AICE European History – Italian and German Unification

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what was the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
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to establish long lasting peace and stability on the concert after Napoleon’s defeat
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according to Metternich, what is the primary concern for any nation?
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The stability of laws – never there change
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according to Metternich what was the role of the French at the Congress of Vienna?
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defending the feeble against a strong restraints each power within its power limits and to working in good faith for the reestablishment of political equilibrium
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what was the purpose of the reforms created by the Congress of Vienna?
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to unite the countries as one; serving as buffers around France
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what happened to France as a result of the agreements made at the Congress of Vienna?
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the power was still limited but people were beginning to obtain equal rights, more say in power. They return to former borders
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Who lost out because of the impact of the French rule?
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the church
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Who are the Carbonari?
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“charcoal burners” • rejected absolutist government • kept the idea of political reform alive even though change did not happen as a result
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Who gained from the middle class because of the impact of French rule?
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the middle class – merchants, lawyers, bankers, apothecaries, doctors, government officials, tradesmen, artisans and craftsmen
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which group was unaffected because of the impact of the French rule?
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the peasants
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what was the significance of French room for nationalist movements in Italy?
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to fulfill the ideals of modernizing France and overthrowing the domination
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Napoleon acquired _____ and _____ from Piedmont Sardinia in 1792 and _____ from the Austrians in 1805.
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Nice and Savoy; control of the army
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in 1810 Napoleon divided Italy into three parts. describe each
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Kingdom of Italy: comprise the regions of Lombardy, Modena, Bologna, Romagna and Ferrara; ruled by Napoleon’s stepson French Empire: compromise the north – west portion of Italy, including Piedmont, together with Central Duchies and the papal states Kingdom of Naples: and it didn’t include Sicily, which was controlled by Britain, in the ruling dynasty was no longer in control of the Bourbons, which was controlled by Napoleon’s brother
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List the positive features of French control of Italy
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• increased prosperity of the middle class • Financial and business advantages • external customs barriers were simplified • tax collection was reorganized • transport was improved • new local government districts were set up
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did the Cavour family benefit from French roll?
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The Cavour family benefited because of the purchasing of the church lands
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how were the peasants affected by French rule?
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ignored in their lifetime and long dismissed by historians as uneducated, unimportant, non-political, and unworthy of study, are now the focus of new research. Their marriage customs and occupations were forever altered because of the maize crop situation, peasants were on the verge of permanent starvation
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what do the Congress of Vienna due to Italy after 1815?
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they restored Austrian domination but left Italy completely fragmented into small states
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identify the three obstacles to Italian unification in the first half of the 19th century.
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1. Austrians occupied Lumbardy and Venetia in Northern Italy 2. The papal states controlled central Italy 3. The other Italian states had maintain independence
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Ct. Camillo Cavour
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The prime minister of Sardinia – Piedmont the achieved the unification of Italy
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Victor Emmanuel II
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The first king of United Italy in 1861
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Giuseppe Mazzini
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The leader of the Young Italy movement
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Giuseppe Garibaldi
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The Italian patriotic leader who liberated Naples and Sicily from the Bourbon Kings
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Pius IX
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The pope who lost the papal states and Rome to Italy
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Napoleon III
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The French emperor who helped battalions against the Austrians
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The Seven Weeks’ War between Austria and Prussia helped Italy add the progress of _____ to keep the Kingdom of Italy
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venetia
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The Franco – Prussian War of 1870 gave the opportunity for the Italian government to add _____ to the Kingdom of Italy
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rome
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how was Piedmont Sardinia governed after 1815?
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• Victor Emmanuel I • goal to return the pre – Napoleonic days • napoleons officials were replaced by people of the old noble families • resources return to the Roman Catholic Church
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how was Lumbardy – Venetia governed after 1815?
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• Francis I • trade opportunities benefited the populace and education was made compulsory • conscription/taxation was unpopular • Secret police and censorship imposed • students were not allowed to read modern history
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how are the papal states government after 1815?
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• series of hardline popes (zealots) • tight hold on government, education, culture and politics • lay population • inquisition
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how was the central duchies: Tuscany, Parma and Modena governed after 1815?
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• Ferdinand III • Marie Louise • Habsburg Duke Francis IV
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how was the Kingdom of the two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily) burned after 1815?
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• Bourbon King, Fredrick I • Cancellation of Sicilian constitution • people have a say in the government • impressive, coral, reactionary • few economic successes • series of revolutions
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describe a reactionary
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favoring a return to previous political conditions and being opposed to political progress
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how have historians traditionally described the revolutions in Italy between 1815 and 1861
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A struggle between progress and reaction rule, brutal oppression and a general opposition to popular nationalist ambitions for Italian unity and independence
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what do revisionist historians believe?
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only a few states and on only a few occasions did restoration governments behave in a reactionary way. They were modernizing their governments as well
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what can it be said Ferdinand III was no reactionary?
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he improved education, reorganized the universities of Pisa and Siena and spending more on the education of girls. He also expanded health facilities
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how did Piedmont King Victor Emmanuel “turn back the hands of time”?
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he dismissed and replaced officials of the Napoleonic era by members of the old noble families. In addition, the Napoleonic code it was done away with
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which of the Italian states was the most backward and oppressive?
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Papal States
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what group does Metternich fear most?
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Austria
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what provided Cavour experience in foreign affairs?
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when Cavour took office he quickly gained experience in foreign affairs. He had to deal with wars
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why did Cavour want to participate in the war?
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to gain the friendship of Britain and France and to be sure of some of the spoils, as well as seat at the eventual peace conference
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some historians believe Cavour was hesitant to enter the Crimean War, yet he still entered it? Why?
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Cavour what was swayed by the king, who is eager to take part in the conflict, as well as Britain and France. This put pressure on Cavour since the troops would be useful in the conflict; more subtle move. They also wanted Austria in Piedmont to join the war
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what was the purpose of the Plombieres meeting in 1858?
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A secret conference held at Plombieres, France in July 1858 that Cavour arranged with Emperor Napoleon III for French military intervention in the event of Austrian aggression against Piedmont. Also, to make sure Austria didn’t have any alliances
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what was the outcome of the meeting?
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arrangements were reached and incorporated into a secret treaty and January 1859. Nice was added to Savoy as Napoleon’s propose reward, and the idea of an Italian confederation headed by the pope was abandoned
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nation state
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Area of territory where the people share the same “bonds”
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nationality
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Believe in a common ethnic ancestery – real or imagined
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Italy prior to 1796
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• no official language • no common form of government • no education system • no standard currency weights, measures • economic trade barriers • poor communications; travel barriers (i.e mountains)
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19th-century Italy (north)
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• more advanced industries • more prosperous • a middle-class of reasonable well-educated merchants and lawyers • local loyalty • most Roman Catholic • hated Austrian authority
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19th century Italy (south)
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• largely based on agriculture • populated by farmers • highest rate of illiteracy in Western Europe • local loyalty • most Roman Catholic • hated Austrian authority
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Italy: leaders of unification
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MAZZINI: heart GARIBALDI: strength CAVOUR: brains
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Mazzini
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• formed a nationalist group known as young Italy in 1832 • he called for an interview for new rule and the unification of Italy based on the common language and culture of the people • the Italian nationalist movement was called the Risorgimento • 1848: rebels failed and former rulers of Italian states drove Mazzini and other nationalist leaders into exile
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Cavour
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• prime Minister of the kingdom of Piedmont -Sardinia • used diplomacy and alliances to increase Piedmont – Sardinian power • would unify the north • main aim was to make Piedmont is strong modern country
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Garibaldi
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• leader of the redshirts (Italian nationalist groups I gained control of Sicily in 1860) • would unify the south and merge with north (under pressure)
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Italian Unification: 3 obstacles of unity
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1. Austrian controlled over Lumbardy in Venetia 2. papal states cut the north off from the south – by France 3. existence of several independent states:Kingdom of Sardinia, two Sicilies, and duchies of Tuscany, Parma and Modena (all under Habsburg control)
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revolutions of 1848: long-term causes
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• impact of industrialin French Revolution • growth of the middle – class • industrial proletariat Europe in transition, merging of “isms”
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revolutions of 1848: short-term causes
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•demographic and economic crisis • industrial and agricultural depression • hunger, unemployment, urban squalor, seirgneuria, jurisdiction, property qualifications
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what was the goal of the National Society?
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worked for the unification of Italy not as a republic, but as a monarchy under the king of Piedmont
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what changes have occurred in Italy since Garibaldi had been away from Italy?
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Charles Albert I’ve been seceded by his son, Victor Emmanuel; inspired great loyalty, Cavour was chief minister, etc.
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why did Cavour invite Garibaldi to Turin?
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to give Garibaldi details for the plans for forcing war against Austria in 1859; train the troops
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what caused friction between Cavour and Garibaldi?
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once niece and Savoy were seated to France; the handling over niece was a better blow to Garibaldi, who now decided Cavour was a low intriguer
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what did Cavour Think of the plan to intervene in Sicily?
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Cavour doubted if it would succeed or not due to Garibaldi’s lack of military tactics. He was far from convinced of a win. Sicily was too poor and backward for Piedmont
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how was Garibaldi able to conquer Sicily?
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he promised the presidents redistribution of land in change sides to get support of landlords. His of session with a united Italy Headwood him to betray Mazzini’s teachings
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why was Cavour hesitant to handover Sisley to Victor Emmanuel?
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he was afraid since we would not be used as a base for the campaign against Naples
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what did Cavour fear would happen if Garibaldi attacked rome?
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if they want control, the whole nationalist leadership might slip away from Piedmont in victory manual; becoming again a Republican and a revolutionary government. Plus France would be involved
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Sisley, Naples, Umbria and the Papal Marches take a vote. They decided to…
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wish for annexation by Piedmont
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where country’s troops occupied room in order to protect the pope?
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france
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why did Garibaldi failed to take Rome on his first attempt?
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in bad weather, they were shot at by local troops and forced to retreat into the mountains. All except 500 men were deserted. Those who remains were defeated at Aspromonte
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why did Garibaldi leave Caprera in 1866?
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to sail back across the mainland to regain command of his troops and hopefully defeat Rome for a second attempt
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why do you Garibaldi’s second attempt to take room fail?
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there were no local anti-people uprisings in a French army was sent equipped with the breach – loading rifles back to Rome
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why were Italian troops finally able to take Roman 1870?
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well the French troops had to withdraw to meet dangers from pro show at home, Rome had been attacked and captured by Italian troops
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before the unification movement began, Austria controlled Lombardy and what other state?
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Venetia
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princes of three Italian states regarded Austria as a friend. These princes and the Austrian Emperor opposed to unification. They feared that they would lose power if one government was established for all of Italy. Parma, Tuscany, and what other state were allies of Austria?
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Modena
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what patriotic group was formed in the early days of the unification movement?
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young Italy
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Who was the first nationalist to support freedom and independence for Italy?
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mazzini
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which Kingdom lead the way in creating a strong Italian nation – state?
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Piedmont – Sardinia
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Who was the prime minister of Sardinia who bout to drive out the Austrians?
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Cavour
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what person was responsible for Austrian- held Lombardy being given to Sardinia ?
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Napoleon III
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how many states united with Sardinia in 1860?
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4
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whose “red shirts” fought to free the people of the Kingdom of two Sicilies?
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Garibaldi
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who became the first king of Italy?
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Victor Emmanuel II
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what state did Italy receive in return for holding Prussia when a war against Austria?
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venetia
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do unification movement was completed when the citizens of what city – state voted to become part of Italy?
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Rome
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what were the main problems faced by nationalists before 1848?
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The country of Italy wasn’t unified is one; which was what the nationalist wanted. there was no foreign support, no leadership, different ideals and no one excepted leader
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Crimean war
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A war fought between Britain, France, Russians and the Ottoman Turkish with the support of Piedmont – Sardinia
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Germany
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following the Congress of Vienna, 39 German states formed the German Confederation (bund). Austria and Prussia dominated the Confederation north and east: Protestant (Lutheran) south and west: catholic
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main reasons for the growth of German nationalism
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1. cultural reasons (to do with heritage and history) 2. political reasons (political advantages of united Germany) 3. economic reasons (to do with money)
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cultural nationalism
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The biggest cultural factor was undoubtedly the German language which did unite all German-speaking people’s and gave them an identity
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political nationalism
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nationalism- was the desire of people with a common national identity to have their own country liberalism- was the desire to have a Parliament, like Britain’s, where rulers were elected by the people of the country as opposed to being ruled by a king alone
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the Deutscher Bund
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• after napoleons defeat, in the explosion of the French, German he was your formed in 1815 and 39 states • The Confederation of the Rhine it was replaced by the German Confederation – the Deutscher bund • nationalist hopes that this bund would be the beginning of a single United German state
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Carlsbad Decrees
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banned student societies and censored nationalist newspapers
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economic nationalism
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economic nationalism had a much greater positive effects on the lives of most Germans and as a result was an important factor in encouraging nationalist feeling
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Zollverein
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Prussian formed customs union in 1818 (Austria didn’t join)
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the growth of railways
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• as trade between German states increased, the rail network grew • The new rail no work centered in Prussia • just like in Britain, railways e.g post, newspapers spread ideas of liberalism and nationalism • broke down barriers between states
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what was the basis for the unification of Germany?
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The Zollverein
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how did the Prussian tariff reform law benefit manufactures?
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The law did away with the web of internal customs duties and replace them with a tariff to be charged at the Prussian frontier
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what was the importance of the Zollverein?
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to strengthen Prussia and develop nationalism among the German states; having a common system of tariffs and abolishing all internal customers barriers, extended railways, etc.
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what was Prussia’s aim and setting up the Zollverein?
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to achieve dominance in Germany by bringing prosperity to Prussia and isolating Austria, to weaken Austria’s political influence within the Confederation
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why had Austria refuse to join the Zollverein?
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Austria disagreed with the policy of free trade. Austria’s policy was protectionist and wanted high import duties to protect its industries and markets
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how strong was German nationalism by 1848?
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it became stronger and stronger; Prussia established a position of leadership, inflamed by poetry, music, history and philosophy. It was also fueled by several situations in which foreign governments like France threatened Germany
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how did railroads and impact nationalism?
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The railways may Germans more mobile and contributed to the breakdown of local and regional barriers
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how strong or German liberal movements by 1848?
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strong, possibly just as strong as nationalism; they managed to obtain relaxation of press censorship, campaigns for Free Press, managed reforms of the judicial system, etc.
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how strong was German liberalism and nationalism by 1848?
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they grew even stronger because of the Zollverein; united Germany seems more obtainable. Both had great support and envisioned a Federation. But, because of Metternich, the people truly didn’t achieve much. In the end, there were still political and cultural differences

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