Adolescent Exam 2 study

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Meena’s father died when she was a baby, and there is a lot of ongoing conflict in the household between her mother and stepfather. According to research discussed in the text, Meena may be more likely to
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reach puberty earlier
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Which of the following is a valid criticism of the \”distancing hypothesis\”?
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Distancing does not occur in all cultures
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Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding female reproductive development?
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Fertility may be inconsistent during the first two years after menarche
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Age-grading in schools contributes to
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social comparison of physical maturity
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According to the text there are many factors which may affect the onset of pubertal changes. Which scenario would most likely lead to delayed onset?
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Lee is a wrestler who constantly diets and over exercises to maintain a lower weight class
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According to the text, why should you be skeptical when you read studies about parents and adolescents in biological families where the behavior of parents is claimed to be the cause of the characteristics of adolescents?
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Behavior may be caused by biology and not environment
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Which of the following best represents the health status of emerging adults? Emerging adulthood is the period when a person is
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-at peak form in terms of strength and energy -the least susceptible to physical illness -the most susceptible to health problems resulting from risk behaviors
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One of the problems associated with the body of research on puberty today is that
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it is mainly focused on White adolescents in Western, industrialized countries
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Which statement most accurately represents the feedback loop in the endocrine system?
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A \”communication system\” between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads, and adrenal glands which monitors and adjusts the level of sex hormones
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One caution in interpreting the research on early and late maturation is that
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effects of individuals depend on their particular abilities, experiences, and situations
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Darlene and Geoff are both taking math classes at Westgate High School. Darlene is in a class where her teacher is constantly doing \”hands on\” projects with the class. Geoff’s teacher primarily lectures and assigns homework. Who is more likely to exhibit formal operational thinking?
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Darlene
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Hypothetical-deductive reasoning is defined as
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engaging in a systematic test of possible solutions
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Imagine your wrote a brilliant paper that discussed the \”individual differences in formal operations.\” Your view would be contrary to
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Jean Piaget
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What are the three separate capacities in the information processing model?
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attention, processing and memory
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Overproduction of synaptic connections is especially concentrated in the
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frontal lobe
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Mrs. Nichol is trying to explain to her son that everyone has bad hair days and its not the end of the world. Little Jack refuses to leave the house because he knows the humiliation he will endure will go on for months. This shows an example of
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Imaginary audience
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The term \”adolescent egocentrism\” refers to adolescents’ beliefs that
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everyone is watching and judging them
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Imagine you are a neurological researcher looking at a PET scan of a 16-year-old boy. Compared to the brain scan of an 8-year-old girl, you’d most likely see
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a larger cerebellum
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Suppose you wrote a profound paper on dialectical thought. You would most likely conclude young adults develop an awareness that most problems
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are complex and don’t have a single solution
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The primary purpose of pragmatism is to enhance logical thinking with an awareness of
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practical constraints of real-life situations
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According to the text, religious belief systems typically contain prescriptions for socializations related to the outcome(s) of:
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-sources of meaning -self-regulation -role preparation
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In a culture characterized by narrow socialization, what traits are highly prized?
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obedience and conformity
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Rani is a young Muslim girl. As Ramadan is approaching, Rani is preparing for her first fast. Knowing this we can conclude that likely
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Rani has reached menarche
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One cultural belief which underlies the practice of dating is that young people should
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have the right to decide who they are intimate with
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A study that investigated religious participation versus how people reported their religious activity concluded that
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participation was lower than self-reports
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Emerging adults’ political participation is generally higher now than during previous generations.
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False
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After following his participants for 20 years, Kohlberg found
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none had reached stage 6
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According to Piaget, who is the most effective in promoting moral development?
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peers
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Another critique of Kohlberg’s theory is that moral reasoning is based on
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hypothetical solutions
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What do the development of religious and political thinking in adolescents have in common?
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in both areas, adolescents in Western cultures begin to move toward greater abstraction
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The content of girls’ magazines is focused predominantly on physical appearance and attracting boys, while boys’ magazines are more likely to focus on
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hobbies and activities
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Which of the following best represents a gender difference versus a sex differences?
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girls tend to have more negative body image than boys
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Awareness of gender roles and expectations tends to ___________ during adolescence.
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intensify
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Most research studies on masculinity, femininity, and androgyny have been conducted on
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white college students
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The text’s author (Arnett) describes which of the following as a research area in which further investigation is needed?
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Investigating adolescents’ own perceptions of the gender specialization process
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Research indicates that conformity to gender roles during adolescence is most likely among adolescence whose
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parents influence them toward gender compliance
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Which of the following is associated with gender schema theory?
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an assumption that people organize information in terms of gender
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According to research, gender roles may temporarily become more flexible during middle childhood.
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true
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Gender differences may be exaggerated because
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our gender schemas alert us to information that confirms our expectations
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Which of the following best reflects the socialization patterns of boys and girls in Western culture?
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Girls are more self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships
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Recent research has shown that an effective way of increasing school-related self-esteem is to
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teach them knowledge and skills that can be the basis of real achievements
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According to research, an adolescent is most likely to put on a \”false self\” with
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dating partners
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According to most scholars, increased emotionality in adolescence can be attributed to
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cognitive and environmental factors
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One reason that depression is more prevalent in adolescence than in childhood may be that
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feelings of inadquatacy stems from large discrepancies between actual and ideal selves
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Which of the following may contribute to a decline in self-esteem experienced in adolescence?
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imaginary audience
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Mobashar lives in Pakistan and is a member of a rap group. His favorite recording artist is Jaz-Z. His rap group integrates traditional music with rap. He plans to study information and communication technology at college and is happy with the arranged marriage that awaits him. Mobashar’s situation best exemplifies
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hybrid identity
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Juan is a high school senior. He’s not sure what he wants to study in college, but he is considering either teaching or nursing. He has a part-time job as a clerk in a medical clinic and volunteers at his step-sister’s preschool. We could say that Juan is experiencing
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psychological moratorium
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The key areas of identity formation in adolescence are love, work, and
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ideology
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Recent studies have shown that adolescents who are bicultural or assimilated have
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higher self-esteem
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In terms of culture and identity, critics of Erikson’s theory argue that it is
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assumes independent self
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Based on the biological and cognitive changes of adolescence, parent-adolescent conflict is universal and \”natural.\”
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false
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According to research, what family members do adolescents rate as having the closest attachments with?
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parents
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Adolescents of permissive parents are more likely than other adolescents to be immature, irresponsible, and to conform to their peers
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true
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According to research in Western cultures, what relationship is marked by the highest level of conflict? An adolescent’s relationship with
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siblings
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Passive and conforming adolescents are most likely being raised by what type of parents?
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authoritarian
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In regard to attachment theory, which statement does NOT belong?
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it depends on the emotional relationship between siblings of similar age
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According to attachment theory, what shapes expectations and interactions in relationships to others throughout a child’s life?
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an internal working model
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Freddie is a 15-year-old boy who has a secure attachment to both his mother and father. In terms of his friendships at school, Freddie is more likely than others to
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express his feelings and develop close relationships
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In most divorced families, a young person’s contact with his or her father
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declines steadily over time
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According to research, in the year following divorce, mothers are more likely to be
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-less affectionate -less consistent with parenting -more permissive
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Generally, during early adolescence, most of a person’s social life takes place in
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same-sex cliques
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Which of the following factors is related to popularity across the life span?
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-social skills -intelligence -physical attractiveness
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Which of the following represents a way that parents influence their adolescent children’s peer relationships?
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-religious practices -choice of school -location of family home
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Huxley is shy. Most of his classmates neither like nor dislike him. Which of the following is most likely the case? Huxley is a(n) _____________ adolescent.
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neglected
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Which of the following situations best reflects the meaning of prefigurative culture?
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young jane teaches her mother how to use the internet
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From mid- to late-adolescence, crowd structure becomes
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less hierarchical and less influential
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According to the text, crowd formation is salient during adolescence mostly because of adolescents’
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ability to think in abstract terms
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According to research, who do 15-year-olds typically indicate is their primary source of emotional support?
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same-gender friends
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From early- to mid-adolescence, crowd structure becomes
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more differentiated and less influential
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The saying \”birds of a feather flock together\” best reflects
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selective association
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Ed likes Sandy but he is not sure how to tell her and feels he wants to avoid any direct rejection. Ed asks Cory to ask Allison to ask Sandy if she likes Ed. Ed is probably in what Bradford Brown refers to as the ___________ phase of adolescent love.
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status
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According to research, what is the most common reason for college students breaking up?
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lack of common interests
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According to the text, what do men and women rate as the highest characteristic in their \”ideal\” man or woman?
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kindness and honesty
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Rae-Ann is a young adolescent mother living in Minneapolis. If Rae-Ann is like most young mothers raising a daughter alone, she has a likelihood of
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being a high school dropout
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Stella is in 8th grade and has been sexually harassed by the boys in her school. The boys have called her names and made sexual jokes at her expense. Stella’s experience is like what percentage of other girls her age?
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45%
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During the 1990s, the effects of AIDS, a decline in sexual activity, and an increase in condom use all contributed to a(n)
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decline in birth rates
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Adolescent sexuality tends to begin with
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masturbation
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Research shows that pornography use is higher among adolescents than emerging adults.
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false
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One implication that follows form the pervasiveness of homophobia in American society is
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coming out can be a traumatic experience
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Emily has HPV and like most others is asymptomatic. According to the text, Emily
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can continue to infect her partners
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Currently, the US federal government provides approximately ________ of school funding.
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5%
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Todd is an adolescent boy attending UWO Senior Secondary High School in Fort Meyers, Florida. His cousin, Kim, lives in New Orleans where sh also attends high school. According to the text, how might Todd’s and Kim’s educational experiences compare?
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different because schools are controlled by states and cities
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Similar to parenting styles, studies have shown successful teaching includes
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-high standards for behavior -being supportive of students -reasonable decipline
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Angela is in her first year at Westmount Junior High School. According to research, what is Angela likely to experience that is different from elementary school?
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-multiple teachers -grades are now a more serious measure of academic attainment -less personalized classrooms
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According to research, which factor is most likely to contribute to lower grades in high school?
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amount of time spent socializing
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According to the text, what best explains girls’ superior performance in school and the relatively poorer performance of boys?
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-girls have higher contact time with teachers -girls feel greater support from their parents -girls report more positive experience in the classroom
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Suppose you were a participant in a study about high school dropout. You are one of the children who has the highest risk of dropping out. According to current research, what factor in your life is a strong predictor of your potential of dropping out?
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your parents’ low education
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Britt is a member of an environmental activist organization and had helped organize peaceful protests on campus. She is deeply involved in her Sociology studies and admires the instructor for that course, yet feels that most of her professors have outdated ideas. According to the text, Britt could be best described as a member of the _______________ subculture.
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rebel
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According to the text, approximately what percentage of college students drop out before obtaining a degree?
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50%
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A recent study which investigated the length of time it takes the average student to complete a \”four-year college\” degree found it took approximately _____ years.
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5-6
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According to the text, in contrast to adolescents who don’t work, those who work more than 10 hours per week are more likely to
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use alcohol and smoke cigarettes
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Samantha is 16 years old and works after school at the local gas station. If Samantha is typical of other high school students, working more than 10 hours a week will affect her
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-level of exercise -sleep patterns -eating habits
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According to research, the part-time work done by American adolescents
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rarely involved close partnerships with adult role models
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Gillian is a 14-year-old girl living in Columbus, Ohio. If Gillian is typical of most adolescent girls, Gillian’s first job is most likely
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baby-sitting
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According to sociologist William Julius Wilson (1996), what conclusion can we draw about the current system of local funding of schools? The current system
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perpetuates inequality because poor areas have smaller tax base
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One implication that follows from adolescent community service is that, in contrast to adolescents who don’t volunteer, those who do are
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more likely to be conscious of themselves as citizens
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According to the text, all of the U.S. school-to-work and job training programs tried thus far have
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only been implemented on a limited scale
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Julie lives with her mom and dad in Pittsburg. Julie is an only child and just celebrated her 15th birthday. Her father is a lawyer and her mother volunteers at the YMCA. According to research, what factors in Julie’s life is most likely to predict the fact that Julie engages in community service? The fact that
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her mother volunteers
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What benefit do adolescents and their families in traditional cultures derive from adolescents working?
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includes basic necessities like food and clothing
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In terms of occupational choice, what benefits do adolescents from preindustrial traditional cultures have?
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Having the security of knowing from an early age the kind of work they will do as adults
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2. According to genotype-environment theory, we create our own environments based on our
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genetic makeup
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In which of the following parts of the anatomy is puberty initiated?
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Hypothalamus
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Traditional puberty rituals, such as tattooing, are undergoing a revival in some cultures. This best reflects
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attempt to keep traditional cultures from disappearing due to globalization
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The best way to test the potential for formal operational reasoning in most cultures is to
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tailor the problem to the children’s daily values
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In order for scaffolding to be successful, what does the teacher need to be aware of?
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when the student becomes competent at the task he/she is performing
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Kyle knows while torching his own car for the insurance may not physically injure any one person, it does create an effect of contributing to the rising cost of car insurance. Kyle is demonstrating
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conventional system perspective thinking
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Liam’s parents disagree about religious beliefs. Her mother is devout and attends religious services twice per week, while her father is an atheist. Her parents’ disagreement is so deep that they no longer discuss religious issues. According to current research, which of the following is most likely? Liam
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is not religious
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If you were writing a research paper about collectivistic and individualistic beliefs, one caution you would have to keep in mind would be
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these categories describe overall tendencies for beliefs, but individual differences exist
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Shweder’s research provided evidence that moral reasoning is not simple reflection of a person’s level of cognitive development. Rather, moral reasoning is rooted in
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cultural beliefs
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research shows that teachers generally reinforce traditional cultural messages regarding gender
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true
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According to research, in traditional cultures, during adolescence, socialization becomes broader for boys and narrower for girls. Therefore,
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boys generally have more freedom than girls
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In terms of gender differences in adolescence and emerging adulthood, which of the following is most accurate? For most characteristics, there is ______________________________ between genders?
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more similarity than difference
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Lauren, a ninth-grade student, describes herself as a pretty good guitar play and an excellent math student who can’t understand chemistry class. She says she is wild and extroverted with friends in her band, yet is shy and quiet at school. Lauren’s self-description reflects
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the ability to recognize contradictions in her personality
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Adolescents in the foreclosure status tend to be more
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conformist
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what time period do you spend the most time alone?
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emerging adulthood
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The postmodern identity is stable across contexts and over each developmental period.
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false
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According to research, for most Americans midlife is marked by
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feeling that one is in the prime of their life
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Izmit and Emer are two adolescent boys living with both their parents. Izmit can’t wait to be old enough to move away from home. He feels like every time he asks for something his mom says no. Emer doesn’t feel the same way his brother does. Emer feels his parents are loving and allow him sufficient autonomy. According to the text, Izmit and Emer are
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normal; adolescents can experience very different feelings living in the same home
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One key principle of the family systems approach is
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each subsystem influence every other subsystem
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Within cliques, the use of sarcasm and ridicule may
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reinforce group conformity
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The emphasis on intimacy in adolescent friendships is best reflected in which of the following statements? More than younger children, adolescents
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rate trust and loyalty as important to friendship
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10. Which of the following has been show by research to be an area in which adolescents are influenced by their friends?
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check with andrea!!!!
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Niles is 15 years old and is not sure if he wants to go into a technical high school or an academic school. Who is he likely to seek advice from?
answer

father
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A national survey in the United States of 20-29 year olds found that 62% agreed that \”living together with someone before marriage is a good way to avoid eventual divorce.\”
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true
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Attachment styles between lovers have been found to resemble the parent-child attachment.
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true
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Which statement concerning adolescent sexual activity and contraception use is most accurate?
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adolescent sexual activity and contraception use are usually unplanned
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6. According to research, adolescent fathers are more likely than their male peers to
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check with andrea!!!
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According to research, in contrast to pregnant adolescents who carry their babies to term, those who have abortions are more likely to
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be better off economically
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For adolescents who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB), the degree of confusion and anxiety is often amplified because of a cultural presumption of heterosexuality.
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true
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school climate refers to
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quality of interactions between students and teachers
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Sunny and her family have lived in the U.S. for eleven years. Her friend, Sonia, has just moved to the U.S. two years ago. Both Sunny and Sonia’s family came from the same village in Mexico. According to research, based on their years in the United States who is more likely to have poorer academic performance?
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Sunny
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College students are more likely to find their experience satisfying at a small college than at a large university.
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true
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According to research, what work factor is positively related to psychological well-being and self-esteem? A job that involves
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learning new skills
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Some studies have shown positive findings between adolescent work and psychological functioning which includes
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increased self-esteem
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For recent veterans, military service has been found to
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increase self-confidence and leadership skills
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The most important result of 20th century media, such as television and radio, was the creation of a new source of
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socialization
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Bryan moved from New York to Los Angeles during the 9th grade. Bryan is an avid fan of rap music and was happy to discover many of the boys his age in his new neighborhood listen to the same music as his friends back on the East Coast. Which of the following uses of media is best represented in this scenario?
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youth subculture identification
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Studies finding that heavier exposure to sexual content on TV is related to earlier initiation of sexual intercourse are guided by which of the following theoretical frameworks?
answer

social learning theory
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Saroj loves listening to her favorite band, No Doubt. Recently, Saroj read an interview of the lead singer and decided, \”I like her attitude. She always makes up her own mind. I hope I’m like her when I’m that age.\” Which of the following uses of media is best represented in this scenario?
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identity formation
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A study conducted in a Canadian community called \”Notel\” by the researchers revealed that aggressive behavior in children ___________ after television was introduced to a community.
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increased
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A major criticism of cigarette advertising is that it is
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targeted toward adolescents
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One recent study of adolescents aged 11-15 found that adolescents’ preference for violent video games was related to
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anxiety and depression
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Social networking websites like Facebook and MySpace were originally developed by
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college students
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A concern associated with adolescents’ use of Internet chat rooms is the potential for
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-academic cheating -sexual victimization -social isolation
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Research has shown that there is no significant correlation between adolescents’ aggressiveness and their preference for watching violent television.
answer

false
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Which of the following media forms is the most used by adolescents and emerging adults?
answer

music
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When Nand feels angry, he goes home and listens to heavy metal music. According to research, if Nand is typical od adolescent heavy metal fans, which of the following may predict is the most likely effect? After listening to the music for a while, Nand
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calms down
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13. Many defenders of \”gangsta rap\” argue that the violent lyrics reflect
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grim realities of inner-city life of Black American youth
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To date, research on adolescents’ use of the Internet has tended to focus on positive rather than negative uses.
answer

false
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Adolescents and emerging adults are more likely than children or adults to be the victims of crimes.
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true
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People who have received cognitive-behavior therapy are less likely than those who have been treated with antidepressant medication to relapse after the treatment period.
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true
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Which of the following is a protective factor associated with resilience?
answer

-parents who balance care with control -high intelligence -an adult mentor outside the family
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The idea that religious participation may make it less likely that an adolescent take part in risk behavior best refers to
answer

protective factor
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In general, substance use is higher among White adolescents than among African American adolescents.
answer

true
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_________ are about four times more likely to attempt suicide; _________ are about four times more likely to kill themselves.
answer

females; males
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According to her mom, 33-year-old Shara had no problems during childhood. Shara is now a school teacher and has a child of her own. During her adolescent years, however, Shara \”ran with a crowd\” that smoked pot, shoplifted, and occasionally vandalized buildings. During her youth, Shara’s behavior could best be described as
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adolescent-limited delinquency
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In Western countries other than the United States, a higher minimum driving age and less access to automobiles is associated with
answer

fewer car accidents and fatalities among young people
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Quentin is considered to have an externalizing disorder. He frequently engages in delinquent behavior and fighting. Based upon research, it could be predicted that Quentin experiences little distress related to his behavior.
answer

true
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Which of the following is a common characteristic of people considered to be \”overcontrolled\”?
answer

overly self-punishing
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Jared and Brad are in love. They are always spending time together. They are always spending time together. They have similar religious beliefs. They both love to hike, camp, fish, and water-ski. People have commented how alike they are. According to social scientists, Jared and Brad are most likely seeking
answer

consensual validation
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Which statement best represents the relationship between low- and high achievers?
answer

High-achievers tend to have a positive influence on their low-achieving friends
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Being friends is a _____ relationship than being peers
answer

Deeper
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Emerging adulthood is a phenomenon that exists mainly in
answer

Industrialized countries
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Which of the following statements most accurately represents the relation between pubertal timing and technology? In general, puberty begins
answer

Earlier in countries where better nutrition and medical care were more widely available
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Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has been critiqued by researchers conducting cross-cultural studies
answer

true
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Shannon’s friends sometimes tease her about her dislike of wearing fashionable clothes and her plans to be an aircraft mechanic. Shannon’s attributes most likely violate her friends’ views of
answer

gender roles
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Jessica’s step-mother was a \”workaholic\” and was hardly ever home. Jessica plans to apply to law school, but swears she will not be like her step-mother. This scenario best reflects Jessica’s
answer

feared self
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Chris is feeling the effects of a \”dual income\” family. Chris is more confident and has higher career aspirations that many other kids. Based on the research, what can we conclude about Chris? Chris is
answer

likely an adolescent girl
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Which psychologist is credited with the development of a cultural approach to cognition
answer

Lev Vyogotsky
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It is difficult to make a clear link between viewing violent television and aggressive behavior in adolescent because most of the research is
answer

Correlational
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From the 1970s to the early 1990s, adolescent substance abuse generally
answer

declined
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The goal of being self-focused in emerging adulthood is to
answer

learn to be self-sufficient in adulthood
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Research shows that pornography use is higher among adolescents than emerging adults
answer

false
question

According to the text, adolescent girls in developing countries may become prostitutes in several ways which can include
answer

a. Kidnapped and taken to another country b. Promised jobs in domestic service c. Sold into prostitution by parents
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To date, research on adolescents’ use of the internet has tended to focus on positive rather than negative uses.
answer

false
question

Efforts to prevent or reduce use among adolescents have generally been delivered through
answer

schools
question

Divorce after the age of 40 tends to be less emotionally and financially difficult than divorce before age 40
answer

false
question

Meena’s father died when she was a baby, and there is a lot of ongoing conflict in the household between her mother and stepfather. According to research discussed in the text, Meena may be more likely to
answer

reach puberty earlier
question

One cultural belief which underlies the practice of Western dating is that young people should
answer

have a right to decide who they are intimate with
question

Niles is 15 years old. He is not sure if he wants to go into technical high school or an academic program next year. Based on research, it could be predicted that Niles is most likely to seek advice from his
answer

father
question

Higher rates of violent crime in the US compared other Western countries appear to be due in part to
answer

higher rates of poverty
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According to the text, there are five characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods. Which characteristic does NOT describe emerging adulthood
answer

age of stability
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One of the important changes in Western countries, which began to define the \”Age of Adolescence,\” was
answer

restrictive child labor laws
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Which of the following best defines differential gender socialization?
answer

boys and girls are socialized according to different gender expectations
question

Sven, your adolescent nephew, tells you he is worried that he is not normal because his feet and hands seem to be too big for his body. Which of the following is the best advice for Sven?
answer

\”Don’t worry, hands and feet hit the growth spurt before the rest of your body.\”
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One implication that follows from American schools placing low demands on their students is that adolescents
answer

are able to hold part-time jobs
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According to the text, optimistic bias is defined as
answer

the tendency to assume accidents, diseases and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves.
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Emerging adults in the West are more likely than older adults to be involved in organizations devoted to particular issues such as racism
answer

true
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One year post-divorce, mothers parenting style tends to
answer

become less consistent
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Imagine you wrote a paper covering research on the effects of mother’s remarrying after divorce. You would most likely conclude
answer

Adolescent problems rise
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Cohabitation before marriage is related to a higher likelihood of divorce
answer

true
question

In contrast to adolescents, emerging adults are more likely to rank __________ as the most important reason for engaging in romantic relationships.
answer

intimacy
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The average American holds between 5 to 6 different jobs between the age of 18-30
answer

false– the average American holds 7-8 different jobs between the ages of 18 and 30.
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According to the text, the key to success for intervention programs designed to help potential dropouts is
answer

Attention from caring adult staff Low student teacher ratios Beginning the program in middle school
question

Young people with externalizing problems are sometimes referred to
answer

undercontrolled

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