______ action
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4, double, cricothyroid
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thicker, more flaccid folds vibrate more _______; thinner more tense folds vibrate _______
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slowly, quickly
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the activity of the muscles that control adduction also help contribute to the amount of tension in the vocal folds
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medial compression
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which muscles adduct the vocal folds and also help squeeze them together?
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lateral cricoarytenoids (transverse and oblique), muscularis
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the muscles that control the stretching and tensing forces applied to the vocal folds that change the pitch of the voice
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longitudinal tension
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which muscles make the vocal folds longer, more tense overall, and less massive per unit of length?
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cricothyroids
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which muscles make the vocal folds more tense internally, more flaccid at the vibrating edge, shorter and more massive per unit of length?
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vocalis
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what occurs during the attack phase?
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vocal folds adducted controlled exhalation subglottal pressure begins to deform the vocal folds from below when subglottal pressure finally forces vocal folds apart a burst of compressed air is released quickly Bernoulli effect comes into play to suck the folds back together elastic recoil forces operate to return vocal folds to a non-deformed position
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what occurs during the pre-phonation phase?
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vocal folds become adducted controlled exhalation is occurring (checking action) subglottal pressure builds up below the adducted vocal folds
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producing voicing by allowing the adducted vocal folds to vibrate
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attack phase
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the period during which the vocal folds undergo regular cycles of aerodynamic and myoelastic vibration
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attack phase
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describe Bernoulli effect
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increased air flow = increased KE = decreased air pressure
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the period during which the vocal folds move from an abducted position to an adducted position
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pre-phonation phase
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getting ready to produce voicing by adducting the vocal folds
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pre-phonation
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allowing airflow and subglottal pressure to blow the adducted vocal folds apart and allowing elastic recoil forces and the Bernoulli effect to bring them back together
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the open/close cycle of vocal fold vibration
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opening and closing the adducted vocal folds by aerodynamic and myoelastic forces
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vocal fold vibration
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opening and closing the glottis by active muscular force
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abduction and adduction
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on the vocal fold, which layer is cotton, thread-like?
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deep layer
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on the vocal folds, which layer is like a rubber band?
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intermediate layer
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on the vocal folds, which layer is gelatinous?
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superficial layer
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which layers of the vocal folds compose the lamina propia?
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superficial, intermediate, and deep layers
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the average female thyroid cartilage has a _______, which causes a _______ between the adducted vocal folds and leads to _______ during normal phonation.
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broader thyroid angle, posterior glottal gap, breathiness
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also known as strap muscles
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infrahyoid muscles
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_______ muscles control the shape of the glottis and vibration behaviors of the vocal folds
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intrinsic
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_______ muscles support and control the position of the larynx (elevate or depress it)
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extrinsic
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which layers compose the vocal ligament?
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deep and intermediate layers
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on the vocal fold, which layer does mucous production come from?
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epithelium
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what are the infrahyoid muscles?
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thyrohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothryoid, omohyoid
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what are the suprahyoid muscles?
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anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, geniohyoid
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suprahyoid muscles _______ the larynx
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elevate
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infrahyoid muscles _______ the larynx
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lower
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what are the only abductors in the larynx?
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posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) mucles
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what is the action of the internal thyrovocalis, thryovocalis, or vocalis muscles?
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regulate contraction of the vocal folds; tensor of folds
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what is the action of the external thyroarytenoid, thyromuscularis, or muscularis muscles?
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pull arytenoids forward and rotate them
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what are all of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
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vocalis (or thyrovocalis, or internal or medial thryoarytenoid) external or lateral thyroarytenoid (muscularis or thryomyscylaris) cricothyroid posterior cricoarytenoid lateral cricoarytenoid transverse arytenoid oblique arytenoid
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are intrinsic laryngeal muscles in pairs?
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yes
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what is the action of the transverse arytenoid muscles?
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approximate arytenoids, adductors
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what is the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscles?
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close and tense the vocal folds; adductors (major antagonist of PCA); add medial compression to vocal folds
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what is the action of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles?
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open and tense the vocal folds; abduction
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what is the action of the cricothyroid muscles?
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pull thyroid forward and elevate arch of cricoid; regulates vocal pitch by tensing and lengthening vocal folds
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what is the action of the oblique arytenoid muscles?
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draw apices together; adductors
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the vocal ligaments course between the inside of the _______ and the _______ processes of the _______ cartilages
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thyroid angle, vocalic, arytenoid
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muscles connecting parts of the larynx to each other
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intrinsic muscles
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muscles connecting the larynx to structures outside the larynx
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extrinsic muscles
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the suprahyoid set and the infrahyoid set are part of which muscles?
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extrinsic muscles
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intrinsic laryngeal muscles affect vocal fold _______
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tension
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attaches hyoid bone to thyroid
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lateral hyothyroid ligament
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which cartilage floats in the soft tissue of the thyroid?
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cuneiforms
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which laryngeal cartilage rotates?
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arytenoids
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runs across the airway
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vocal ligaments
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what is the apex attached to?
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arytenoids
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what are the different components of the thyroid?
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upper cornua, thyroid lamina, thyroid notch, lower cornua
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which laryngeal cartilage rocks backward and forwards?
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thyroid
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which cartilage sits right about the cricoid?
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thyroid
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when we swallow, the epiglottis folds over the _______ cartilage
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thyroid
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which process attaches to 3 muscles?
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muscular process
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which process attaches to the vocal ligaments?
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vocalic process
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the vocalic process and the muscular process are both attached to which cartilage?
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arytenoids
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which laryngeal cartilage sits on top of the cricoid towards the back?
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arytenoids
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how many facets does the cricoid have and to what other cartilages are they to?
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4; 2=thyroid; 2=arytenoids
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what are the laryngeal cartilages?
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cricoid, thyroid, arytenoids, epiglottis, corniculates, cuneiforms
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what is the only bone in the larynx?
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hyoid
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what cartilage is the lowest or the base in the larynx?
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cricoid
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what is the larynx composed of?
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laryngeal cartilages, hyoid bone, laryngeal ligaments and membranes
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we control air flow using the checking action both to increase or decrease the _______ and to provide subglottal air pressure control for _______
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loudness of sound; pitch
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air flows from regions of _______ pressure to regions of _______ pressure
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high; low
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when atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, we _______; when alveolar pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure, we _______
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inhale, exhale
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during speech production, inhalation is shorter than exhalation because we use _______ to control the rate of expiratory airflow
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an active checking action
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the phonatory system is also known as _______
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laryngeal or voicing system
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the volume of air the lungs can hold at the heigh of a maximum inspiration
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IRV + TV + ERV + RV = total capacity (TC)
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_______ forces result from contractions of the muscles of respiration, primarily the diaphragm, the intercostal muscles, and the abdominal muscles
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active
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_______ forces re the forces generated by the elastic recoil properties of the flexible tissue, including the muscles, ligaments, pleura, and lung tissue as they try to return from an extreme state to their resting state
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passive
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to maintain a controlled rate of airflow for proper subglottal pressure during speech, we use a _______ to retard the rapid elastic recoil (passive relaxation force) of the inspiratory muscles during expiration
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checking action
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abdominal muscles are active during checking action; in other words, they are function actively during _______ breathing
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speech
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the volume of air left in the lungs after the expiratory phase of tidal breathing
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ERV + RV = functional residual capacity (FRC)
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expiratory muscles must contract to _______ more and relax to _______
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exhale, inhale
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combinations of various volumes
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capacities
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the maximal inspiration that can be taken following a maximal expiration
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IRV + TV + ERV = vital capacity (VC)
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the volume of air that can be inhaled after the end of the expiratory phase of tidal breathing
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IRV + TV = inspiratory capacity (IC)
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which type of tissue has many kinds of inter-cellular matrix?
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connective tissue
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which kind of tissue may have cilia?
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epithelial tissue
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the joints between the various skeletal structures of the larynx are _______ joints because they allow the structures to articulate substantially
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diarthroidial or moveable or synovial
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the parts of the sternum are…
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manubrium, corpus, xiphoid process
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what type of muscle does the trachea contain?
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smooth or visceral or involuntary
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which bones constitute the pectoral girdle (or shoulder complex)?
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clavicles and scapulae
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what is the purpose of the visceral and parietal pleura?
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to lubricate and maintain contact between the pleura
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intercostal muscles are muscles that course between adjacent pairs of _______
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ribs
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interosseous intercostal muscles re muscle that course between the _______ portion of the ribs
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bony
question

interchondral interosseous muscles are muscles that course between the _______ portion of the ribs
answer

cartilagenous
question

interosseous internal intercostal muscles are active during ______
answer

exhalation
question

interosseous external intercostal muscles are active during _______
answer

inhalation
question

interchondral internal intercostal muscles are active during _______
answer

inhalation
question

there are no interchondral external intercostal muscles. true or false?
answer

true
question

the diaphragm muscles originate __________ and insert ________
answer

at the peripheral of the base of the ribcage; in their own central tendon (or aponeurosis)
question

when the diaphragm contracts, it becomes __________
answer

tense and flatter
question

which structures insure that as the chest cavity enlarges, the lungs are expanded?
answer

visceral and parietal pleurae