American history I – Chapter 12

Flashcard maker : Steven Ramirez
reconstruction
the period after the Civil War from 1865-1877 in the United States in which the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and that blacks should have citizenship, suffrage and other rights
Thaddeus Stevens
A Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress.
Freedmen’s Bureau
1865 – Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks, helped them get jobs, and provided schools and hospitals.
black codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
fourteenth amendment
1868, declared all persons born or naturalized in the US were citizens, and obligated the states to respect the rights of US citizens and provide them with equal protection of the laws and due process of law; states required to uphold the rights of citizens for first time
impeach
To formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
fifteenth amendment
1870 constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting rights regardless of race or previous condition of servitude
scalawag
Southern whites who supported Republican policies during reconstruction and who joined the Republican party
carpetbagger
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Hiram Revels
1870, elected to take Mississippi Senate seat from Jefferson Davis – he became the first African American member of the U.S. Senate
sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
tenant farming
A system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
panic of 1873
Five year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant’s poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver).
redemption
Southern Democrats term for their return to power in the South in the 1870s
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the 1876 election in which electoral votes were contested in 3 states, most corrupt election in US history
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
home rule
Ability to run state governments without the interference of the federal government

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