American History After 1865

Flashcard maker : Elizabeth Hill
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage and believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.(712-713)
Ten Percent Plan
(Lincoln’s Plan, 1863) a southern state could form a new government after 10% of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States; had to abolish slavery. Radicals wanted to replace with the Wade-Davis bill.(707)
Wade Davis Bill
A program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln’s more lenient Ten Percent Plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy.(708)
Freedman’s Bureau
it’s purpose was to assist refugees, poor, and homeless Freedmen. Ran by Union soldiers provided, food, medicine, legal advice on labor contracts, and could request military courts to intervene for the freemen in March of 1865. First Federal experiment in Social Welfare.(706)
Black Codes
After Johnson took office and before Congress could intervene with its own plan for Reconstruction, many Southern states passed black codes- laws to keep African Americans subordinate to whites by restricting the rights of freed slaves Ex- blacks could not meet together after sunset, own weapons, rent property anywhere other than rural areas (this kept them working on plantations) -blacks convicted of vagrancy (not working) could be whipped or sold for a year’s labor -basically continued the practice of slavery -Congress ultimately passed the 14th Amendment & the Civil Rights Act of 1866(711-714)
14th Amendment
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws. Second of three \”Reconstruction Amendments\” passed after Civil War. Ratified july 28,1878(714-715)
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude.Ratified in 1870(719)
Carpetbaggers
northerners who came to the South after the war and participated in the republican government of the reconstructed south. Union verterans seeking economic opportunity and political spoils..but also consisted of missionary efforts by teachers, social workers and preachers.(724-725)
Scalawags
white southern republicans -some former unionists- who served in reconstruction governments. included confederate general James Longstreet. Also included former Whigs who were attracted by the Republican partys economic program of industrial and commercial expansion. Mor reviled than carpetbaggers.(724-725)
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
Johnson tried to remove Edwin Stanton from office and replace him with Lorenzo Thomas.
house of Rep. Led by Thaddeus Stevens, proposed eleven articles of Impeachment detailing Johnson’s \”high crimes and misdemeanors.\” Charged for violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by congress in 1867.
The house agreed to the articles and on Feb 24, 1868 Johnson was impeached, but acquitted by a single vote.
He finished his term on March 4, 1869 and was succeeded by Ulysses S. Grant.(717-719)
Compromise of 1877
Deal made by a special congressional commission on March 2, 1877, to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Rutherford B. hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, marking the end of Reconstruction.(735-736)
New South Chapter 19
Promoted by Henry Grady . The south could no longer depend on slavery and cotton to survive but rather must industrialize and in order to do so education and vocational training were the keys to material success and peace and racial harmony would contribute to a stable enviornment for econnomic growth.(748-750)
Sharecropping
type of farm tenancy that developed after the civil war in which landless owners-typically freedmen and poor whites- farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop. Differed from tenancy in that the terms for far less favorable and often tied the farmer to poverty(753)
Redeemers
In post Civil war southern politics they were the supporters of postwar Democratic leaders who supposedly saved the South from yankee domination and the constraints of purely rural econonmy(753)
Bourbons
opponents of the Redeemers . known for having forgotten nothing and learning nothing from the ordeal of the Civil war., This Southern group opposed the Redeemers and attempted to ignore the Civil War and continue the traditions of the old South, and although they never united did own the South over the redeemers. They were able to keep power by an alliance with northern capitalists, cutting the budget on everything and repudiating the debt. They cut thing including the Freedmen’s Bureau school and they also gave tax cuts to big business. They also used convict leasing which was opposed by many as their were many Southern convicts under federally imposed state laws and no prisons to house them in(753)
Jim Crow laws
In the new south these laws mandated the separation of races in various public places that served as a way for the ruling whites to impose their will on all aspects of black life, series of laws passed in southern states in the 1880s and 1890s that segregated the races in many facets of life, including public conveyances, waiting areas, bathrooms, and theaters; it legalized segregation and was upheld as constitutional by Plessy v. Ferguson.(759)
Plessy V. Ferguson
(1896) Plessy was made to sit in the black train car because he was an octoroon (1/8 black). . Established \”seperate but equal\” clause, an 1896 Supreme Court Case in which Chief Justice Melville Fuller declared that state laws that enforced racial segregation (such as the Jim Crow laws) were constitutional if \”separate but equal\” facilities were provided for both races
Ida B. Wells Barnett
an African American journalist and newspaper editor. An early leader in the civil rights movement, she documented the extent of lynching in the United States.The Red Record She was also active in the women’s rights movement and the women’s suffrage movement. helped found the NAACP 1909. She was first African American to file a lawsuit based on discrimination.(761)
Booker T.Washington
founder of the Tuskegee Institute (1881) who adopted a moderate approach to addressing racism and segregation; urged his fellow African Americans to learn vocational skills and to strive for gradual improvement in their social, political, & economic status (rather than pursuing civil rights and political reform).(Quotes found pg 762 ) \”Cast down your buckets…\” The Atlanta Compromise
W.E.B. Du Bois
An American civil rights activist. He became the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910, becoming founder and editor of the NAACP’s journal The Crisis. He rose to national attention in his opposition of Booker T. Washington’s ideas of social integration between whites and blacks, campaigning instead for increased political representation for blacks in order to guarantee civil rights, and the formation of a Black elite that would work for the progress of the African American race. He was willing to form alliances with progressive White Americans in pursuit of civil rights.(761-763)
Dawes Severality Act
sponsored by Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, the act divided the land of any tribe, granting 160 to each head of the family and lessor amount to others- Dawes Act created opportunities for more white plundering of Indian land and disrupted what remained of their traditional culture. 1887-1934 lost 86 of 130 million acres what remained was unsuited for agriculture.(775)
Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis
The area of a free land, its continuous recession and the advance of American settlement westward explain american development. the frontier shaped national character. the nations moving force of democratic policies, open society, unfettered economy, rugged individualism far removed from the corruption of urban life.(782-783)
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west. It opened the western half of the US to economic development, created an interconnected national market. The railroad was also a giant consumer of steel,lumber, iron and other capital goods.Union Pacific workers were former Confederate and Union soldiers, former slaves, and Irish and German immigrants. The Central Pacific was mainly Chinese immigrants.The railroads were federally and privately funded by men like Cornelius Vanderbilt and Jay Gould.(789-794)
John D.Rockefeller
American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the first U.S. billionaire. He perfected the idea of a holding company, a company that controlled another company by holding all or a majority of the companies stock. During his lifetime he donated some $500 million to charitable causes like education and medicine.(796-799)
Andrew Carnegie
He rose from poverty to become one of the richest men in the world by gaining virtual control of the U.S. steel industry. He had begun the process of vertical integration, by which he came to control raw materials, transportation, and distribution within the steel industry, managing every stage of the production process from beginning to end. . He was also notable as a philanthropist, who gave millions of dollars to advance education, establish public libraries, and promote world peace., A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.(799-800)
J.P. Morgan
powerful investment banker that aquired, reorganized, and consolidated companies into giant trust. His biggest acheivement was the consolidation of the steel industry into the United States Steel Corporation, which was the first billion dollar corporation.By the 1890s he also controlled a sixth of the nations railway systems. he consolidated Carnegie Steel,Rockefeller Iron to create United States Steel Corporation (801-802)
Vertical Integration
Rockefeller used this tactic to combine all phases of manufacturing into one organization. He and his business controlled every aspect of production, from mining to marketing. His goal was to improve efficiency and eliminate the middlemen where \”nobody recieves a profit.\”.(798)
Trusts
intially began with Rockefeller and was used to consolidate scattered business interest under more efficent control. 1882 Standard Oil Trust was organized was widely copied during the 1880s but faced prosecution under state laws against monoly or restraint of trade. Was broke up by the Sherman Anti Trust act of 1890. Gave way to the holding company(798)
Knights of Labor
founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; \”bread and butter\” unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions) picked up by many after the disasterous railroad strikes of 1877. Led by Terence V. Powderly but only into the 1890s. Supplanted by the American Federation of Labor. Established as a national organization in 1878. 1886 peaked at 700,000 members.(809-810)
American Federation of Labor
founded in 1881 as a federation of 25 craft trade unions made up of skilled workers, under the president Samuel Gompers sucessfully pushed for 8 hour work days. Gompers was President until his death in 1924. He focused on concrete economic gains, shorter hours, higher wages, better working conditions and he avoided utopian ideas and politics.in 1920 had succeeded 4 million members. Greatest success was in skilled workers.(812)
Haymarket affair
grew indirectly out of agitation for an 8 hour work day. The Knights of Labor set May 1,1886 as a deadline for adopting the 8 hour work day in all trades. On May 3,1886 Chicago became the center of the movement where the International Harvester plant became the site of a clash between strikers and policemen..one striker was killed.As a result a protest was scheduled at the Haymarket Square someone threw a bomb at police and one officer died and wounding others. As a result 7 anarchist leaders were sentenced to death despite evidence linking them to the bombing. Was the trigger of widespread revulsion at the Knights of Labor and unions in general.(810)
Anarchism
Believed that any government was an abusive device used by the rich and powerful to oppress and exploit the working poor. Dreamed in the disappearence of government entirely and the process could be acheived more quickly by revolutionary action by the masses.(810)
Socialism
aka Marxism.imported by mainly German immigrants. Began a rise with Daniel De Leon editor of the People. Goal was to organize industrial Unions to build a political party that would abolish government it was then the Labor Alliance and Socialist Union would gain control under his leadership.Eugene Debs more powerful figure than De Leon reached its peak in 1912 when World War 1 began but fell itim to Communism(818
Mother Jones
one of the most colorful and beloved labor agitators at the end of the 19th century. She was a tireless champion of the working poor and a rabble-rouser who used fiery rhetoric to excite crowds and attract media attention. She was a passionate advocate in the labor movement, crisscrossing the nation recruiting, supporting strikers, raising funds and defying court injunctions. During a mine strike in West Virginia she was arrested and convicted of conspiracy that resulted in murder. The outcry over her plight caused a senate committee to investigate and set her free. She was determined to end the exploitation of children, marching children workers from Pennsylvania to President Roosevelt’s home in New York. She lost most of the strikes but she saw wages increase, conditions improve and child labor diminish. Died in 1930 Pray for the Dead and fight for the living. Lost her entire family in 1867 then her business and home in 1871 cause for joining the labor movement.(816-818)
Eugene Debs
founded the American Railway Union which he organized against the Pullman Palace Car Company during the Pullman strike. Later he organized the Social Democratic Party which later became the Socialist party of America. In 1912 he ran for President as the Socialists party canidate and recieved over 900,000 votes. (818-819)
IWW
Industrial Workers of the World a radical union that was organized in Chicao in 1905,nicknamed the Wobblies, its opposition to World War 1 led to its destruction by the federal government under the Espionage Act.(818-821)
New Immigrants- Chapter 21
Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe who formed a recognizable wave of immigration from the 1880s until 1924, in contrast to the immigrants from western Europe who had come before them. These new immigrants congregated in ethnic urban neighborhoods, where they worried many native-born Americans, some of whom responded with nativist anti-immigrant campaigns and others of whom introduced urban reforms to help the immigrants assimilate. gave rise to social tensions in cities(831-834)
Nativism
anti immigrant, anti Catholic feeling from the 1830s through the 1850s. Largest group was New Yorks Strar Spangled Banner which expanded into the American or know nothing party in 1854. In 1920 there was a surge in nativism as Americans began to fear immigrants who might be political radicals. As a result stricter immigration regulations were established.(834-837)
Popular Culture
new patterns of recreation and leisure. rural area people were still tied to harvest seasons and connected to their families and neighbors. The middle and upper classes were more mobile. in cities mass entertainment like wild wild west shows , vaudville shows, and spectator sports were common forms of entertainment. City parks came about and politics and saloons went hand in hand. amusement parks came about as did the bicycle. Industrialization gave people the means to socialize.(837-844)
Social Darwinism
application of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of \”survival of the fittest to justify class distinctions and explain poverty.Herbert Spencer. Implied a government policy of hands off, decried the regulation of business, the graduation of income tax, and sanitaion and housing regulations. the only acceptable charity was voluntary.(848-849)
Reform Darwinism
Reformers, led by Lester Frank Ward (the father of American sociology), who argued (contrary to the Spencerian social Darwinists who said competitive struggle by individuals was an immutable natural law) that if humans used government and medicine to improve conditions and survive, then such cooperative action and social planning was not contrary to the necessity of adapting and struggling but simply another means of adapting and surviving.(849-850)
Pragmatism
William James founded this philosphy in the 1900s, believed that ideas gained their validity not from their inherent truth , but fom their social consequences and practical application.also included john dewey who preferred instrumentalism: ideas were instruments for action, especially social reform.education was the progressor of economic democracy.(850-851)
Social Gospel
a response to help the poor of the nation . Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late 19th early 20th century that adovacated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization (853-861)
Settlement houses
product of the late 19th century movement to offer a broad array of social services in urban immigrant neighborhoods. Chigagos Hull house was one of hundreds operated in the early 20th century.Jane Adamms and Ellen Starr ran it, there was also Robert A Woods South end house in boston in 1891 Lillian Walds Henry Street Settlement in New York 1893 (855-861)
Gilded Age-chapter 22
name applied by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner to late America to describe the corruptions and greed that lurked below the surface of society. A depiction of widespread political corruption and corporate greed.(864)
City Machines
local political party officials used these organizations to dispense patronage and favoritism amongst voters and businesses to ensure their support to political party. They provided jobs, food or fuel in exchange for support.(866)
Spoils System
the distribution of federal political jobs to party loyalists(870)
Pendleton Civil Service Act
an act that established the principle of employment on the basis of merit and created the Civil Service Commission to administer the personnel service.(872)
Interstate Commerce Act
a law, enacted in 1887, that established the federal government’s right to supervise railroad activities and created a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so. It also stated that all frieght rates had to be reasonable and just. Railroads were forbidden to grant secret rebates.(876)
Sherman Anti-Trust act
named for Ohio senator John Sherman forbade contracts, combinations or conspiracies in restraint of trade or in the effort to establish monopolies in interstate or foriegn commerce.(878)
Granger movement
political movement that grew out of the Patrons of husbandry and educational and social organization for farmers founded in 1867. The grange had its success in the midwest in the 1870s,lobbying for government control of railroad and grain elevator rates and establishing farmers cooperatives'(883)
Farmers’ Alliances
two separate organizations (Northwestern and Southern) of the 1880s and 1890s that took the place of the Grange, worked for similar causes, and attracted landless as well as landed farmers to their membership (884-886)
Populist party
the peoples party, political success of the Farmers’ Alliance canidates encouraged the formation in 1892 of the Peoples party later named the Populist party, active until 1912, it advoacated a variety of reform issues including free coinage of silver, income tax,postal savings, regualtion of railroads, and direct elections of Senators(888-889)
Omaha Platform
Created by the Populist party in Nebraska in 1892. Called for political and economic reform such as: direct popular election of Senators/enacting state laws via voters themselves/unlimited coinage of silver/graduated income tax/telephone & telegraph system owned/operated by U.S. govt./8-hour days for industrial workers/loans and federal warehouses.(888-889)
William Jennings Bryan
he delivered the pro silver cross of gold speech at the 1896 Democratic convention and won his partys nomination for president. Disappointed pro gold Democrats chose to walk out of the convention and nominate their own canidiate which split the Democratic party and lost them the White House. Bryan’s loss also crippled the Populist movement which supported him.
Gold versus Free Silver
pgs 890-893
Alfred Thayer Mahan -Chapter 23
was an advocate for sea power and Western imperialism. In 1890 he published The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783 in which he argued that a nations greatness and power comes from maritime power .He believed that America’s destiny was to control the Carribean, build the Panama Canal, and spread western civilization across the Pacific. (907)
Theodore Roosevelt
As the assistant secretary of the Navy he supported expansionism, American imperialism, and war with Spain. He led the first volunteer Calvary,or rough riders, in Cuba during the war of 1898 and used the notoriety of this military campaiggn for political gain. As President Mckineley’s Vice President , he succeeded him after his assaination. His forceful foreign policy became known as big stick dipolmacy.His policies on natural resources began the conservation movement. Unable to win the Republican nomination for office in 1912 he began his own party of progressive Republican’s known as the Bull Moose Party.(929)
Yellow journalism
sensational newspaper stories from Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World and William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal that stirred Americans against Spanish rule in Cuba; this media coverage proved a force for war in 1898.(911-912)
Remember the Maine
sent by President McKinley to Cuba in 1898, was mysteriously blown up in Havana harbor. Popular sentiment in the United States held that the notorious Spanish were responsible, and the incident helped lead to the Spanish-American War.(913)
de Lome letter
Letter from Spanish minister Depuy de Lome to a friend in Havana, stolen from the post office by a Cuban spy and published on February 9, 1898 by William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal, that criticized President McKinley; De Lome resigned to prevent further embarrassment to his government but public opinion was already aroused against Spain.(912)
War of 1898
also known as the spanish american war was a war between spain and the US. The revolts against Spanish rule had been going on for a long time in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans; Americans grew angrier day by day about spanish and cuban affairs. After the mysterious sinking of the American battleship Maine in Havana harbor, political pressures forced the president into a war he wanted to avoid. The war was significant because america defeated a european power for the first time by taking over countries like the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.(915)
Teller Amendment
on April 20,1898 a joint resolution of Congress declared Cuba independent and demanded the withdrawal of Spanish forces. The Teller amendment was added to this resolution and it declaimed any designs the US had on Cuban territory.(915)
Rough Riders
The First US volunteer calvary, led in battle in the Spanish American War by Theodore Roosevelt , they were victorious in their only battle near Santiago Cuba. Roosevelt used the notoriety to aid his political career.(916)
Philippine American War
An armed conflict between the Philippines and the United States from 1899-1902. It was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence. The Philippines declared war on the U.S. and it became a savage conflict with guerilla warfare. Villages were destroyed, civilians were murdered, and prisoners were tortured. The war ended when Aguinaldo surrendering in 1902.(920-922)
Open Door policy
In hopes of protecting the Chinese market for US exports ,Secretary of State John Hay unilaterlly announced in 1899 that Chines trade would be open to all nations. (927-928)
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 rebellion in China, aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.(928-929)
Panama Canal
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provided short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.(931-933)
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America’s right to intervene in Latin American affairs to prevent European powers in the Western Hemisphere (934)
Albert Beveridge
said it was our sacred duty to bring God to Spanish countries. ardent imperialist (923)
Progressive Era (progressivism)-Chapter 24
was very diverse in its motives and methods. It was more of a response than an organized movement to the problems created by unregulated industrialization, unplanned urbanization, and unrelenting immigration. Progressives believed that American life was threatened by social instability,economic injustice, and political corruption. The progress of society could be found if we all worked together as communties, individuals, organizations, and governments.Progressivism gave birth to the progressive era in which , Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption while focusing on the general rights of the individual. Pushed for social justice, general equality, and public safety. Significants in this movement included trust-busting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair’s \”The Jungle\”, Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`Progressives were middle class idealists in both political parties who sought reform and regulation in order to ensure social justice.Wanted to curb the power of political machines. They fought for child labor laws, better working conditions, womens sufferage, ban on alcohol, and legislation to curb trusts.(941)
Muckrakers
writers who exposed political corrupition and abuse ,business, meatpacking, child labor and more,primarily in the first decade of the 20th century. their books and newpapers spurred public interests in the progressive reform.(941)
Direct primary
The nomination of candidates by the vote of party members rather than an inner circle of activists; after South Carolina adopted the first statewide primary in 1896, the movement spread within two decades to nearly every state.(944)
Intiative and Referendum and recall
allowed voters to enact laws directly., Progressive proposal to allow voters to bypass state legislatures and propose legislation themselves. If a designated number of voters petitioned to have a measure put on the ballot (initiative) the electorate could then vote it up or down (the referendum). Recall-corrupt or incompetent public officials could be removed from office by a public petition and vote. Oregon was first state to adopt all 3 and within a decade nearly 20 states had adopted the I and R and nearly a dozen adopted recall.(944)
Robert La Follete
Progressive governor of Wisconsin who established a Legeslative Reference Bureau to provide research, help, and advice in the drafting of legislation.pushed for reforms like the direct primary, stronger railroad regulation, conservation of natural resources, and workers compensation to provide asistance to injured workers.(945-946)
Taylorism
In his book The Principles of Scientfic Management Frederick W. Taylor explained a management system that was capable of reducing waste through the scientific analysis of the labor process. This system called Taylorism promised to find the optimum technique for the average worker and establish detailed performance standards for each job classification. (945)
Theodore Roosevelt
The TR administration to promote his progressive \”square deal\” program, which included regulating trust, arbitrating the 1902 Coal Strike, regulatiing the railroads, cleaning up the meant and drug industries as well and conservation of national resources.(950)
The Jungle
This book, written by Upton Sinclair, was considered by President Roosevelt as a prime example of muckraking. The book, which was written to expose the filthy conditions in which several meatpacking plants were churning out their products, had the nation in a virtual panic.(955-956)
New Nationalism
Platform of the Progressive Party and slogan of former president Theodore Roosevelt in the campaign of 1912 ; stressed government activism including the regualtion of trusts and conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs. (964)
Bull Moose Party
In the 1912 election Theodore Roosevelt was unable to secure the Republican nomination for president.He left the Republican party to form his own party of progressive Republicans that he called the Bull Moose party Roosevelt and Taft split the Republican vote which allowed Woodrow Wilson to win.(967)
Woodrow Wilson and New Freedom
In the 1912 presidential election Wilson ran under the slogan New Freedom which promised to improve banking systems,lower tariffs, and break up monopolies to give small businesses the chance to compete.
He sought to deliver on these promises through the passage of the Underwood-Simmons tariff, the Federal Reserve act of 1913, and new anti trust laws. Though he was weak on implementing social change and showed little interest in the plight of African Americans , he did eventually support some labor reform. At the beginning of World War 1 Wilson kept America nuetral but he provided allies with credit to purchase supplies.However the sinking of US merchant ships and the news of Germany encouraqing Mexico to attack America caused Wilson to ask Congress to declare war on Germany. Following the war Wilson Wilson supported America’s entry into a League of Nations and the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, but Congress would not improve the entry ratification.(966)
Federal Reserve act
1913 created a new national banking system with regional reserve banks supervised by a general board of directors. There would be 12 Federal Reserve banks each owned by member banks in its district which could issue Federal Reserve note (currency) to member banks. Each member had to transfer 6 percent of its capital to the federal reserve bank and deposit a portion of its reserves there.This arrangement made it possible to expand the money supply as well as bank credit in times of high business activity or the increase in borrowing (967)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand -Chapter 25
Heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia in June of 1914. His assassination led to the beginning of WWI.(987)
Central Powers
Germany, Austria- Hungary, Turkey and Italy..Italy joined Allied Powers in 1915. Turkey joined the Central Powers Aug. 23, 1914. (987)
Allied Powers
France, Great Britain, and Russia (987) Russia declared war on Germany August 1, 1914 (987)
U-Boat Warfare
o Germany 1915-1918 against British and their allies
o WWI warefare in which submarines would sink merchant ships without warning
o Caused a sharp response from nations such as the US to limit the use of submarines
o Led to American intervention in WWI: 4/6/1917.
o Best example: Sinking of the Lusitania(991)
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war., British ocean liner sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915. The British Admiralty had warned the Lusitania to avoid the area and to use the evasive tactic of zigzagging, but the crew ignored these recommendations. Though unarmed, the ship was carrying munitions for the Allies, and the Germans had circulated warnings that the ship would be sunk. The loss of life — 1,198 people drowned, including 128 U.S. citizens — outraged public opinion. The U.S. protested Germany’s action, and Germany limited its submarine campaign against Britain. When Germany renewed unrestricted submarine warfare, the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917.(992)
Sussex Pledge
On March 14, 1916 a German U-Boat torpedoed a French Steamer ,Sussex, injuring 2 Americans.When Wilson threatened to back off relations Germany renewed its pledge that Germans would not tprpedo merchant and passenger ships The Sussex pledge implied the virtual abonadonment of submarine warfare.(993)
Preparedness
The financial burden of military expansion should fall on the wealthy who promoted the expansion and profitted from trade with the allies. The Naval Construction act of 1916 authorized 500 to 600 million dollars for a 3 year expansion program. The income tax was the weapon of choice…the Revenue Act of 1916 doubled the tax from 1 to 2 percent , lifted the surtax to 15% on income over 2 million , added an estate tax , 12.5 % tax on reciept of munitions makers.This amounted to the most clear cut victory of radical Progrssives in the entire Wilson period (993-994)
Zimmerman Telegram
This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States.
In return Mexico would regain the lost territories of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona.The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917.(996)
War Industries Board
WIB was headed by Bernard Baruch ., Created in July 1917, they controlled raw materials, production, prices, and labor relations. It also encouraged production by allocating raw materials, standardizing manufactured products, instituting strict production and purchasing controls, and paying high prices to businesses.(998-999)
Committee on Public Information
composed of the secretaries of state, war, and navy. The executive head was Denver newsman George Creel. Creel said propoganda not censorship would influence the public opinion. So he gathered journalist, photographers, artist and entertainers to convey the Allies War aims. Pictures like the Beast of Berlin and the some 75000 minutemen kept the American people informed about the war. the minutemen gave speeches about conserving food and fuel, and liberty bonds (1001)
Fourteen Points
the first five points called for open diplomacy rather than secret treaties, freedom of the seas, removal of trade barriers, reduction of armaments, and an impartial adjustment of the victors colonial claims based upon the desires of the populations involved.the rest of the points dealt with territorial claims. Point 14 called for a League of Nations to protect global peace. and a 15th point was ignored by wilson a request of the African nations to end all racial discrimination. presented to Congress January 8, 1918 (1007)
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of, 28 June 1919, the peace settlement imposed on Germany afterWORLD WAR I, drawn up at the Paris Peace Conference and signed near the French capital at Versailles, The Treaty of Versailles was the product of the Paris Peace Conference, although none of the Allies was happy with it. Germany was forced to sign the treaty, which was very harsh. Germany had to accept all responsibility for the war, pay the Allies huge reparations; including pensions, severely weaken the size of her army, return Alsace-Lorraine to France, and give up overseas colonies.(1012)
League of Nations
Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war established after World War 1 as a part of the Treaty of Versailles. Proposed by President Wilson to Congress during his \”Fourteen Points\” speech in 1918. (1010-1011)
Henry Cabot Lodge
chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee who favored limiting American involvement in the League of Nations’ covenant and sought to amend the Treaty of Versailles., an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. He had the role (but not the title) of Senate Majority leader. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. Lodge demanded Congressional control of declarations of war; Wilson refused and the United States Senate never ratified the Treaty nor joined the League of Nations.
early on associated with the conservative faction of the Republican Party. He was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the left-wing Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States to do so
came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. He maintained that the United States needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs.
Supported immigration restrictions(1012-1015)
Irreconcilables
14 Republicans and 2 Democrats that refused to join the League of Nations on any terms. They were mainly western and midwestern progressives who feared that such sweeping foreign commitments threatened domestic reforms, Senators opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles on any grounds; lead by
isolationists William Borah, Hiram Johnson, and Robert La Follette.(1014)
Reservationists
insisted on limited American involvement in the League of Nations. Among their members were Henry Cabot Lodge who proposed his own set of amendments (1014)
Red Scare
Fear among Americans after World War 1 of Communists in particular and non-citizens in general. A reaction to the Russian Revolution , mail bombs, strikes, and riots, In 1920, U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and his assistant J. Edgar Hoover orchestrated this and arrested more than 6,000 suspected communists and anarchists and deported 500 non-U.S citizens., Heightened concern, after World War 1, in the United States about communism and fear
that it would spread. Especially after the passage of the Espionage Act of 1917, the Sabotage Act of 1918, and the Sedition Act of 1918.(1018-1019)

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