Adolescent Psychology Chapter 12 Essay

question

Achievement concerns the development of motives, capabilities, interests, and behavior that relate to ______________ in evaluative situations. A) performance B) outcomes C) scores D) none of the above
answer

A) performance
question

The extent to which an individual strives for success is referred to as: A) mood composition. B) need for achievement. C) personality structure. D) self-orientation.
answer

B) need for achievement.
question

Industrialized societies place a great deal of emphasis on all of the following, except: A) cooperation. B) achievement. C) competition. D) success.
answer

A) cooperation.
question

All of the following are noted in the text as reasons why achievement during the adolescent years merits special attention, except: A) this is a period when adolescents prepare for and sort themselves into occupational roles. B) it is during this period that adolescents begin to evaluate their occupational choices in light of their talents, abilities, and opportunities. C) it is during this period that adolescents make serious long-term decisions concerning life partners. D) the educational and occupation decisions made during adolescence are more numerous and the consequences of these decisions are more serious than those that take place during childhood.
answer

C) it is during this period that adolescents make serious long-term decisions concerning life partners
question

The transition from school to work is _________ defined transition. A) an educationally B) a socially C) a personally D) an environmentally
answer

B) a socially
question

According to the textbook, how is puberty connected to achievement? A) to the extent that puberty changes what’s important for maintaining status in the peer group, it may lead adolescents to worry about whether trying too hard to do well will make them less attractive to their classmates B) puberty intensifies differences between males and females, and one impact of this is to make individuals think about what is “appropriate” achievement-related behavior for each of the sexes C) biological (hormonal) changes of puberty are directly related to achievement and motivation in high school D) both A and B are correct
answer

D) both A and B are correct
question

What is the main reason that many achievement-related issues take on new significance during adolescence: A) biological transitions B) social transitions C) changes in cognitions D) achievement-related issues do not take on new significance during adolescence
answer

B) social transitions
question

Which of the following statements regarding social roles and achievement is not true? A) adolescence is the period when important educational and occupational decisions are made B) in most industrialized societies, it is not until adolescence that individuals attain the status necessary to decide whether they will continue or end their formal education C) in most industrialized societies, it is not until adolescence that individuals are allowed to enter the labor force in an official capacity D) during adolescence, most individuals solidify career choices
answer

D) during adolescence, most individuals solidify career choices
question

The text suggests that one set of factors that may differentiate the “rich” from the “poor” early in the educational setting is _________ and _________. A) motivation to succeed; beliefs about the causes of success and failure B) neighborhood; socioeconomic factors C) genetic inheritance; prejudice against minorities D) parents’ level of education; parents’ attitudes toward education
answer

A) motivation to succeed; beliefs about the causes of success and failure
question

Alice has worked all evening on a psychology assignment that is not being graded. She has a very strong: A) need for approval. B) need for achievement. C) need for fulfillment. D) need for success.
answer

B) need for achievement.
question

John and Mary want their children to develop a strong need for achievement. In addition to using an authoritative parenting style, they also should: A) punish their children’s failures. B) encourage their children’s successes. C) compare their children to other children who are successful. D) set difficult tasks for their children to accomplish.
answer

B) encourage their children’s successes.
question

Amy gets extremely nervous during exams and never does as well as she should because of these anxious feelings. She has a very strong: A) fear of rejection. B) fear of testing. C) fear of failure. D) fear of evaluation.
answer

C) fear of failure.
question

Al’s parents expect him to receive all As on his report card, play quarterback for the football team, and win the election for senior class president. When Al came home with a B+ on his report card, his parents grounded him for a month. Al probably will develop: A) a high need for achievement. B) a fear of failure. C) an intrinsic type of motivation. D) learned helplessness.
answer

B) a fear of failure.
question

Adolescents who come from family environments in which parents have set unrealistically high standards for their children’s achievement and react very negatively to failure are most likely to develop: A) intrinsic motivation. B) a fear of failure. C) Type-A personality characteristics. D) a high need for achievement.
answer

B) a fear of failure.
question

Jason is an intelligent youngster who avoids challenging situations because of his intense fear of failure. Despite his innate ability, he gets low grades and has trouble persisting even with easy tasks. Jason is: A) a failure. B) an underachiever. C) bored. D) a loader.
answer

B) an underachiever.
question

Alicia has trouble persisting at tasks and fears failure. Her grades are far lower than one would expect based on her intellectual ability. She is a(n): A) failure. B) underachiever. C) delinquent. D) normal adolescent.
answer

B) underachiever.
question

Sonya has scored in the top 1 percentile on an IQ test, yet she gets below average grades in school. What is true about Sonya? A) She has a learning disorder. B) She has low self-esteem. C) She is a delinquent. D) She is an underachiever.
answer

D) She is an underachiever.
question

According to the textbook, in classrooms in which teachers are very performance-oriented, students: A) feel more alienated from the school B) have lower feelings of self-efficacy C) are more likely to engage in self-handicapping behavior D) all of the above are likely in classrooms where the teachers are very performance-oriented
answer

D) all of the above are likely in classrooms where the teachers are very performance-oriented
question

Which statement about underachievement is false? A) Most underachievers are highly intelligent yet afraid of failure. B) Some students choose to appear uninterested in school to get more respect from their peers. C) Many students want to ensure that they have an “excuse” for poor performance other than a lack of ability. D) Some students use “self-handicapping” strategies to diminish the importance of academics as a response to their poor performance.
answer

A) Most underachievers are highly intelligent yet afraid of failure.
question

The internal desire to perform well is called: A) intrinsic motivation. B) mastery motivation. C) evaluation anxiety. D) extrinsic motivation.
answer

A) intrinsic motivation.
question

Motivation based on the pleasure one will experience from mastering a task is called: A) extrinsic motivation. B) intrinsic motivation. C) intuitive motivation. D) instinctive motivation.
answer

B) intrinsic motivation.
question

Leroy plays video games not because he will win anything by doing well, or because anyone approves of his increasing skill, but because he enjoys getting better at the games. His behavior is an example of: A) intrinsic motivation. B) temperament. C) learned helplessness. D) extrinsic motivation.
answer

A) intrinsic motivation.
question

Motivation based on the rewards one will receive for successful performance is called: A) extrinsic motivation. B) reward-punishment theory. C) extraneous achievement. D) intrinsic motivation.
answer

A) extrinsic motivation.
question

Whitney’s present goal is to get good enough at spelling to earn the school’s spelling trophy. Whitney’s ambition is an example of: A) intrinsic motivation. B) ego motivation. C) self-regulation. D) extrinsic motivation.
answer

D) extrinsic motivation.
question

Margie sees herself as competent. Manny experiences a great deal of anxiety and hesitation when facing a challenge because he doubts his abilities. Both are A students. Margie is most likely ________ motivated and Manny is most likely ________ motivated. A) intrinsically; intrinsically B) intrinsically; extrinsically C) extrinsically; intrinsically D) extrinsically; extrinsically
answer

B) intrinsically; extrinsically
question

Bill approaches new tasks with the attitude that he can master them, and he tries to do so because he wants to gain new skills. Bill is motivated by: A) intrinsic forces. B) extrinsic forces. C) fear of failure. D) learned helplessness.
answer

A) intrinsic forces.
question

Every time that Frank receives an A on his report card, his grandmother gives him $50. However, if Frank receives a C, he is grounded for 2 weeks. Frank will probably develop: A) a high need for achievement. B) intrinsic motivation. C) extrinsic motivation. D) Type-A behavior.
answer

C) extrinsic motivation.
question

Marty’s main concern in playing soccer is whether his performance will be good enough to win his father’s attention and approval. Marty’s behavior is being motivated by: A) intrinsic forces. B) extrinsic forces. C) temperament. D) crystallization.
answer

B) extrinsic forces.
question

As Carrie was growing up, her parents discussed politics with her, went on family vacations to historical sites and national parks, and attended cultural events together. Carrie took clarinet lessons and spent a lot of time in the library reading books she chose for herself. It is likely that Carrie will be: A) intrinsically motivated. B) extrinsically motivated. C) overwhelmed. D) overly concerned about failure.
answer

A) intrinsically motivated.
question

Professor Stein wants to test the stereotype threat effect. What is the most likely scenario if this effect does, in fact, occur? A) Professor Stein tells participants in the experimental group that members of their ethnic group perform poorly on the type of task that he is asking them to perform, and these participants actually perform better than participants in the control group. B) Professor Stein tells participants in the experimental group that members of their ethnic group perform poorly on the type of task that he is asking them to perform, and these participants perform more poorly than participants in the control group. C) Professor Stein tells participants in the experimental group that members of their ethnic group perform extremely well on the type of task that he is asking them to perform, and these participants perform more poorly than participants in the control group. D) Professor Stein tells participants in the experimental group that participants in the control group do not like them because of their ethnic background, so the experimental group members act aggressively toward members of the control group.
answer

B) Professor Stein tells participants in the experimental group that members of their ethnic group perform poorly on the type of task that he is asking them to perform, and these participants perform more poorly than participants in the control group.
question

To the extent individuals believe widely held stereotypes about ethnic or sex differences in ability, the ________ suggests that their performance will be affected, depending on how they expect to perform. A) stereotype threat effect B) gender differences effect C) general expectations theory D) self-efficacy hypothesis
answer

A) stereotype threat effect
question

Current research addressing sex differences in achievement suggests that: A) girls still lag far behind boys on science and math. B) when differences in math and science are found today, they are very slight. C) girls have closed the math/science gap and have now become better in these subjects than boys. D) there were so many methodological flaws in the earlier research that the differences in boys’ and girls’ math and science abilities were unduly exaggerated.
answer

B) when differences in math and science are found today, they are very slight.
question

Antonio is very confident about his abilities; he has a strong sense of: A) academic success. B) self-efficacy. C) self-awareness. D) social desirability.
answer

B) self-efficacy.
question

Tory is extrinsically motivated and believes that intelligence is a fixed trait. Based on this combination, Tory probably focuses on: A) performance goals. B) learning goals. C) self-regulatory goals. D) mastery goals.
answer

A) performance goals.
question

Ivan, who believes that intelligence is a malleable trait, is enrolled in several advanced placement classes. Mastering the subject material is more important to him than getting good grades. Ivan probably emphasizes: A) performance goals. B) learning goals. C) self-regulatory goals. D) evaluation goals.
answer

B) learning goals.
question

Which of the following is not likely to predict students’ achievement-related behavior? A) whether the student has experienced a failure B) whether the student believes intelligence is fixed or malleable C) whether the student is intrinsically or extrinsically motivated D) whether the student is confident in his/her abilities
answer

A) whether the student has experienced a failure
question

Professor Umbridge takes pleasure in making her students look foolish. She stresses the importance of grades more than mastery of the course material. Her students are likely to demonstrate all of the following, except: A) insecurity about their abilities. B) hesitation about challenging themselves. C) reluctance to ask her for help. D) a need to outperform their classmates.
answer

D) a need to outperform their classmates.
question

Students’ motivation and school performance _______ when they enter into secondary school. A) remain the same B) increase C) decrease D) increase sharply and then plateau
answer

C) decrease
question

An explanation of why students’ motivation and school achievement drop as they transition into secondary school is that: A) the subject matter becomes more difficult. B) teachers focus on grades rather than mastery of the material. C) they are intimidated by the older students. D) there is a decline in their use of self-handicapping strategies.
answer

B) teachers focus on grades rather than
question

Dr. Worthy studies achievement attributions. According to the textbook, she would be assessing the ways in which individuals attribute their performance to a combination of all of the following factors, except: A) ability and effort. B) task difficulty. C) luck. D) motivation.
answer

D) motivation.
question

Jacob and Stephen just got a project back from their teacher that they had worked on together. They received a D on the project. Jacob said that it was because the project was too hard. Stephen said it was because they hadn’t worked hard enough on the project. Which adolescent is most likely to try harder on future projects? A) Stephen B) Jacob C) Both boys will try harder next time. D) Neither boy will try hard next time because they failed this time.
answer

A) Stephen
question

Shawn is told by his teacher that the task he is working on is too difficult for him. Therefore, Shawn believes that failure is inevitable. He is likely to develop: A) learned helplessness. B) attribution biases. C) achievement attributions. D) None of the above
answer

A) learned helplessness.
question

The belief or expectation that one cannot control the forces in one’s environment is called: A) underachievement. B) fear of failure. C) learned helplessness. D) temperament.
answer

C) learned helplessness.
question

Paul won’t even try to learn how to swim because when he has tried before, he has not done very well and he is now convinced that no matter what he does, he will never learn to swim. Paul’s situation is an example of: A) ego deflation. B) Type-A behavior. C) learned helplessness. D) temperament.
answer

C) learned helplessness.
question

Mrs. Kumin wants to help her lower-achieving students. She should: A) acknowledge that they do not have the ability to achieve and stop pressuring them. B) help them learn to attribute their performance to factors that are under their control. C) have them placed into special education classes. D) provide them with remedial education and have them keep trying.
answer

B) help them learn to attribute their performance to factors that are under their control.
question

Which of the following is not one of the factors researchers study in connection with how home environment influences adolescents’ level of achievement? A) parents’ values and expectations B) parenting practices C) cultural factors D) quality of home environment
answer

C) cultural factors
question

Which adolescent is least likely to exhibit high academic achievement? A) Barney, whose parents set high scholastic standards and expect him to go to college B) Bernie, whose parents go to all of his school programs and help him select his classes C) Benny, whose parents do not want to pressure him, but argue with his teachers about his grades D) Bob, whose parents join together with other parents who stay involved in school activities
answer

C) Benny, whose parents do not want to pressure him, but argue with his teachers about his grades
question

According to the textbook, which of the following is not an effective form of parental involvement: A) helping with homework B) encouraging achievement in school C) expecting achievement in school D) being involved in school-based activities
answer

A) helping with homework
question

Which of the following parenting styles is associated with adolescents’ development of intrinsic motivation and academic achievement? A) permissive B) authoritative C) authoritarian D) demonstrative
answer

B) authoritative
question

Which type of parenting is linked to school success during adolescence? A) authoritarian B) authoritative C) indulgent D) neglectful
answer

B) authoritative
question

Who is probably most likely to drop out of high school? A) Luanne, whose parents are consistently authoritative B) Dierdre, whose parents are consistently authoritarian C) Bobby Jo, whose parents are consistently indulgent D) Sally, whose parents are consistently permissive
answer

D) Sally, whose parents are consistently permissive
question

Which of the following statements about authoritative parenting is true? A) authoritative parenting promotes the development of an emphasis on extrinsic motivation and a less healthy attributional style B) authoritative parents are less likely themselves to hold healthier beliefs about their child’s achievement and more likely to be overly controlling C) authoritative parenting is associated with lower achievement motivation, greater self-esteem, and lower competence D) authoritative parenting is probably the most important contributor to strong need for achievement
answer

D) authoritative parenting is probably the most important contributor to strong need for achievement
question

Two characteristics of authoritative parents that positively influence their children’s school performance are ______ and ______. A) healthy beliefs about the child’s achievement; less tendency to be over-controlling B) healthy beliefs about the child’s achievement; greater tendency to be over-controlling C) exaggerated beliefs about their child’s achievement; involvement in their child’s academic pursuits D) a tendency to push their child to succeed; the ability to let their child make his or her own decisions
answer

A) healthy beliefs about the child’s achievement; less tendency to be over-controlling
question

Lydia’s family is always going to art shows, concerts, and poetry readings. They have a large amount of: A) societal influence. B) social capital. C) cultural capital. D) monetary success.
answer

C) cultural capital.
question

The resources provided within a family allowing the exposure of the adolescent to art, music, and literature are called: A) special education. B) social cultivation. C) artistic refinement. D) cultural capital.
answer

D) cultural capital.
question

During the school year, Titus’s parents took him to the theater and the opera. In addition, they bought him an encyclopedia for his birthday. The treatment Titus is receiving is an example of: A) special education. B) social cultivation. C) artistic refinement. D) cultural capital.
answer

D) cultural capital.
question

Which of the following is the best example of cultural capital? A) Art’s father takes him to museums during the summer. B) Chip’s parents bought him a computer. C) Henry’s mother has a Master’s degree in Shakespearean drama. D) Crystal’s parents buy her expensive earrings.
answer

A) Art’s father takes him to museums during the summer.
question

Jane’s community does a lot to support and encourage adolescents’ success in school. This community has a large amount of: A) societal influence. B) social capital. C) cultural capital. D) monetary success.
answer

B) social capital.
question

The impact of friends on adolescents’ school performance depends on: A) the academic orientation of the peer group. B) the number of extracurricular activities in which they participate. C) the size of the peer group. D) All of the above
answer

A) the academic orientation of the peer group.
question

In the United States today, the peer group is most likely to have _______ influence on an adolescent’s academic achievement. A) a positive B) a negative C) little D) both a positive and a negative
answer

B) a negative
question

Black students in the inner city who do well in school are: A) likely to be criticized by their peers who say they are “acting white.” B) likely to be respected by the white students but not by their Black peers. C) usually respected by the other high-achieving students. D) more likely than their white counterparts to attend college.
answer

A) likely to be criticized by their peers who say they are “acting white.”
question

The textbook states that peers are important for all of the following reasons, except: A) students whose friends are more engaged in school are themselves more engaged B) students with best friends who achieve high grades in school are more likely to show improvements in their own grades than are students who begin at similar levels of achievement but whose friends are not high achievers C) peers play an especially important role in girls’ decisions to take math and science classes D) adolescents with an extremely high orientation toward peers tend to perform better in school
answer

D) adolescents with an extremely high orientation toward peers tend to perform better in school
question

Which of the following is not a finding of Witkow’s recent study that investigated the ways in which adolescents use their time: A) students who earn higher grades than their peers spend more time studying, both on weekdays and on weekends B) high-achieving students spend less time with their friends than do low-achieving students on weekdays, but not on weekends C) study results suggest that high-achieving students are able to maintain an active social life by allocating time more judiciously during the week D) high achieving students spend equal time with their friends than do low-achieving students on weekdays.
answer

D) high achieving students spend equal time with their friends than do low-achieving students on weekdays.
question

Research on the interaction of the influence of parents and peers suggests all of the following, except: A) family environment affects adolescents’ choice of friends. B) friends who value school can positively affect adolescents’ school achievement even if the adolescent does not come from an authoritative home. C) peers and parents have a stronger influence on adolescents’ school achievement in countries in which schools serve heterogeneous groups of students. D) peers have more influence on adolescents than families in countries where students are placed on separate educational tracks.
answer

D) peers have more influence on adolescents than families in countries where students are placed on separate educational tracks.
question

Which of the following is an example of school performance? A) Kelly received a C on her report card. B) Naomi received a 1200 on the SATs. C) Mel has been in school for 7 years. D) Vinny has an IQ of 105.
answer

A) Kelly received a C on her report card.
question

Which of the following is an example of academic achievement? A) Kelly received a C on her report card. B) Naomi received a 1200 on the SATs. C) Mel has been in school for 7 years. D) Vinny has 3.7 GPA.
answer

B) Naomi received a 1200 on the SATs.
question

Which type of educational achievement has important implications for subsequent earnings? A) school performance B) academic achievement C) educational attainment D) All of the above
answer

C) educational attainment
question

The gap between American students’ performance and that of students from other countries _____ as they move from elementary to middle to high school. A) widens B) shrinks C) stays the same D) there is no gap between American students’ performance and that of students from other countries
answer

A) widens
question

The practice of advancing adolescents to the next grade level in school based on age rather than their successful completion of the grade level is known as: A) peer group promotion. B) age mate promotion. C) social promotion. D) upward social comparison.
answer

C) social promotion.
question

Harry has failed 9th grade this year and has not learned the material he needs to go on to higher grade levels. However, his teachers are debating letting him go on to 10th grade next year so that he does not feel left behind or lose touch with his same-age friends. This practice is called: A) disengagement promotion. B) teacher-based social support. C) achiever dropout prevention. D) social promotion.
answer

D) social promotion.
question

Work values, the different types of rewards that individuals expect to receive from their chosen occupation, can include all but which of the following values? A) influence B) social rewards C) leverage D) leisure
answer

C) leverage
question

In a study on the effect of early intensive education on later school performance among children in poverty, which intervention had the greatest impact on performance in high school? A) the preschool intervention B) the elementary school intervention C) each intervention was equally effective D) neither intervention affected high school performance
answer

A) the preschool intervention
question

Studies show that disadvantaged youth perform more poorly in school than their advantaged counterparts. Which of the following reasons best accounts for this disparity? A) Poor adolescents begin school at a distinct academic disadvantage. B) Poor adolescents have more stress. C) Parents from higher social classes are more involved in the school. D) All of the above
answer

D) All of the above
question

Mary comes from an economically disadvantaged household. Her mother went to the school counselor to find out what could be done to help Mary overcome her disadvantage. What did the counselor suggest would help? A) positive relations at home B) extra tutoring C) an after-school job D) special education classes
answer

A) positive relations at home
question

Which ethnic group, on average, has the highest level of educational achievement? A) Black adolescents B) Asian Americans C) White adolescents D) Hispanic American
answer

B) Asian Americans
question

Asian American students are likely to have higher academic achievement than White or ethnic minority youth because: A) they believe in the value of school success. B) they are very anxious about negative repercussions of not doing well in school. C) they spend more time studying than White or other ethnic minority students. D) All of the above
answer

D) All of the above
question

According to the text, Asian children tend to attribute success to: A) external causes. B) hard work. C) inherited intelligence. D) luck.
answer

B) hard work.
question

Across all ethnic groups, studies indicate that which of the following measures helps students to achieve? A) a sense of belonging to the school B) a perceived connection between academic accomplishment and future success C) parental monitoring of behavior and schooling D) All of the above
answer

D) All of the above
question

Levels of educational attainment in America have _____ over the past 6 decades. A) risen B) remained stable C) declined dramatically D) declined slightly
answer

A) risen
question

Which of the following Hispanic young adults is most likely to graduate from college? A) Gustavo, who is Mexican American B) Jesus, who is Puerto Rican C) Rogelio, who is Cuban American D) They are all equally likely to graduate from college.
answer

C) Rogelio, who is Cuban American
question

Compared with their counterparts from previous decades, today’s adolescents have __________levels of educational attainment and ___________ levels of academic achievement. A) lower; lower B) lower; higher C) higher; higher D) higher; lower
answer

D) higher; lower
question

The modest gains in achievement that have occurred during the past decade or so have been in the area of: A) higher-order thinking. B) relatively simple skills. C) computer training. D) specialized science fields.
answer

B) relatively simple skills.
question

Compared with students in other countries, U.S. elementary school students_______ students in other countries, and high school students in the United States _______ than their peers in other countries. A) perform as well as; perform as well B) perform better than; perform better C) perform as well as; perform more poorly D) perform more poorly than; perform better
answer

C) perform as well as; perform more poorly
question

The ________ is a national assessment of students’ achievement conducted by the federal government to track changes in educational achievement over time. A) National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) B) National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) C) National Assessment of Students’ Achievement (NASA) D) National Assessment of Students’ Progress (NASP)
answer

B) National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
question

All of the following have been cited as possible explanations for low achievement scores among American students, except: A) teachers do not spend enough time on basic instruction. B) students do not take advanced courses when they are offered. C) parents do not encourage academic pursuits at home. D) students spend too much time involved in extracurricular activities.
answer

D) students spend too much time involved in extracurricular activities.
question

Which of the following is the best predictor of occupational success? A) school performance B) educational attainment C) academic achievement D) motivation
answer

B) educational attainment
question

High school dropouts are more likely than high school graduates to do all of the following, except: A) experience poverty and unemployment. B) become pregnant. C) begin working earlier. D) be involved in criminal activity.
answer

C) begin working earlier.
question

Based on the definition used by the U.S. department of Education (the proportion of individuals aged 16 to 24 who are not enrolled in school and who have not earned a high school diploma or GED), the dropout rate has _____ steadily over the past half-century, to about _____. A) increased; 24% B) declined; 9% C) increased; 19% D) declined; 14%
answer

B) declined; 9%
question

High school dropout rates are highest among _____ adolescents. A) Black B) Hispanic C) White D) Asian
answer

B) Hispanic
question

Raul, a foreign-born Hispanic youth, has decided to drop out of high school. According to the studies, what is likely to be the reason for his desire to drop out? A) He is not proficient in English. B) He has a low IQ. C) He has social problems at school. D) He needs to earn money for his family.
answer

A) He is not proficient in English.
question

Which of the following has not been identified as a factor in determining the likelihood of dropping out of high school? A) socioeconomic status B) repeating a grade C) achievement test scores D) gender
answer

D) gender
question

The most effective strategy for keeping students from dropping out of high school has been: A) involving at-risk students in service learning and guided discussions of their life options. B) providing remedial classes for at-risk students. C) making courses easier. D) offering guidance counseling for at-risk students to help them academically.
answer

A) involving at-risk students in service learning and guided discussions of their life options.
question

High school dropout rates would be expected to be highest: A) in schools that emphasize academic achievement. B) in large schools that group students according to ability. C) when students who are having difficulties are allowed to change schools. D) when students are promoted from one grade to the next based on age rather than achievement.
answer

B) in large schools that group students according to ability.
question

Who is most likely to attain occupational success? A) Francesca, who earned good grades in college B) Luke, who received a high score on the SAT C) Karen, who has a Master’s degree D) Ruben, who has a high IQ
answer

C) Karen, who has a Master’s degree
question

The stage during which individuals first begin to formulate their ideas about appropriate occupations (typically between the ages of 14 and 18) is called: A) crystallization. B) specialization. C) orientation. D) specification.
answer

A) crystallization.
question

Donald is 19. He is beginning to seek appropriate information about which mental health career he wishes to pursue so he can narrow the possibilities and make his choice. According to Super, he is in which stage of occupational development? A) crystallization B) specialization C) orientation D) specification
answer

D) specification
question

Akira wants to be an occupational therapist specializing in the rehabilitation of the hand. Based on Super’s stages of occupational development, Akira has reached the: A) composition stage. B) specification stage. C) self-directed search stage. D) crystallization stage.
answer

B) specification stage.
question

Which of the following statements regarding work values is not true for adolescents? A) adolescents tend to rate almost all work rewards very highly B) adolescents optimistically believe that they can find jobs that satisfy multiple rewards simultaneously C) adolescents are able to focus on what they want from a job and identify a few rewards that are most important to them D) adolescents typically believe that they can “have it all” from future occupational choices
answer

C) adolescents are able to focus on what they want from a job and identify a few rewards that are most important to them
question

Which of the following is most likely to influence (both directly and indirectly) a teenager’s occupational choice? A) parents B) part-time work C) courses in school D) peers
answer

A) parents
question

According to the textbook, all of the following are reasons that adolescents’ ambitions are consonant with the socioeconomic status of those around them, except: A) occupational attainment depends strongly on educational attainment and educational attainment is greatly influenced by socioeconomic status B) middle-class parents are more likely to raise their children in ways that foster the development of strong achievement orientation and career exploration C) parents, siblings, and other important sources of influence serve as models for adolescents’ occupational choices D) many employers won’t higher people from certain SES groups
answer

D) many employers won’t higher people from certain SES groups
question

Which work values are most likely to remain strong over the course of young adulthood, as other work values decline? A) extrinsic B) altruistic C) intrinsic D) social rewards of the job
answer

C) intrinsic
question

Which work values decline most dramatically with age? A) extrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards B) intrinsic, leisure, and job security C) extrinsic, social rewards, job security D) altruistic, influence, and intrinsic
answer

A) extrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards
question

According to the textbook, which of the following is not a limitation to theories of career choice that are based solely on reward preference assessed in adolescence? A) interests and abilities are not fixed during adolescence B) they may underestimate the importance of other factors that influence and shape vocational decisions (e.g., the social context) C) many career decisions are influenced more by individuals’ beliefs about what sorts of jobs are accessible or “appropriate” for them than by their interests and preferences D) all of the above are important limitations to theories of career choice that are based solely on reward preference assessed in adolescence.
answer

D) all of the above are important limitations to theories of career choice that are based solely on reward preference assessed in adolescence.
question

Which statement represents an important goal of career educators helping adolescents with their future plans? A) Help adolescents find a job right after high school. B) Help adolescents achieve the highest score possible on the SATs. C) Help adolescents make informed choices about their career and free them from stereotypes that constrain their choices. D) Help adolescents form lasting relationships with teachers and administrators.
answer

C) Help adolescents make informed choices about their career and free them from stereotypes that constrain their choices.
question

According to the textbook, which of the following is a reason that career counselors (especially on college campuses) have come to play an increasingly important role individuals’ career decision-making? A) the labor market is changing so quickly that it is difficult for adolescents to obtain accurate information about careers from their families B) new government subsidized programs that require career counselors to do so C) adolescents have become apathetic about career choices and want others to decide their careers for them D) none of the above. According to the textbook, career counselors are useless.
answer

A) the labor market is changing so quickly that it is difficult for adolescents to obtain accurate information about careers from their families

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