4: Change Management in HIM

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active listening
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occurs when an individual makes a conscious effort to hear and understand the message being conveyed
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ADKAR model
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a change management model that is utilized to assess individual change management issues; five building blocks -awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement in regards to the change initiative- are necessary components for individuals to understand in order to participate in change
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adoption of innovation
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relates to how individuals adapt to the situations presented to them
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anchoring
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making the first offer in a negotiation and this is the foundation the rest of the negotiation builds upon
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Bridges’ transition model
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developed by William Bridges and published in his 1991 book, “Managing Transitions,” this model provides a guide for how individuals’ experience change by transitioning through different phases: Stage 1 – Ending, losing, and letting go; Stage 2 – the neutral zone; and Stage 3 – the new beginning
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change
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to make or become different
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change agent
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the individual or group that undertakes the task of initiating and managing change in an organization
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change initiatives
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external or internal changes to the healthcare organization
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change management
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the formal process of introducing change (becoming different), getting it adopted, and diffusing it throughout the organization
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collaboration
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the relationships and interactions that occur between co-workers within an organization
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communication
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process of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to exchange or share information
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conflict
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a clash between hostile or opposing elements, ideas, or forces; any difference in opinion, value, need, or want that causes frustration in one or more interdependent people and blocks them from achieving their tasks or goals
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conflict management
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a problem-solving technique that focuses on working with individuals to find a mutually acceptable solution
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diffusion of innovation theory
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theory that explains how a typical population embraces the adoption of innovation or adoption of change
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early adopters
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individuals who are the change leaders within the organization; they are a little more cautious than innovators
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early majority
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those individuals within the organization who tend to adopt change quicker than the average person but are not considered innovators or early adopters
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emergent change
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a continuous, open-end process of adaptation to changing circumstances and conditions
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external change agent
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individual such as an external consultant who is employed by the organization temporarily to escort the organization through the change
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innovation
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the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices, or methods
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innovators
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individuals willing to step up to try the innovation or process first
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input-output process model
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developed by Joseph E. McGrath in 1964, this seven-component model evaluates the effectiveness of collaboration within teams; input refers to group composition and structure as well as the tasks required within a particular work environment; outputs are the group’s tasks and performance, group development, and the overall effect of the group dynamics on individual team member’s performance within a collaborative work situation
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internal change agent
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individual who is employed within the organization and is familiar with the inner workings of the organization
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John Kotter’s change management model
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an eight-step process that management needs to perform in order to transform an organization through change; leadership needs to 1) establish a sense of urgency for change, 2) form a coalition, 3) develop a vision and strategy, 4) communicate the change vision, 5) eliminate the resistance to change, 6) generate short-term wins, 7) consolidate wins to create more change, 8) adopt the change
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Kurt Lewin’s three-stage change management model
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model that provides practical guidance for change initiatives; the three stages of this model are unfreezing, changing or transitioning, and freezing
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laggards
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individuals who resist change; they are bound by tradition and are very skeptical of change
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late majority
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individuals who are skeptical of change and will only participate in the change or innovation after it has been tried by the majority of the people involved in the change initiative or innovation
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learning organization
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an organization that quickly adapts to environmental changes and thus attains knowledge and skills that can be utilized in the future when experiencing change
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mission statement
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a written statement that sets forth the core purpose and philosophies of an organization or group; it defines the organization or group’s general purpose for existing
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negotiation
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a formal discussion between people who are trying to reach an agreement
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organizational culture
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shared values and beliefs that guide behavior within organizations
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organizational development (OD)
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the application of behavioral science research and practices to planned organizational change
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phases of grief
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in 1969, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross describes an emotional framework for grief in her book “Death and Dying” and that same construct has been noted in relation to how employees experience change within organizations; the five grief stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
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planned change
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a formal process that is introduced methodically and is actively managed by managers or change agents
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power in negotiation
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refers to any unique attributes or position a particular negotiation party possess
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refreezing
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Lewin’s last stage of change in which the new behaviors are reinforced to become as stable and institutionalized as the previous status quo behaviors
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resistance to change
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a force that slows or stops the motion of change efforts, which then increases the amount of work and energy needed to propel the efforts forward
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Senge’s theory of change
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theory that outlines disciplines that contribute toward a learning organization: personal mastery, mental models, building shared visions, and team learning
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strategic change
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change that involves improving the alignment of an organization’s strategy, culture, and design
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strategic planning
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the process in which the leadership of a healthcare organization develops the organization’s overall mission, vision, and goals to help guide the direction of the organization as a business entity
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Thomas Kilmann conflict mode instrument
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a questionnaire tool utilized to assess the manner in which individuals manage conflict; this tool assesses conflict management styles by using two parameters -assertiveness and cooperation- which manifest in five distinct styles: to avoid, compete, collaborate, accommodate, and compromise
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transitioning
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the second stage of Lewin’s change process in which change is a process rather than one single event; this is the inner movement employees make in reaction to change
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unfreezing
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the first stage of Lewin’s change process in which people are presented with disconcerting information to motivate them to change
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vision statement
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a short description of an organization’s ideal future state
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work environment scale (WES)
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developed by Rudolph Moos based on his research of development of a conceptual framework that assesses the interplay of individuals and their work environment, the WES was designed to measure the social environments of different types of work settings through completion of a questionnaire; it assists organizations to evaluate employee productivity, assess employee satisfaction, and clarify employee expectations to ensure a health work environment

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