Writing Research Papers

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Startegies for generating a topic
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Dewey Decimal Brainstorm Reviewing Notebooks, Journals, and Textbooks
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Prewriting: Narrowing your topic
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Browse through the library’s reference section Surf the Internet Make sure there are solid references to support your topic be sure your topic is narrow enough to be presented thoroughly
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Narrow your topic
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Complete a topic web
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Prewriting: Audience and Purpose
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Audience: How much your audience knows about your subject will influence the amount of detail you include. Identifying a specific audience can help you determine the degree of detail to include. Purpose: In a research paper, you can describe, explain, or persuade. Refine your purpose; then use language and details that support it: 1) To praise your subject—Include words and details that show your subject’s positive qualities. 2) To persuade your readers to adopt your position—Include facts and examples that support your ideas. 3) To explain a complex cause-and-effect relationship—Include facts and details that show the connection.
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Prewriting: Gathering Details
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Use a wide range of sources: – Reference Books – Nonfiction Books – Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Databases – Internet – Interviews Take notes – Source cards – Note cards
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Drafting: Shaping your writing
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1) Write a thesis statement: Your thesis statement summarizes the main idea of your paper 2) propose a thesis statement 3) Develop an organizational plan — Chronological order (history of a subject) — Order of importance (persuasive argument) — compare and contrast (addressing 2+ topics) — parts to whole (analyzing elements of large topic)
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Writing Your Paper
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1) Writing a Formal Outline Looks like: I a. b. c. II a. b. c. 2) Writing a Sentence outline Topic Sentences for Each Part of Essay 3) Provide elaboration: review all your research notes, and choose the quotations or visuals that best prove your point.
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Citing Sources
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1) Paraphrase: restating another writer’s ideas in your own words 2) Direct Quotations: Write word for word what author says
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Visuals
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1) Charts: provide information concisely 2) Graphs: how a growth or decline over time 3) Maps: illustrate geography, climate, or population
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Framing
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Each quote should be framed: 1) Introduce the quotation by naming the writer or linking the quotation to the material it follows. 2) Give the quoted material. 3) Explain the quotation by showing how it supports the point you are presenting.
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Revising Your Structure
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1) Check coherence: Be sure that each paragraph has a topic sentence that is covered by the content of the paragraph. 2) Bracket to check coherence 3) Revise paragraphs to help with flow 4) Transitional words and phrases like because, as a result, if, therefore, in addition, despite, and recently can clarify the connections you want to stress. 5) Peer Review
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Style
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Standards for documentation are set by several organizations. Most writers use the style set by the Modern Language Association (MLA), the American Psychological Association (APA), or The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS).
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Focusing on Mechanics
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Carefully review your research paper for errors in capitalization, punctuation, and abbreviation. Pay special attention to these conventions for including quoted material: Introduce all quotations in order to explain how they support your thesis statement. When quoting a few words or part of a sentence, make sure the quoted material fits grammatically with the rest of the sentence. When you provide a quotation of five lines or more, indent the material ten spaces. In this case, no quotation marks are necessary.
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Publishing and Presenting: Building Your Portfolio
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1) Organize a conference 2) Create an Annotated Bibliography
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Which subject is best organized using chronological order?
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History of the Unite Nations

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