AMSCO AP World History Chapter 2

Flashcard maker : Thomas Alday
Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers that flow south from modern-day Turkey through what is now Iraq to empty into the Persian Gulf
Mesopotamia
Greek word meaning \”between rivers\”, \”the cradle of civilization\”
Fertile Crescent
Overlaps with Mesopotamia but also includes an area to the west, along the Mediterranean coast
Sumerians
A group of nomadic pastoralists
Sumer
Civilization that provided the core and the foundation of several other civilizations in the Middle East
Uruk
The largest city in Sumer, with a population of 50,000
City-state
An independent city with its own form of government
Polytheistic
Worshiping many gods
Ziggurats
Large Stepped Pyramids
Cuneiform
The world’s first writing system
Scribes
People who were skilled at cuneiform and were charged with record-keeping and later with the writing of history and myths
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Possibly the oldest written story on earth
Babylonians
Persian people who invaded and took control of Mesopotamia
Empire
A large territory that included diverse cultural groups
Hammurabi
The Babylonian’s most powerful king
Code of Hammurabi
282 laws carved into stone monuments, their main purpose was to protect people’s rights
Astronomy
The study of objects outside Earth’s atmosphere
Astrology
Predicting the future by studying the movements of stars and planets
Phoenicians
Occupied parts of present-day Lebanon, Israel and Jordan around 3000 B.C.E.
Carthage
A Phoenician colony on the coast of North Africa that became a significant outpost in the region
Alphabetic script
A system of symbols (letters) that represent the sounds of speech
Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews
Lived in the region of Canaan–present-day Israel, Palestine, and Lebanon
Abraham
Founded Canaan; Jews, Christians, and Muslims all trace their religious heritage back to him
Moses
Led the Hebrew people out of Egypt
Ten Commandments
A code of conduct that became very influential in areas dominated by Christianity
Jewish Diaspora
The spreading of Jews throughout the Mediterranean world and the Middle East
The Four Major Climate Zones of Africa
1. Mediterranean
2. Desert
3. Rain forest
4. Savanna
Sahara
A desert in northern Africa
Kalahari
A desert in southern Africa
Nile River
A river that begins in the interior of Africa and flows north to empty into the Mediterranean Sea
Desertification
The creation of desert-like conditions
King Menes
United upper and lower Egypt
Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom
Three longs periods of stability in Egyptian history
Pharaoh
King or Queen leading Egyptian government
Theocrats
Rulers holding both religious and political power
Hyksos
Pastoral nomadic people from modern Syria who invaded Egypt, ending the Middle Kingdom
Akhenaton
The pharaoh who tried to change Egypt’s religion during the New Kingdom
Aten
The sun god that Akhenaton wanted the Egyptian people to worship
Ramses the Great
A powerful pharaoh who expanded the Egyptian Empire into Southwest Asia
Hittites
Invaders of the Egyptian Empire during the end of the New Kingdom
Mummification
Removing the body’s internal organs, drying the body with salts, and packing its insides and wrapping it with chemically treated cloth
Hieroglyphics
A form of picture-writing
Papyrus
A type of plant that was used to create an early form of paper
Book of the Dead
A paper book that Egyptians put in the coffins of dead pharaohs and some nobles; each version of the book was different since it told the story of the dead person
Nubia
A kingdom in the Upper Nile Valley that was heavily influenced by Egyptian culture
Kush
An important kingdom economically; After Nubia fell to decline, it reemerged as this kingdom
Axum
A kingdom founded on the plateau ofpresent-day Ethiopia; had an agricultural economy, Christianity was the official religion
Indus River Valley
Home to the indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent
Dravidians
The indigenous peoples of the Indian subcontinent
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Two sophisticated urban centers in the Indus River Valley
Environmental degradation
Damage to or destruction of the natural environment
Deforestation
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves
Aryans
Indo-European-speaking peoples originally from Central Asia
Barter
A system by which one thing is exchanged for another
Sanskirt
The sacred language of the Aryans
Hindi
Official language of India, Sanskirt evolved into this
Indo-European
Overarching group of languages including English, French, Latin, and Greek
Largest language family
48% of the world
Vedas
A collection of Aryan religious hymns, poems, and songs
Rig-Veda
Outlined proper priestly (brahmin) behavior
Vedic Age
Age marked by the Aryans’ growing awareness of Dravidian beliefs
Upanishads
A foundational text for the set of religious beliefs that later became known as Hinduism
Brahmin
Priests
Brahma
An overarching, universal soul that connects all creatures on Earth
Dharma
To escape the seemingly endless cycle of birth and rebirth, one must perform righteous duties and deeds, known as one’s:
Karma
One’s fate
Moksha
Eternal peace and unity with brahma
Huang He (Yellow) and Chiang Jiang (Yangtze)
Two major rivers in China
Loess
A type of fertile soil that is yellow in color
Xia Dynasty
Not much is known about this dynasty
It began with Yu passing power to his son Qi
Dynasty
A series of rulers who all belong to the same family
Shang Dynasty
The kings in this dynasty wielded tremendous economic and religious power
Ancestor Veneration
The practice of praying to your ancestors. Found especially in China.
Pictographs
Pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
Zhou dynasty
Longest dynasty in Chinese history
Golden Age
The first 200 years of the Zhou rule, a period in society of relative peace, prosperity, and innovation
Mandate of Heaven
In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
Feudalism
A system of government based on landowners and tenants
Maize
Corn
Mesoamerica
Central America and what is now Mexico
Chavin civilization
A civilization along the coast of Peru
Solder
To weld, fuse or join, as with a soldering gun
Olmec
The foundation of several advanced civilizations in Mesoamerica
Glyphs
Pictures and symbols of real objects, used as a form of writing
Oceania
The vast region in the Pacific Ocean that includes New Guinea, Australia, and more than a thousand other islands
Austronesian-speaking people
Originated in southern China and later moved to Taiwan and the Philippines, Introduced agriculture to the people of New Guinea
Aboriginals
Australian natives who remained hunter-foragers
Polynesia
A chain of South Pacific islands that includes Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand
Easter Island
An example of how humans can degrade ecosystems to a point that civilization collapses
Nihilism
The rejection of moral or ethical principles

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