AMSCO World History Chapter 02 Vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Steven Ramirez
Tigris and Euphrates
rivers that flow south from Turkey through Iraq into the Persian Gulf; the site of many important early civilizations
Mesopotamia
the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; means \”between rivers\”
Fertile Crescent
overlaps with Mesopotamia but also includes an area to the west along the Mediterranean coast
Carthage
a Phoenician colony on the coast of North Africa; a significant outpost in the region
Sahara
a large desert in northern Africa
Kalahari
a desert in southern Africa
Nile River
begins in the interior of Africa and flows north to empty into the Mediterranean Sea
desertification
the creation of desert-like conditions
Indus River Valley
area in which the Dravidians established Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
environmental degradation
any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable
deforestation
the clearing of trees, transforming a forest into cleared land
Huang He
a major river in China; runs through the northern interior to the Yellow Sea
Chiang Jiang
a major river in China; runs 4000 miles across Central China
loess
a type of fertile soil that is yellow in color
Mesoamerica
Central America and what is now Mexico
maize
corn
Oceania
the vast region in the Pacific Ocean that includes New Guinea, Australia, and more than a thousand other islands
Polynesia
a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1000 islands in thester central and southern Pacific Ocean, including Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand
division of labor
the assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency
barter
a system by which one thing is exchanged for another
polytheistic
worshipping many gods
ziggurats
large stepped Sumerian pyramids
astronomy
the study of objects outside Earth’s atmosphere
astrology
predicting the future by studying movements of stars and planets
Hebrews
lived in Canaan; descendents became known as Israelites and later as Jews
Israelites
Hebrews that lived during the Jewish Diaspora
Jews
a later name for Israelites; believers in Judaism
Abraham
left Mesopotamia and founded Canaan in 2000BC; ancestor of all Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Moses
led the Hebrews out of Egypt; introduced the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
a code of conduct that became very influential in areas dominated by Christianity
monotheism
belief in one deity
Jewish Diaspora
the spreading of Jews throughout the Mediterranean world and the Middle East
Aten
a sun god; Akhenaton called for worship to him only
mummification
removing the body’s internal organs, drying the body with salts, and packing its insides and wrapping it with chemically treated cloth
Aryans
Indo-European speaking peoples originally from Central Asia
Hindi
commonly spoken in modern northern India; originated from a commonly used tongue used in Aryan society
Vedas
a collection of Aryan hymns, poems, and songs
brahmin
priestly
Vedic Age
800-400BC; marked by the Aryans’ growing awareness of Dravidian beliefs
brahma
an overarching, universal soul that connects all creatures on Earth
dharma
righteous duties and deeds described in the Upanishads
karma
fate
moksha
eternal peace and unity with brahma
ancestor veneration
the belief that ancestral spirits have the power to intervene in the affairs of the living
Golden Age
a period in a society of relative peace, prosperity, and innovation
scribes
a class of people skilled at cuneiform; charged first with record-keeping and later with writing history and myths
The Epic of Gilgamesh
the oldest written story on the earth; concerns the adventures of a king who ruled Uruk
cuneiform
the world’s first writing system; consisted of marks carved onto wet clay tablets
alphabetic script
a system of symbols (letters) that represent the sounds of speech
hieroglyphics
a form of picture writing developed by the people in the Nile Valley
papyrus
a type of plant that grew along the Nile River; its fibers were used to create a type of paper
Book of the Dead
a paper book that was put in coffins of pharaohs and nobles; told the story of the dead person
Indo-European language
a major language branch comprised of those found in Europe and large parts of Asia
Sanskrit
the Aryans’ sacred language in which most literary and religious works were recorded
Rig-Veda
sheds light on ancient Indian society; outlined proper brahmin behavior
Upanishads
a collection of religious thought that illuminated several new religious concepts; created through blending of both Aryan and Dravidian beliefs
pictographs
graphic symbols
glyphs
pictures and symbols of real objects
Austronesian-speaking people
originated in southern China, then moved to Taiwan, the Phillipines, and New Guinea
patriarchal
dominated by men
clans
each had its own territory and was headed by a male chief who ruled with advice from a committee in Aryan society
feudalism
origins lie in the Zhou regional network of rulers with relationships based on mutual defense agreements
Sumerians
a group of nomadic pastoralists that migrated into Mesopotamia before 5000BC
Sumer
a civilization created by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia
Uruk
the largest city in Sumer with a population of 50000
city-states
a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state
king
military rulers
kingdoms
the territory over which a king rules
Babylonians
a group of Persians who invaded Mesopotamia in 1900BC; built a new capital city called Babylon
empire
a large territory that includes diverse cultural groups
Phoenicians
occupied modern-day Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan around 3000BC; developed the alphabetic script
Old Kingdom
the first of three major time periods in Egypt; government centralized, pharaohs had power; fell to a rebellious noble class
Middle Kingdom
the second of three major time periods in Egypt; established by Mentuhotep II in 2040BC; encouraged loyalty through art and literature; fell to Hyksos invasions
New Kingdom
the last of three major time periods in Egypt; Ramses expanded territory and built more temples and statues; declined after his death
Hyksos
a pastoral nomadic people from modern Syria who defeated Middle Kingdom Egypt with superior technology
Hittites
a group of invaders with iron tools and weapons; invaded New Kingdom Egypt
Kush
a kingdom that arose after the decline of Nubia in 2500BC
Axum
the civilization that conquered Kush in 340s CE
Dravidians
indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent; established Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa
(H) one of two urban centers established by Dravidians in the Indus River Valley
Mohenjo-Daro
(M) one of two urban centers established by Dravidians in the Indus River Valley
Chavin civilization
existed from 1000-200BC on the coast of Peru; center was Chavin de Huantar; fell because of weak political structure
Olmec
the foundation of later civilizations such as the Maya and Aztec; lived in Mexico from 1200-400BC; agricultural society
Easter Island
the civilization that settled here built distinctive large stone statues
aboriginals
people belonging to one of the indigenous peoples of Australia
Hammurabi
Babylonians’ most power king; created a set of laws, reorganized tax structure, abolished local governments
Code of Hammurabi
a set of coded laws that protected people’s rights; built on the idea of \”an eye for an eye\”
King Menes
united Upper and Lower Egypt in 3100BC; establishes a capital at Memphis
pharaoh
the king or queen leading the government in Egypt
theocrats
rulers holding both religious and political power
Akhenaton
a pharaoh who called for the worship of one god, Aten
Ramses the Great
a powerful pharaoh who expanded the empire, built temples and statues, and made peace with the Hittites
Xia Dynasty
the first dynasty in China; began when Yu passed his power to Qi, lasted 400 years; little is known because a writing system had not yet developed
dynasty
a series of rulers who all belong to the same family
Shang Dynasty
began in 1750BC when Tang overthrew the Xia king and took power; lasted 600 years
Mandate of Heaven
the idea that a just ruler’s power is bestowed by the gods
Zhou Dynasty
began in 1045BC when military man Wu used his own army to challenge Shang rule and kill the king

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