02.05 The Rise of the Political Machines Flashcard

Explain the concept of a political machine and identify significant players
Identify different social groups, their significant players, and goals
Assess the effectiveness of the different social groups during the late 19th/early 20th century
POLITICAL MACHINES?
POLITICAL MACHINES?
Local Leaders; Political Machines
Changes in urban living created these leaders, who observed the changes in the cities, seeing how they can increase their power. Mostly from immigrant groups, the see what their cities needed (schools,police,lighting,sanitation) and create organizations to get these thing for their VOTE. They pay for the things by having WARDS.
Political Machines
A party organization, headed by a single boss or small autocratic group, that commands enough votes to maintain political and administrative control of a city, county, or state
Tammany Hall – NYC
Expanded its power by helping it’s community (finding jobs, housing, helping them get citizenship to vote, food, fuel). By this level of involvement, they able to get elected into office at city or state governments
Quest for Power
Led to corruption, some find where a city is planning to put a courthouse/transit line and buy the propert b4 just to sell it. Some also take money from people in the organization in exchange for jobs on the gov payroll, a system called Political Patronage.
Grafts
Some pol machine bosses accpeted bribes in exchange for giving city contracts to buisnesses.
-Or a politician taking money off the top of a gov contract
BOSS TWEED?
BOSS TWEED?
How did he rise into power?
-Used the power from his ward in the Tammany Machine
-“Tweed Ring” with the Mayor of NYC and the Treasurer, together they gained control of the City’s public money
What did he do?
-Charged outrageous taxes, Stealing millions of dollars by bribing
What did the community do?
-Drew numerous political cartoons, publishing them into big papers
-NY sheriff gained access to Tweed’s secret accs and exposed him
-Big papers published them, not accepting bribes
-Tweed then got put to jail for life, along with his accomplices
COMMUNITY TAKING ACTION?
COMMUNITY TAKING ACTION?
Organizing Unions
They wanted to do something about the conditions that led to Tweed
-Organized Unions and led strikes
-Called for Socialism, became strong enough to send Debs for socialistic Pres
-Middle Class proposed solution for the problems in their cities, formed social movements to address corruption, immigrant adjustment, child labor, women’s right, etc.
Reformers
-Often Dissagreed which where the most important problems, how do adress them
Social Gospel – Gladden
-Gladden believed that it was the religious ppls duty to help the poor
-The YMCA and the YWCA provided housing for newcomers
Florence Kelley
-Socialast woman, working for the labor reform
-Fought for 8 hr workdays and minimum wage, child labor, racial equality, the NAACP
Journalism
Fought for reform through books and articles
-The Jungle: showed the physical conditions immigrants faced, the greed of buissiness owner’s
-Exposed meatpacking facilities, ppl where alerted and passed the Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food, and Drug Act of 1906
-All in all, safer for workers n consumers
Muckrakers?
Roosevelt called those who fought for social reform
-Comparing them to an unhappy character in a book
-Even so, he ran for pres sharing their goals
Brooke T. Washington
First AA to dinner at the white house, invited to Roose, was born into slav and then when to Tuskegee Inst
W.E.B. DuBois – Niagra Movement
-Intented to end racial disc by promoting the most talented AAs to posistions of influence
-Washington’s idea was that AA should acheive social justice thu aducational and vocational training
NOTABLE SELECTIONS:
-Riis, img from Denmark, risen from pov to newsppr rep in NYC. published “how the other half lives”, inspired organization that helped improve living conditions for the poor
-Settlement house movement founded on the principal of guiding the poor to help themselves. The Hull House by Jane Addams, she beleived that education justice, opportunity, and human dignity would comabt the problems of the poor. Conducted numerous classes and job training
-National Child Labor Committee to stop almost 1.7 Mil children 15 n under to stop working almost 13 hrs a day.
-Temperance movement brought prohibitation of alchohol. Although, repealed the amendment since it was doing more bad than good.
NOTABLE SELECTIONS:
-Tarrbell wrote “The History of the Standard Oil Company” exposing Rockeffeller, and the tactics he used to build the Standard Oil Trust, influencing the Supr crt to break up the trust
-Steffens, the editor of McClures(mag that Tarbell wrote for) collected all the articles of pol corruption, saying imms are not to blame for pol corruption
-Debs, led strike against Pullman Comp after he laid them off n rehired them for 25% pay cut, strong socialist
-US women wanted suffrage since the Civ War, organizations like National Woman Suff Association petitioned Cong for right, finally won 1919
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA?
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA?
Progressives
-A person that favors improvement and reform, Presidents like Roose, Howard Taft, & Wilson enacted reformer ideas into law
-Roosevelt settled strikes, pushed just laws, and progressed
Insurgents – a rebel within a political party
-Took control of Congress, passed laws to protect children, stop the abuse of business, establish saving banks through the Post Office, and laws to provide compensation for workers injured on the job.
OTHER CHANGES PROGRESSIVE LEADERS WANTED?
OTHER CHANGES PROGRESSIVE LEADERS WANTED?
Environmental Changes
Roose saw that nat resources are limited, Pinchot was appointed to Nat Forest Service and he worked with luber comps to only cut down full grown trees, to replant one cut down
-Spread the message of conservation

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