Flashcards on ABNORMAL CH1&2

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He believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.
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Szasz
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While there are numerous definitions of abnormality, most definitions share the following features: deviance, distress, danger, and:
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dysfunction
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A society’s stated and unstated riles for proper conduct are known as:
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norms
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He stated “therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims… it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided.”
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Rogers
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He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features.
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Frank
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A group of friends decided to “let off some steam” and went to the local auto junkyard everyday to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT:
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there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
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He was a Viennese physician who developed the theory of psychoanalysis.
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Freud
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While the subject of many modern movies, back in the Middle Ages those who believed that they were possessed by wolves or other animals were suffering from:
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lycantropy
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He was the first physician to specialize in mental illness, and he believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was.
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Weyer
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Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by:
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psychiatrists
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These medications lift the mood of depressed people.
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antidepressants
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Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
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40
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This is a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
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analogue experiment
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Jackson was given 20mg of Drug X to determine if there would be a 25% reduction in his depressive symptoms. The dependent variable is:
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a 25% reduction of his depressive symptoms
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Dr. Haigen published a book based on his twenty years as a forensic psychologist. He included numerous accounts or _______________ of various patients he worked with.
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case studies
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Eileen has chosen not to get married, have children, and lives with ten dogs. She rarely goes out, yet she does not bother anyone. This is considered an example of:
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eccentricity.
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He believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.
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Szasz
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George was tormented by the deprecating voices he kept hearing. This is an example of which of the four D’s?
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distress
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He stated “therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims… it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided.”
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Rogers
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A group of friends decided to “let off some steam” and went to the local auto junkyard everyday to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT:
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there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
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He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features.
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Frank
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In ________, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that eugenic sterilization was constitutional.
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1927
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He is considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology.
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Weyer
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This ancient operation involved the cutting away of a circular section of the skull to treat abnormal behavior.
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trephination
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Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by:
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psychiatrists.
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Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
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40
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These medications correct extremely confused and distorted thinking.
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antipsychotics
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Volunteers in the multinational anxiety trial were told that they would not know which treatment they would be receiving as this was a:
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blind design.
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This is the research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other.
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correlational method
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This is a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
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analogue experiment
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During ECT, two electrodes are attached to a patient’s forehead and an electrical current of ____ to ____ volts is passed briefly through the brain.
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65 to 140
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Tim’s depression has continually failed to respond to typical treatments and his current episode has him on the brink of suicide. His psychiatrist recommends:
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ECT.
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Ron was prescribed the following class of medications to lessen the voices he was hearing and the persistent thoughts that someone was out to get him.
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antipsychotics
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These psychodynamic theorists give the greatest attention to the unified personality.
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self theorists
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The _________ operates on the pleasure principle, while the __________ operates on the reality principle.
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id; ego
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This model looks at people’s unconscious internal processes and conflicts.
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psychodynamic model
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Jonas is afraid of elevators and begins to see a therapist who specializes in a behavioral treatment which is applied in a step-by-step procedure known as:
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systematic desensitization.
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This is the process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated.
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operant conditioning
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This model emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned.
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behavioral model
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This therapy helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
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cognitive therapy
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Illogical thinking processes are another source of:
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abnormal functioning.
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This model concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior.
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cognitive model
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This therapy encourages the client to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values.
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existential therapy
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Unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy are all aspects of:
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client-centered therapy.
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They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
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Existentialists
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The goal of ________________ prevention is to provide effective treatment as soon as it is needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems.
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tertiary
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The sociocultural model is comprised of ___ major perspectives.
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2
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Family therapy was first introduced in the:
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1950’s
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Dr. Jacob supports this model which believes a full understanding of his patients’ thoughts, emotions, and behavior must also include an understanding of their biological basis.
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biological model
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The three main biological treatments include all of the following EXCEPT:
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psychotherapy.
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During times of stress, the adrenal glands secrete the hormone:
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cortisol
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According to Freud, this is the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals.
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superego
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Sharon is worried to truly tell her male therapist how she feels as she fears he may not accept her. Sharon’s concerns may best be explained by:
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transference.
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These psychodynamic theorists give the greatest attention to the unified personality.
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self theorists
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Julie was driving her four-year-old son, Alec, to preschool when another driver cut her off. She immediately shouted an expletive at the other driver. During the day, Alec became angry when another child took his toy and he used this same expletive his mother used earlier. This is an example of:
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modeling
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is behavioral.
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10
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In the famous Pavlov experiment, the dog salivating to the meat powder is the:
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unconditioned response
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Nikki said hello to her professor in the hallway, but her professor did not say hello back. She spent the rest of the day worrying whether or not she would pass the class and if her professor was angry at her. This is an example of:
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overgeneralizing
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Approximately ____ percent of today’s clinical psychologists report that their approach is cognitive.
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28
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__________________ involves therapists setting up services that invite persons with problems to e-mail their questions and concerns.
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E-therapy
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They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
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Existentialists
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He is considered to be the pioneer of the humanistic perspective.
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Rogers
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Humanists believe that people are driven to _______________, to fulfill their potential for goodness and growth.
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self-actualize
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This model looks to social and cultural forces as the keys to human functioning.
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sociocultural model
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________________ experience unusually high rates of anxiety disorders.
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African Americans
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In ______________________, therapists try to help members recognize and change harmful patterns of communication.
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conjoint family therapy
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Deviance
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behaviors, thoughts, emotions, different from the normal. norms:stated/unstated rules for proper conduct. culture: history, values, habits, skills, technology, institutions, arts. western society: women and business: always changing
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Distress
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behaviors, emotions, thoughts causing distress. positive feelings causing hesitation, energized and challenged.
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Dysfunction
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cannot care for selves properly, interfering with daily functioning
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Danger
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Causing danger to one self or others
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Elusive nature
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Szasz “myth of sorts: problems of living not something wrong with person, eccentricity unusual pattern which others have no right to interfere.
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Moral treatment
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ben rush, moral, doctors give extra care, dorothy fix 1802-1827, humane care
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Decline Moral
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1850’s money staff shortages, treated with humanity dignity hospitalization, custodial care over crowded, long term
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Abnormal psychology
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study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning
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norms
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societys stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
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culture
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peoples common history, values, institutions, skills, technology, art
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trephination
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operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular sections of the skill perhaps to treat abnormal behavior
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humors
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greeks and romans bodily chemicals that influence mental and physical functioning.
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asylum
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type of institution that first became popular in the 16th century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. virtual prisoners.
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moral treatment
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19th century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful humane.
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state hospitals
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state run public mental institutions in the united states
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somatogenic perspective
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the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
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psychogenic perspective
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the view that the choef causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
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psychoanalysis
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theory or treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology.
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psychotropic medications
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drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
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deinstitutionalization
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practice begun 1960s of releasing the hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
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prevention
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interventions aimed at deterring disorders before they develop
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positive psychology
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study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities
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managed care program
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system of health care coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature scope and cost of service
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scientific method
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process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon.
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case study
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detailed account of a persons life and psychological problems
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correlation
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the degree to which events or characteristics vary along each other
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correlation method
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research procedure used to determine how much events or characteristics vary along with each other
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epidemiological study
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a study that measures the incidence and prevalent of a disorder in a given population
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longitudinal study
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a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
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experiment
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research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed
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independent
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experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable
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Dependant
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experiment that is expected to changed as the independent variable is manipulated.
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control
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group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable
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experimental group
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participants who are exposes to the independent variable
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random assignment
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selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group
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blind design
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experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in experimental or the control condition
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quasi experiment
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investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist int he world at large (mixed)
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natural experiment
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nature rather then experimenter manipulated independent variable.
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single subject
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single participant is observed and measured both before and after manipulation of an independent variable.
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model
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set of assumptions and concepts that help the scientist explain interpret observations
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neuron
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nerve cell
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synapse
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tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another
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neurotransmitter
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chemical released by one neuron crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons.
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hormones
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chemicals released by endocrine glands into bloodstreem
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gene
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chromosome segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit
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psychotropic medication
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drugs primarily affecting the brain and reduce as many symptoms of mental dysfunction.
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electroconvulsive therapy ect
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biological treatment depressed patients brain seizure is triggered as an electric current passing though electrodes attached to patients forehead.
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psychosurgery
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brain surgery for mental disorders/neurosurgery
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id
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freud, instinctual needs, drives, impulses
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ego
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freud, employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle
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ego defense
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psychoanalytical theory, avoid or reduce anxiety
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superego
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freud, psychoanalytical force that represents values and ideals
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fixation
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freud, id superego and ego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development
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free ass
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psychodynamic patient describes any thought feelings or image that comes to mind if it seems unimportant.
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resistance
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unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
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dream
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series of ideas and images during sleep
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catharsis
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reliving past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems.
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self act
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humanisitic process by which people fulfill their potentional for goodness and growth
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client centered
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humanistic, carl rogers, genuineness
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gesalt
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humanistic, perls, clinicians actively move clients toward self recognition and self acceptance by using techniques such aas role playing and self discovering exercise.

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