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World Literature Midterm

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Sanskrit
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the official language of India until about the 19th century brought by the Aryans (Indo-Aryan language)
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Hieroglyphics
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“sacred carvings” chiseled on walls to record political activities and religious beliefs
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Cuneiform
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writing used by Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, mostly to record political events/laws. Got writing off the walls
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hubris
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Tragic flaw such as pride or arrogance in a person that offended the gods and led to disaster
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darma
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that which holds;” guiding principle of proper human conduct
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karma
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a deed; that which is done”; all deeds, good or bad, have inevitable results (what goes around comes around—ask Alicia Keyes )
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Sophists
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the first professional (paid) teachers in existence who taught about rhetorics, government, ethics, literary criticism
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catharsis
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a release of emotions, expected to be experienced at the end of a play
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ayas
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individual verses in the Koran
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Rosetta Stone
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Stone discovered in 1799 by Napoleon’s French soldiers, consisting of two versions of hieroglyphs and Greek, which helped to interpret hieroglyphics.
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Who was Joseph’s father? What was this man called by (other than his name)?
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Jacob or Israel — he was the twin of Esau; grabs his heel at birth; dupes him out of his birthright and inheritance
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What is the earliest known Sumerican epic poem?
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The epic of gilgamesh
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In The Bhagavad Gita, who is the warrior who questions the rules of life?
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Arjuna
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What does the name “Oedipus” mean?
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“swollen foot”
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Who was the brother who tried to save Joseph’s life?
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Reuben
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On what mountain did Zeus live?
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Mount Olympus
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On what mountain did the Ark rest?
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Mount Ararat
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What is the name of the first democracy in Western history?
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Athens
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Which book tells the story of the great civil war among Aryan clans?
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the Mahabharata
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In Ovid’s poem, who “took up a clod [and] molded it into the shape of the gods”? He also stole fire from the gods.
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prometheus
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Latin literature begins with a translation of which poem?
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The Odyssey
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Who was the first murderer?
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Cain
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What did Ptolemy do?
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made himself Pharaoh
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What does the word “shalom” translate to in Hebrew?
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peace, harmony, wholeness, completeness, prosperity, welfare and tranquility and can be used idiomatically to mean both hello and goodbye.
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Who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey?
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Homer
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Who is the god of wine and fertility?
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Dionysus
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Who was the first murderer?
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Cain
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How much did Joseph’s brothers sell him for?
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twenty shekels of silver
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What is the first work of literary criticism?
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Aristotle’s Poetics
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Who wrote Song of Songs?
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David
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Be familiar with the days of creation and what was created on each–according to Genesis
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Day 1: night and day (light and dark) Day 2: sky (firmament) Day 3: land, sea, vegetation Day 4: sun, moon, stars Day 5: fish, birds Day 6: animals, man Day 7: rest
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What are the first five books of the Bible referred to as? What ARE the first 5 books?
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Pentateuch – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
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What was Oedipus’s mother’s/wife’s name?
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Jocasta
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Where is the “Fertile Crescent” located?
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convergence of the tigris and euphrates river — iran/iraq
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Where was Augustine born?
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Thagaste (North Africa)
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Jesus’ last words were “Eli, eli lama sabachthani.” What language is this? What is the translation?
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God, God, Why have you forsaken me? Aramaic or Hebrew
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In the New Testament readings, who was the elderly woman who stayed in the temple both day and night waiting on the Messiah? Who was the elderly man?
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elderly man- Simeon elderly woman- Anna
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Ovid gives names to the four winds–be familiar with each: East, West, South, North
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Eurus- east wind Zephry- west wind Boreas- north wind Auster- south wind
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What was Daphne’s metamorphosis?
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Apollo pursued her and just before being overtaken, Daphne pleaded to her father, the rivergod Ladon, and Ge (Gaia) for help. So Ladon then transformed Daphne into a laurel tree
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Who is Apollo in conflict with?
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Cupid
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Who does Pygmalion fall in love with?
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it is a statue made of ivory and her name was galatea
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Who was the apostle to the Gentiles–helped spread Christianity.
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Paul
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What the Greek word that means “good news”?
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Gospel
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What were the four languages spoken in Judea during the time of Jesus? To which group was each language directed?
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Hebrew-priestly caste Aramaic-general public Greek-upper and educated classes Latin-Roman government
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Who sent out a decree to tax “the world” at the beginning of the Jesus story?
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cesear augustus
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What is the “city of David”?
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Bethlehem
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In The Canterbury Tales, what do the rioters hear?
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3 rioters who had heard a death bell and were seeking out death
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Whose tomb are the Canterbury pilgrims going to visit?
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Saint Thomas aBecket
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In “The Pardoner’s Tale,” what is the translation of “Radix malorum est cupiditas”?
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the root of evil is greed
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What month does The Canterbury Tales take place?
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April
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How many pilgrims were heading to Canterbury?
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29
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What was the name of the religious sect that Augustine was a part of? They followed Babylonian teachings and believed that the world was a battleground for the forces of good and evil.
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Manichaeism
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Augustine once compared the scriptures to the readings of whom? He thought that this fellow’s writing was much better than the scripture.
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Cicero
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Who is the central prophet of the Muslim religion? He received the revelations.
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Muhammed
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What is Potiphar’s wife named in the Koran?
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Zuleika
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What language is the Koran written in?
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Arabic
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What is considered to be the first authentic autobiography?
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Confessions
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suras
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larger sections or chapters