American History Chapter 13 Test

Flashcard maker : Jill Lopez
Who were Mountain Men?
Fur trappers who opened up the west by finding mountain passes.
Why did the fur trade decline?
Silk was over taking the fur industry
Why did people move west?
1. Religious Freedom
2. To Trade/Make money
3. Escape Debts/ Legal problems
What was a land speculator?
People who bought large chunks of land and sold small bits, at more expensive prices, to settlers
Why did people head to Oregon?
Mainly to farm; others went to convert NAs to Christianity
Who headed to Utah? Why?
Mormons, they moved there to free pursue their religion
Why do people settle in Texas?
The Spanish government need help keeping Native Americans to follow the law
After Mexico wins independence from Spain, how do things change between Texans and the Mexican government?
1. Texans have to follow the New Mexican law
2. All official documents have to be in Spanish
3. No slavery
What leads to the Battle of the Alamo?
Settlers in Texas did not like what Mexico wanted them to do, so the Texans were trying to become independent from Mexico
What happened at the Alamo?
The Texans were out numbered by the much stronger Mexican army. All but 4 of the defenders were killed.
How does Texas gain independence?
After the Alamo, Texans rally and fight against Santa Anna at San Lacinto. The Texans win the battle and force Mexico to grant them Texas.
Who commanded the Texas army?
Sam Houston
What is Texas called after it wins independence?
The Lone Star Republic
Texas wants to join the US and become a state. Why does the US say no?
1. Northern States were afraid of slavery spreading. They were afraid that the slave states would out number the free.
2. US didn’t want to make Mexico angry or go to war with them
What is Manifest Destiny?
The belief that the US was to expand from \”sea to shining sea\”
Who is the President that pushes Manifest Destiny?
James K. Polk
How does the US get the Oregon territory?
They sign a treaty with Britain. They split the land in half, the Brits get the northern part and the US gets the southern half
In 1845, almost 10 years after Texas won independence from Mexico, Congress finally admits Texas as a state. How does Mexico react?
Mexico breaks off any diplomatic relations with the US (they are pretty mad). They prepare for war.
What started the Mexican-American War?
The US said the Southern border of Texas was the Rio Grande. Mexico said it was the Nueces River. Polk sent troops to the Rio Grande to \”patrol the US border\” knowing Mexico would react and \”shed American blood on American soil.\”
What military strategy does the US use to invade Mexico?
The quesadilla strategy. The US invaded from 2 different directions.
What treaty ended the war with Mexico?
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
What was the Gadsden Purchase?
It was a purchase of 10 million dollars of a small strip of land in Southern NM and AZ. Bought to complete transcontinental railroad and completed present day continental USA.
How does the US victory help fulfill Manifest Destiny?
The US takes half of Mexico’s land. Helps the US stretch sea to shining sea.
Who were Californios?
Settlers of Mexican or Spanish descent who settled California
What was John Marshall discover in John Sutter’s land?
How do people get to California?
1. Take a 18,000 mile trip around the the tip of SA
2. Sail to the Isthmus of Panama and cross the dense rainforest
3. Travel across NA
What were people who went to California called? Why?
The 49ers; because in 1849 people rushed for gold and came to Cali.
What was the fate of most miners?
Most ended up more broke then when they left
Why is California able to skip being a territory?
People moved out the California so quickly that by 1850 CA already has more than 60,000 people so it can directly apply for statehood.
What was unique about the way California and Texas became states?
Neither one of them were territory’s before it became a state.
Why did some people not want California to become a state?
It would unbalance the number of slave and free states. It leads to the Compromise of 1850.

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