Absolutism, Reformation, and the Renaissance – Flashcards

question
A power struggle between Pope Boniface and King Philip IV over taxes and authority; a root of the reformation
answer
The Great Schism
question
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes, and that the council of cardinals can override papal authority
answer
Conciliar Movement
question
Who were John Wyclif and Jan Huns?
answer
Heretics
question
List the 4 clerical abuses
answer
Indulgences, simony, Pluralism, Absenteeism
question
Papers you can buy that reduced the time one suffered in purgatory based on the price; one of the first items on the printing press.
answer
Indulgences
question
The sale of church offices or positions
answer
Simony
question
Having more than one clerical office
answer
Pluralism
question
Pluralism resulted in this, the unavailability of a member of the clergy to provide spiritual guidance to his church goers
answer
Absenteeism
question
Before the reformation, the papacy was becoming more ________.
answer
Secular
question
Receiving sacraments in order to go to heaven was called the __________ _____ __ _____________
answer
Mechanical path to salvation
question
Renaissance ideas outside of Italy were called th e __________
answer
Northern/Christian Renaissance
question
The people who wanted a purer and more moral Christianity in a reform of the church, did NOT want to end the church.
answer
Northern/Christian Humanists
question
The belief in selfless love and piety in religion
answer
Desiderius Erasmus (The Philosophy of Christ)
question
A German catholic monk who was unsatisfied with the church's path to salvation and uncertain about his own salvation
answer
Martin Luther
question
A list of grievances with the church that Martin Luther posted
answer
95 Theses
question
Salvation achieved by faith ALONE, without clergy, indulgences, sacraments, etc....; one of Martin Luthers 95 theses.
answer
Justification of Faith
question
The idea that the pope was always right and could never fail
answer
Papal Infallibility
question
Martin Luther believed the bible should be
answer
Written in vernacular and the sole authority
question
Martin Luther strongly opposed these two church ideals regarding clerical behavior and purgatory
answer
Clerical celibacy and indulgences
question
Martin Luther was _______________ from the Catholic church and denounced a heretic, so he started his own form of Christianity called __________
answer
Excommunicated; Lutheranism
question
This leader of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire wanted to stop Lutheranism and make the Holy Roman Emperor a powerful position.
answer
Charles V
question
Luther received much support from ___________ so that they may enhance their own power by leading Lutheran churches
answer
German Princes
question
Was Luther for or against the peasant revolts to gain social and economic freedoms? Why?
answer
Against; Because his power lies in the German nobility whom the peasants are revolting against.
question
This man from Geneva Switzerland began the form of Christianity known as Calvinism.
answer
John Calvin
question
The theory that God has determined the fate of your soul even before you are born, it is believed in ______(religion)
answer
Predestination; Calvinism
question
The Calvinists were strongly against the concept of _________ in the church, believing all members of the church were equal and all believers should participate, not just the clergy
answer
Hierarchy/Episcopal Model
question
What group of Christians were militant/willing to fight for their religion?
answer
Calvinists
question
French Calvinists were known as __________
answer
Hugenots
question
Scottish Calvinists were known as _________
answer
Presbyterians
question
English Calvinists were known as __________ (Because they believed they were PURE of hierarchy in the church. This group would later migrate to America in search of religious freedom and become known as what we call Pilgrims today)
answer
Puritans
question
This English king began the Anglican church so he could divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, the woman he impregnated,
answer
Henry VIII
question
The Anglican church is similar to the Catholic church in all ways except the authority lies in _________ in Anglicanism
answer
The monarch, as opposed to the pope
question
The Catholic Reformation was a ______________ movement
answer
Reactionary
question
This doctrine reaffirmed the authority of the pope
answer
Council of Trent
question
A New Catholic Order of evangelical missionaries who spread Catholicism in America and Asia
answer
Jesuits
question
These wars between the Hugenots fighting against the absolutist kings for "religious" freedom start the Catholic Bourbon dynasty of France.
answer
French Wars of Religion
question
This is the French edict in which the king converts to Catholicism but allows Protestants, Calvinists, and others to freely practice their own faiths.
answer
Edict of Nantes
question
The war fought on Germanic lands between the German and Spanish Protestants and Catholics
answer
Thirty Years War
question
The Germans lost ____% of their population in the Thirty Years War
answer
60
question
A treaty stating that the Germanic rulers in the Holy Roman Empire can choose the religion practiced in their own separate areas rather than a united Holy Roman Empire religion. It also gives Holland independence from Spain.
answer
Treaty of Westphalia
question
Protestants usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
answer
North
question
Catholics usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
answer
South
question
These wars were fought between the Anglican, Catholic, and Calvinist churches for economic and political (parliament vs monarch) reasons as well as religious
answer
English Civil Wars
question
Name some impacts of the Religious Wars and Reformation
answer
Religion and god were being questioned, papal authority crumbled, science begins to take over
question
Which three groups feared the scientific revolution? The _______ feared religious explanation being overturned. The ________ feared biblical explanation would be overturned. The _______ feared Divine right of kings would be overturned.
answer
Catholics, Lutherans, Absolute Monarchs
question
The most frequently used method of legitimization of power by Absolute Monarchs, the idea that they had god given right to rule
answer
Divine Right of Kings
question
The reasons given for an individuals right to rule (Diving right of kings, mandate of heaven, etc....)
answer
Legitimation of Power
question
By the scientific revolution, the role of churches in political and social affairs __________ (decreased or increased?)
answer
Decreased
question
The belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.
answer
Geocentrism
question
The belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
answer
Heliocentrism
question
The outer circle of the universe where God resides.
answer
Empyrean Heaven
question
This Polish astronomer first discovered and proposed the Heliocenric model.
answer
Nicolaus Copernicus
question
This Italian astronomer/physicist invented the modern telescope and gathered evidence to support the Copernican Heliocentric model.
answer
Galileo Galilei
question
This man discovered that planets have not round, but elliptical orbits.
answer
Johannes Kepler
question
This English scientist explained gravity and how the universe was a machine, and so humans could understand how it worked.
answer
Isaac Newton
question
The belief that God is the creator of the universe, but s/he doesn't impact human events
answer
Deism
question
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
answer
The Four Humors
question
Name the four humors.
answer
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
question
The French intellectual movement based on social studies, the use of knowledge to improve society, and rationality.
answer
The Enlightenment
question
Intellectuals of the Enlightenment who criticized the old order.
answer
Philisophes
question
This Scottish writer wrote "Wealth of Nations", supporting Laissez-Fair economics
answer
Adam Smith
question
A French word meaning a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy, literally meaning "let them do", meaning let the people do what they want.
answer
Laissez-Faire
question
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by checks and balances)
answer
Absolutism
question
The name of the French parliament not allowed to meet by an absolutist monarch
answer
Estates General
question
The middle class was called the ___________
answer
Bourgeoisie
question
The monarch with a grand palace at Versailles in which nobles resided and stayed out of political affairs.
answer
King Louis XIV
question
The French imposed high ________ ( a form of taxes) on incoming goods to keep money in France.
answer
Tariffs
question
This edict basically reverses the Edict of Nantes, making Calvinism illegal which leads to the emigration of Hugenots to the Holy roman Empire.
answer
Edict of Fontainebleau
question
The name for the army of 400,000 of King Louis XIV that was ready to fight at any minute
answer
Standing Army
question
What country tries to imitate France in its absolutism?
answer
Spain
question
A leading German state in the Holy Roman Empire that struggled with non contiguous lands and decentralization.
answer
Prussia
question
The family that ruled Prussia.
answer
Hohenzollern
question
A leading German state that assumed control of Hungarian and Slavic nations and struggled with the nationalism of the Slavs, leading into World War I
answer
Austria
question
This Austrian treaty pushed back the Ottoman invasion into Europe and led it out of Europe (must know date)
answer
Treaty of Karlowitz (1699)
question
The 2 non absolutist parliament/monarch based states that were both strong commercial powers in Europe.
answer
Netherlands and Britain
question
This revolution ends the English civil wars and leads into a peaceful take over by William and Mary of Holland.
answer
Glorious Revolution
question
Grants basic civil liberties to the people of England.
answer
Bill of Rights
question
The dynasty that begun in England with the war of the roses
answer
Tudor Dynasty
question
This renaissance thinker argued that it is better to be feared than loved and that the ends justified the means.
answer
Niccolo Machiavelli
question
The wars between Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) and the Monarch over his absolutist policies, the parliament wins and beheads the king (radical movement)
answer
English Civil War
question
The Glorious revolution eliminates the possibility of a _______/_______ monarchy in England with a constitution and bill or rights.
answer
Catholic/absolute monarchy
question
A group of people with a common language and culture
answer
Nation-State
question
The European name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
The 7 Years War
question
The Indian name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
Great War for Empire
question
The American name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
French-Indian War
question
Who won the 7 years war? (If all else fails, take a guess. France never wins. EVER. Militarily, France absolutely sucks.)
answer
Britain
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question
A power struggle between Pope Boniface and King Philip IV over taxes and authority; a root of the reformation
answer
The Great Schism
question
The belief that the Catholic Church should be led by councils of cardinals rather than popes, and that the council of cardinals can override papal authority
answer
Conciliar Movement
question
Who were John Wyclif and Jan Huns?
answer
Heretics
question
List the 4 clerical abuses
answer
Indulgences, simony, Pluralism, Absenteeism
question
Papers you can buy that reduced the time one suffered in purgatory based on the price; one of the first items on the printing press.
answer
Indulgences
question
The sale of church offices or positions
answer
Simony
question
Having more than one clerical office
answer
Pluralism
question
Pluralism resulted in this, the unavailability of a member of the clergy to provide spiritual guidance to his church goers
answer
Absenteeism
question
Before the reformation, the papacy was becoming more ________.
answer
Secular
question
Receiving sacraments in order to go to heaven was called the __________ _____ __ _____________
answer
Mechanical path to salvation
question
Renaissance ideas outside of Italy were called th e __________
answer
Northern/Christian Renaissance
question
The people who wanted a purer and more moral Christianity in a reform of the church, did NOT want to end the church.
answer
Northern/Christian Humanists
question
The belief in selfless love and piety in religion
answer
Desiderius Erasmus (The Philosophy of Christ)
question
A German catholic monk who was unsatisfied with the church's path to salvation and uncertain about his own salvation
answer
Martin Luther
question
A list of grievances with the church that Martin Luther posted
answer
95 Theses
question
Salvation achieved by faith ALONE, without clergy, indulgences, sacraments, etc....; one of Martin Luthers 95 theses.
answer
Justification of Faith
question
The idea that the pope was always right and could never fail
answer
Papal Infallibility
question
Martin Luther believed the bible should be
answer
Written in vernacular and the sole authority
question
Martin Luther strongly opposed these two church ideals regarding clerical behavior and purgatory
answer
Clerical celibacy and indulgences
question
Martin Luther was _______________ from the Catholic church and denounced a heretic, so he started his own form of Christianity called __________
answer
Excommunicated; Lutheranism
question
This leader of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire wanted to stop Lutheranism and make the Holy Roman Emperor a powerful position.
answer
Charles V
question
Luther received much support from ___________ so that they may enhance their own power by leading Lutheran churches
answer
German Princes
question
Was Luther for or against the peasant revolts to gain social and economic freedoms? Why?
answer
Against; Because his power lies in the German nobility whom the peasants are revolting against.
question
This man from Geneva Switzerland began the form of Christianity known as Calvinism.
answer
John Calvin
question
The theory that God has determined the fate of your soul even before you are born, it is believed in ______(religion)
answer
Predestination; Calvinism
question
The Calvinists were strongly against the concept of _________ in the church, believing all members of the church were equal and all believers should participate, not just the clergy
answer
Hierarchy/Episcopal Model
question
What group of Christians were militant/willing to fight for their religion?
answer
Calvinists
question
French Calvinists were known as __________
answer
Hugenots
question
Scottish Calvinists were known as _________
answer
Presbyterians
question
English Calvinists were known as __________ (Because they believed they were PURE of hierarchy in the church. This group would later migrate to America in search of religious freedom and become known as what we call Pilgrims today)
answer
Puritans
question
This English king began the Anglican church so he could divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, the woman he impregnated,
answer
Henry VIII
question
The Anglican church is similar to the Catholic church in all ways except the authority lies in _________ in Anglicanism
answer
The monarch, as opposed to the pope
question
The Catholic Reformation was a ______________ movement
answer
Reactionary
question
This doctrine reaffirmed the authority of the pope
answer
Council of Trent
question
A New Catholic Order of evangelical missionaries who spread Catholicism in America and Asia
answer
Jesuits
question
These wars between the Hugenots fighting against the absolutist kings for "religious" freedom start the Catholic Bourbon dynasty of France.
answer
French Wars of Religion
question
This is the French edict in which the king converts to Catholicism but allows Protestants, Calvinists, and others to freely practice their own faiths.
answer
Edict of Nantes
question
The war fought on Germanic lands between the German and Spanish Protestants and Catholics
answer
Thirty Years War
question
The Germans lost ____% of their population in the Thirty Years War
answer
60
question
A treaty stating that the Germanic rulers in the Holy Roman Empire can choose the religion practiced in their own separate areas rather than a united Holy Roman Empire religion. It also gives Holland independence from Spain.
answer
Treaty of Westphalia
question
Protestants usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
answer
North
question
Catholics usually lived North or South? (Consider the position of the Vatican, center of the Catholic church. would they want to be close or far from it?)
answer
South
question
These wars were fought between the Anglican, Catholic, and Calvinist churches for economic and political (parliament vs monarch) reasons as well as religious
answer
English Civil Wars
question
Name some impacts of the Religious Wars and Reformation
answer
Religion and god were being questioned, papal authority crumbled, science begins to take over
question
Which three groups feared the scientific revolution? The _______ feared religious explanation being overturned. The ________ feared biblical explanation would be overturned. The _______ feared Divine right of kings would be overturned.
answer
Catholics, Lutherans, Absolute Monarchs
question
The most frequently used method of legitimization of power by Absolute Monarchs, the idea that they had god given right to rule
answer
Divine Right of Kings
question
The reasons given for an individuals right to rule (Diving right of kings, mandate of heaven, etc....)
answer
Legitimation of Power
question
By the scientific revolution, the role of churches in political and social affairs __________ (decreased or increased?)
answer
Decreased
question
The belief that the Earth is the center of the universe.
answer
Geocentrism
question
The belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
answer
Heliocentrism
question
The outer circle of the universe where God resides.
answer
Empyrean Heaven
question
This Polish astronomer first discovered and proposed the Heliocenric model.
answer
Nicolaus Copernicus
question
This Italian astronomer/physicist invented the modern telescope and gathered evidence to support the Copernican Heliocentric model.
answer
Galileo Galilei
question
This man discovered that planets have not round, but elliptical orbits.
answer
Johannes Kepler
question
This English scientist explained gravity and how the universe was a machine, and so humans could understand how it worked.
answer
Isaac Newton
question
The belief that God is the creator of the universe, but s/he doesn't impact human events
answer
Deism
question
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
answer
The Four Humors
question
Name the four humors.
answer
Blood, Yellow Bile, Black Bile, and Phlegm
question
The French intellectual movement based on social studies, the use of knowledge to improve society, and rationality.
answer
The Enlightenment
question
Intellectuals of the Enlightenment who criticized the old order.
answer
Philisophes
question
This Scottish writer wrote "Wealth of Nations", supporting Laissez-Fair economics
answer
Adam Smith
question
A French word meaning a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy, literally meaning "let them do", meaning let the people do what they want.
answer
Laissez-Faire
question
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by checks and balances)
answer
Absolutism
question
The name of the French parliament not allowed to meet by an absolutist monarch
answer
Estates General
question
The middle class was called the ___________
answer
Bourgeoisie
question
The monarch with a grand palace at Versailles in which nobles resided and stayed out of political affairs.
answer
King Louis XIV
question
The French imposed high ________ ( a form of taxes) on incoming goods to keep money in France.
answer
Tariffs
question
This edict basically reverses the Edict of Nantes, making Calvinism illegal which leads to the emigration of Hugenots to the Holy roman Empire.
answer
Edict of Fontainebleau
question
The name for the army of 400,000 of King Louis XIV that was ready to fight at any minute
answer
Standing Army
question
What country tries to imitate France in its absolutism?
answer
Spain
question
A leading German state in the Holy Roman Empire that struggled with non contiguous lands and decentralization.
answer
Prussia
question
The family that ruled Prussia.
answer
Hohenzollern
question
A leading German state that assumed control of Hungarian and Slavic nations and struggled with the nationalism of the Slavs, leading into World War I
answer
Austria
question
This Austrian treaty pushed back the Ottoman invasion into Europe and led it out of Europe (must know date)
answer
Treaty of Karlowitz (1699)
question
The 2 non absolutist parliament/monarch based states that were both strong commercial powers in Europe.
answer
Netherlands and Britain
question
This revolution ends the English civil wars and leads into a peaceful take over by William and Mary of Holland.
answer
Glorious Revolution
question
Grants basic civil liberties to the people of England.
answer
Bill of Rights
question
The dynasty that begun in England with the war of the roses
answer
Tudor Dynasty
question
This renaissance thinker argued that it is better to be feared than loved and that the ends justified the means.
answer
Niccolo Machiavelli
question
The wars between Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell) and the Monarch over his absolutist policies, the parliament wins and beheads the king (radical movement)
answer
English Civil War
question
The Glorious revolution eliminates the possibility of a _______/_______ monarchy in England with a constitution and bill or rights.
answer
Catholic/absolute monarchy
question
A group of people with a common language and culture
answer
Nation-State
question
The European name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
The 7 Years War
question
The Indian name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
Great War for Empire
question
The American name for the war between France and Britain over colonial lands
answer
French-Indian War
question
Who won the 7 years war? (If all else fails, take a guess. France never wins. EVER. Militarily, France absolutely sucks.)
answer
Britain
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