5.1-5.2 Study Guide: Cell Cycle | Mitosis & Cytokinesis

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Cell Cycle
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the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in EUKARYOTIC cells
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G1
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1st Stage of Cell Cycle: Cells grow, Carries out normal functions, and replicate their organelles
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G2
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3rd Stage of Cell Cycle: Additional growth, Has to go through critical checkpoint
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Synthesis
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2nd Stage of Cell Cycle: Makes copy of DNA
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Mitosis
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4th Stage of Cell Cycle: Division of cell nucleus and its contents
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Cytokinesis
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Last Stage of Cell Cycle: Division of cytoplasm
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Growth and Division
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To maintain a suitable cell size, _______ & __________ must be coordinated.
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Chromosome
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One long continuous THREAD OF DNA that consists of numerous genes
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Histones
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Proteins that DNA is tightly-coiled around
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Chromatid
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One half of a duplicated chromosome
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Centromere
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Region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched, sister chromatids are held together here (Centro= CENTER)
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Telomere
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Structures at the end of DNA molecules, prevents ends of chromosomes from accidentally attatching to each other
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Prophase
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1st Phase of MITOSIS: DNA and proteins CONDENSE into tightly coiled chromosomes, nuclear envelope BREAKS DOWN, CENTRIOLES begin to move to opposite poles, SPINDLE fibers form
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Metaphase
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2nd Phase of MITOSIS: Spindle fibers ATTACH to protein structure, ALIGN chromosomes along cell equator
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Anaphase
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3rd Phase of MITOSIS: Sister chromatids SEPARATE from each other, SPINDLE fibers SHORTEN, pulls SISTER CHROMATIDS to opposite sides
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Telophase
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4th Phase of MITOSIS: Complete set of IDENTICAL chromosomes position at each pole of cell, NUCLEAR MEMBRANE begins to form, CHROMOSOMES UNCOIL, spindle fibers FALL APART

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