Absolutism and Enlightenment

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Centralize Political Power
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A main goal of the monarchs of Europe during the Age of Absolutism
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Absolute Monarchs
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Louis XIV, Akbar the Great, Ivan the Terrible
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Divine Right
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Belief of European monarchs that the power to rule came from God
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Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Petition of Rights
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English documents that limited the power of the monarch.
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Glorious Revolution
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Event in England that established a limited constitutional monarchy
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Scientific Revolution
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Period when thinkers challenged traditional ideas and relied on observation and experimentation to support their theories
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Enlightenment
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18th century movement that advocated for democracy and laissez-faire capitalism; use reason to improve society
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John Locke
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Enlightenment philosopher who declared that people had natural rights and it was the job of government to protect them
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Voltaire
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Enlightenment philosopher who fought against discrimination and intolerance; wanted freedom of speech
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Rousseau
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Enlightenment philosopher who favored government based on the desires of the majority
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Montesquieu
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Enlightenment philosopher who encouraged the separation of governmental powers into three branches – judicial, legislative, and executive – to protect against a dictatorship
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Magna Carta
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A list of feudal rights that limited the power of the English monarchy
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Louis XIV
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Absolute monarch of France who is credited with saying “I am the State”
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Peter the Great
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Absolute monarch of Russia who expanded his territory and modernized with Western ideas
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Rise of Absolutism
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– Divine right theory – Centralization of political power – Writings fo Thomas Hobbes

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