World History Final Study Questions (Updated with Chapter 21)

Which of the following was a result of the Russo-Japanese War?
a.) Russia gained control of parts of Manchuria.
b.) Japan gained control of Korea.
c.) Russia gained control of Korea.
d.) Japan gained control of Taiwan.

The Platt Amendment gave the United States the right to intervene in the affairs of
a.) Cuba
b.) Mexico
c.) all of Latin America
d.) Panama

What was the purpose of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?
a.) to guarantee Cuba’s independence
b.) to avoid “entangling alliance” in Latin America
c.) to establish the united States as a “police power” in the Western Hemisphere.
d.) to expand the U.S. Constitution to include Mexico.

In the late 1800s, the United States, Germany, and Britain agreed to a triple protectorate over the Pacific island of
a.) Hawaii
b.) Samoa
c.) Malaya
d.) Borneo

In Japanese society under the Meiji, women had
a.) no legal status.
b.) the same legal status as minors.
c.) the same legal status as their husbands.
d.) to convert the Maori to Christianity

Why did missionaries land in New Zealand in 1814?
a.) to convert the Aborigines to Christianity.
b.) to seek new scientific discoveries.
c.) to set up a democratic government.
d.) to convert the Maori to Christianity.

The rise to power of the Tokugawa family resulted in
a.) Japanese isolation.
b.) the Westernization of Japan.
c.) the end of feudalism in Japan.
d.) the First Sino-Japanese War.

Latin America’s newly independent nations were weakened in the 1800s by
a.) regionalism and the emergence of the caudillos.
b.) the end of the triangular trade.
c.) the continued dominance of the peninsulares.
d.) the collapse of their plantation economies.

In 1853, President Millard Fillmore sent a fleet of American ships into lower Tokyo Bay to
a.) start a war with Japan.
b.) offer American aid to help Japan industrialize.
c.) force Japan to open its ports.
d.) force Japan to give up claims on Korea.

The first British colonists to settle Australia in large numbers were
a.) whalers
b.) Aborigines
c.) prisoners
d.) sugar planters

French Indochina was made up of
a.) China, India, and Burma
b.) China, Vietnam, and Thailand
c.) Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
d.) Java, the Moluccas, and Malaya

“The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”
The quotation above expresses the main idea of
a.) Dollar Diplomacy
b.) the Monroe Doctrine
c.) the Platt Amendment
d.) the Roosevelt Corollary

Britain created the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada when it passed the
a.) Constitutional Act of 1791
b.) British Act of Union of 1840
c.) Proclamation of 1763
d.) British north America Act of 1867

Conservative leaders in Latin America in the 1800s believed in
a.) freedom of the press.
b.) laissez-faire economies.
c.) religious toleration
d.) the traditional social order

Siam avoided becoming a European colony by
a.) raising an army equal in size to European armies
b.) having little that European nations wanted
c.) accepting unequal treaties and modernizing
d.) forming alliances with other people of Southeast Asia

What “Hermit Kingdom” was forced to open its ports to Japanese trade in 1876?
a.) Tokyo
b.) Malaya
c.) Korea
d.) Siam

In the late 1800s, the British began to profit from which important port in southern Malaya?
a.) Laos
b.) the Moluccas
c.) Vietnam
d.) Singapore

The United States gained control of the land for the the Panama Canal by
a.) helping the Panamanian revolt against Colombia in exchange for the land
b.) helping the Panamanians win independence from Spain
c.) invading Panama and seizing the land
d.) backing an invasion of Panama by Colombia

What was the result of the British North America Act of 1867?
a.) Britain created the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada
b.) Britain annexed Canada
c.) Canada gained self-rule
d.) Upper and Lower Canada became one province

The March First Movement was a
a.) Mexican reform movement
b.) Korean nationalist movement
c.) Japanese reform movement
d.) French-Canadian nationalist movement

The United States gained control of Texas after armed conflict with the forces of
a.) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
b.) Simon Bolivar
c.) Porfirio Diaz
d.) Benito Juarez

Meiji reformers chose to model the new Japanese government after the government of
a.) the United States
b.) Germany
c.) Great Britain
d.) the Netherlands

Japan gained control of Taiwan as result of the
a.) Treaty of Portsmouth
b.) First Sino-Japanese War
c.) March First Movement
d.) Russo-Japanese War

Which of the following was a feature of the new Japanese political system created by Meiji reformers?
a.) absolute power of the emperor
b.) expanded voting rights
c.) a one-house legislature
d.) a two house legislature elected by the people

What was a result of the treaty that ended the Spanish-American War?
a.) The Untied States gained control of the Philippines
b.) The Philippines gained independence from France
c.) The Philippines gained control of Cuba
d.) The Philippines gained independence from the United States

indigenous people of New Zealand

ruler of the Hawaiian Islands who was overthrown by planters form the United States

Japanese legislature

helped open an era of liberal reform in Mexico known as La Reforma
Benito Juarez

people of mixed Native American and French Canadian descent

a British penal colony during the 1700s

set Siam on the road to modernization

strong local leaders in Latin America who challenged central governments for power

powerful Japanese business families who ruled over industrial empires

a self-governring nation

For which of the following reasons did the Schlieffen Plan fail?
a.) The United States joined the war
b.) Germany did not have a strong army
c.) Belgium could not be defeated
d.) Russia mobilized its army quickly

A stalemate developed along the Western Front early in World War 1 because
a.) The French army was able to push Germany out
b.) Trench warfare made it difficult for either side to win an advantage
c.) The United States immediately joined the war
d.) The German army fought with outdated weapons

Which Allied leader wanted to weaken Germany at the Paris Peace Conference so that it could never again threaten France?
a.) Woodrow Wilson
b.) Francis Ferdinand
c.) Vittorio Orlando
d.) Georges Clemenceau

To defend their merchant ships against attacks from German submarines, the Allies
a.) organized the merchant ships into convoys
b.) resorted to trench warfare
c.) began shipping supplies using zeppelins
d.) suspended the transport of supplies by ship

Which of the following had the greatest effect on the course of World War I?
a.) the zeppelin
b.) the airplane
c.) the tank
d.) the submarine

How was fighting on the Eastern Front different then fighting on the Western Front?
a.) Causalities were much lower on the Eastern Front
b.) Trench warfare was not as widespread on the Eastern Front
c.) Russian armies were better equipped than countries in the West
d.) The Result of battles on the Eastern Front were more decisive

Which of the following events cause Britain to fight in World War I?
a.) Germany invaded Belgium
b.) Germany invaded Russia
c.) Russian armies were better equipped than countries in the West
d.) The result of battles on the Eastern Front were more decisive

In general, the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles focused mainly on
a.) decreased American influence
b.) punishing Germany
c.) increasing German power
d.) strengthening the Ottoman empire

After World War I, European colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific
a.) gained newfound respect among Europeans
b.) strongly supported the mandate system established by the leaders at Paris
c.) felt betrayed by the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference
d.) were relieved that their affairs would continue to be handled by the imperial powers

The build-up of armed forces in Europe during the late 1800s is an example of
a.) mercantilism
b.) imperialism
c.) isolationism
d.) militarism

During the three-year long civil war in Russia, the “White” armies were composed of
a.) armies from France, Britain, and the United States
b.) German refugees from World War I
c.) Bolsheviks and other revolutionaries
d.) tsarist officers, democrats, and other anti-Bolsheviks

Which of the following groups seized complete control of Russia in 1917?
a.) the Black Hand
b.) the Bolsheviks
c.) the Whites
d.) the Serbian nationalists

By the early 20th century, Britain had built the world’s most respected navy because
a.) it feared economic competition from Russia
b.) it needed to protect its vast overseas empire
c.) it was eager to go to war with Germany
d.) it was a requirement of the treaties it had made

Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks in 1917 during the November revolution?
a.) V.I. Lenin
b.) Karl Marx
c.) Joseph Stalin
d.) Gregory Rasputin

Which countries were members of the Triple Alliance?
a.) Germany, Italy, Russia
b.) Germany, Italy, Australia-Hungary
c.) France Russia, Britain
d.) Austria-Hungary, Germany Japan

In the Zimmerman note, Germany offered which of the following to Mexico if it joined the Central Powers?
a.) rule over the North American continent
b.) 3 trillion dollars in gold
c.) a fleet of submarines
d.) the return of Mexican lands held by the United States

Which of the following was one of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points?
a.) the division of Russia into East Russia and West Russia
b.) a statement of American neutrality in World War I
c.) a call for a large-scale increase int he production of arms
d.) the right of Eastern Europeans to choose their own form of government

Why did many Irish Americans oppose the United State’s decision to enter World War I on the side of the Allies?
a.) They feared the loss of Irish colonies due to the war.
b.) Many Irish immigrants to America were married to Germans
c.) They did not want to be allied with the Russian tsar
d.) They resented British rule of Ireland

Which of the following is the best explanations for Russia’s entrance into World War I?
a.) Russia wanted to defend the Slavic peoples in Serbia
b.) Russia wanted to avoid facing Germany alone at a later date
c.) Russia wanted to punish Serbia for encouraging terrorism
d.) Russia stood by its one dependable ally, Austria-Hungary

Which of the following helped the Allies achieve the breakthrough they sought in World War I?
a.) the Russian Revolution
b.) the waging of total war
c.) the involvement of the United States
d.) the battle of Gallipoli

glorification of the military

a British colonel who helped Arab nationalists free their nations from the Ottoman empire
T.E. Lawrence

payments for war damage

the channeling of all of a nation’s resources into the war effort
total war

large gas-filled balloons used by Germany to drop bombs

a list of terms issued by President Wilson to end World War I and prevent future wars
Fourteen Points

a growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners

the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause

a strait connecting the Black Sea with the Mediterranean

the policy of taking neither side in a conflict

In 1927, the second Sino-Japanese War
a.) caused the city of Beijing to prosper
b.) united the Guomindang and Communists
c.) caused thousands to die in Japanese cities
d.) caused the May Fourth Movement

Why did many Muslim religious leaders in Persia disapprove of the reforms introduced by Reza Khan?
a.) He did not share their religious faith
b.) He wished to continue a form of colonial rule
c.) He replaced Islamic law with secular law
d.) He established spheres of influence for the British and Russians

Which of the following was an important factor in bringing about the Mexican Revolution?
a.) Military dictators wanted to give up power
b.) The urban middle class wanted democracy
c.) The landowning elite wanted to break up large plantations
d.) Peasants wanted to give up farming for factory jobs

As part of the struggle for Indian independence, Mohandas Gandhi urged Indians to
a.) boycott British goods
b.) attack British-owned factories
c.) kidnap important British leaders
d.) avoid members of the “untouchable” caste

The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) brought stability to Mexico by
a.) welcoming foreign investments
b.) granting women the right to vote
c.) catering the wealthy landowners
d.) suppressing opposition and dissent

American philosopher Henry David Thoreau influenced Mohandas Gandhi through his ideas
a.) civil disobedience
b.) apartheid
c.) discrimination
d.) economic policy

The purpose of apartheid in South Africa was to
a.) discourage African nationalism
b.) ensure white economic, political, and social supremacy
c.) undermine Pan-Africanism
d.) prepare colonial South Africans for independence

What was the eventual result of Sun Yixian’s efforts to rebuild China based on the Three Principles of the People?
a.) China fell into chaos and Sun stepped down
b.) Foreign powers established a democracy
c.) Jiang Jieshi embraced communism
d.) Sun wrote the Chinese Constitution

One of Ataturk’s reforms in Turkey was to
a.) reject religion in laws and government
b.) discourage industrial expansion
c.) closely align government with religion
d.) replace secular law with Islamic law

In 1931, Japanese ultra-nationalists seized the Chinese province of
a.) Mongolia
b.) Manchuria
c.) Korea
d.) Canton

Which of the following did Gandhi use to fight British rule?
a.) passive resistance
b.) violent demonstrations
c.) pressure from the United Nations
d.) armed resistance

Which of the following was a a turning point int he Indian independence movement in 1919?
a.) Hundreds of Indians were killed at Amritsar
b.) The Congress party rejected Mohandas Gandhi
c.) The British boycotted Indian goods
d.) The British allowed Indian self-government

Chinese who turned to revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin gained strong support from?
a.) the United States
b.) the Soviet Union
c.) Japan
d.) Jiang Jieshi and his Nationalist party

In 1922, Japan agreed to limit the size of its navy
a.) to help the economy by reducing military spending
b.) to protect its relations with the West
c.) so it would have money to rebuild Tokyo after an earthquake
d.) because of security guarantees from China

The Twenty-One Demands
a.) were an attempt to strengthen Chinese Culture
b.) sought to decrease Japanese influence in China
c.) were Mao Zedong’s guidelines for proper behavior
d.) sought to make China a Japanese protectorate

Which statement correctly describe the Japanese economy after World War I?
a.) Japan fell behind because it rejected Western technology
b.) The zaibatsu created an economic crisis
c.) were Mao Zedong’s guidelines for proper behavior
d.) sought to make China a Japanese protectorate

The militarists who came to power in Japan in the 1930s
a.) used schools to teach students absolute obedience to the emperor
b.) redistributed lands to Japanese peasants
c.) forced Japanese to wear Western-style clothes
d.) dismantled the Japanese civilian government

Unlike the Nationalists, Mao Zedong’s Communists gained the most support from which group in China?
a.) militarists
b.) peasants
c.) workers
d.) warlords

Which of the following is an example of the rise of cultural nationalism in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s?
a.) government investment in new businesses
b.) the revival of mural painting
c.) increased tariffs
d.) a sense of pride in European culture

In the 1930s, what effect did the Great Depression have in Latin America?
a.) People lost faith in the ideas of liberal government
b.) The economic crisis caused democracy to spread
c.) Latin American nations rejected socialist ideas
d.) Peasants made gains in wealth and status

How did the Allies anger Chinese Nationalists at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference?
a.) They refused to allow China to become a member of the League of Nations
b.) They forced China to pay reparations to the Allies
c.) They set up Yuan Shikai as the puppet leader of China
d.) They gave Japan control over some former German possessions in China

In the 1930s, Japanese militarists wanted to
a.) adopt Western ways
b.) get rid of the emperor
c.) revive traditional Japanese values
d.) reform education

Which statement is true about Japanese politics in the 1920s?
a.) The Japanese parliament was dissolved
b.) Japan moved toward more widespread democracy
c.) Japanese political parties grew weaker
d.) The influence of the zaibatsu was diminished

Turkish nationalists, led by Ataturk
a.) invaded Egypt to overthrow the British
b.) overthrew the ottoman sultan and declared Turkey a republic
c.) gave Turkish lands to Allied countries
d.) were defeated at Smyrna by invading Greek forces

large plantations controlled by the Mexican elite

advocated the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine
Balfour Declaration

rejected Confucian traditions and sought to learn from the West
May Fourth Movement

Mexican president who approved the Constitution of 1917
Venustiano Carranza

movement in which writers expressed pride in their African roots and protested colonial rule
negritude movement

doctrine that Gandhi preached

led the Chinese Communist Party during the Long March
Mao Zedong

a policy of rigid segregation practiced in South Africa

pledge by the United States to lessen its involvement in Latin American affairs
Good Neighbor Policy

shah who modernized Persia
Reza Khan

What was the main purpose of Stalin’s five-year plans?
a.) to turn the Soviet union into a modern industrial power
b.) to produce more consumer goods
c.) to increase farm production
d.) to turn the Soviet Union into a military power

France occupied Germany’s coal-rich Ruhr Valley in 1923
a.) because Germany had fallen behind in reparations
b.) to protest the policies of Adolf Hitler
c.) because the French wanted to acquire more land
d.) to force striking German miners back to work

How did the League of nations respond when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931?
a.) It launched an assault against the invading forces
b.) It sent arms and supplies to the Manchurians
c.) It insisted that the United states solve the problem
d.) It condemned Japan’s action but did nothing to stop it

In 1928, Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming discovered
a.) psychoanalysis
b.) the theory of relativity
c.) penicillin
d.) atomic fission

Under Mussolini’s rule in Italy
a.) free speech was encouraged
b.) there was a one-party dictatorship
c.) the socialists came into power
d.) a democracy was put into place

What was a cause of Stalin’s Great Purge?
a.) Central planners did not achieve production goals
b.) The Kulaks resisted collectivization
c.) Peasants did not want to give up their land to the state
d.) Stalin feared rival party leaders

The purpose of the Kellogg-Briand Pact was to
a.) end war forever
b.) establish military alliance
c.) establish Germany’s borders
d.) promote international economic cooperation

What 1924 agreement reduced German reparations and provided U.S. loans to Germany?
a.) Kellogg-Briand Pact
b.) Dawes Plan
c.) Locarno treaties
d.) Versailles Treaty

Which of the following was a result of the work of Marie Curie and Albert Einstein?
a.) the development of the polio vaccine
b.) the discovery of penicillin
c.) the development of the liquid-fueled rocket
d.) the discovery of atomic fission

Many Italians supported the Fascist party because it
a.) was the only political party
b.) ended the influence of the Church
c.) pledged to united Italy and Germany
d.) promised to improve the economy

What was the appeal of Mussolini’s fascist government to Italians?
a.) The fascists worked for socialist change
b.) The fascists ended political feuding in government
c.) The fascists supported a classless society
d.) The fascists supported democratic ideals

Which statement is correct about the economy of the United States in the 1920s?
a.) The U.S. became the world’s leading economic power
b.) The U.S. enjoyed the benefits of a command economy
c.) The U.S. economy was hurt by an unstable political scene
d.) The U.S. economy was hurt by crushing reparations payments

In the early 1930s, which of the following contributed to the spread of economic problems around the world?
a.) Governments raised tariffs to protect their economies
b.) The Allies overpaid their war debts to the United States
c.) Global trade rose dramatically
d.) The U.S. Federal Reserve lowered interest rates

Which group sharply criticized the Weimar Republic as too weak and longed for another strong leader like Bismarck?
a.) women’s groups
b.) conservative Germans
c.) communists
d.) socialists

On Stalin’s collectives,
a.) the government provided tractors, fertilizers, and seed
b.) peasants set all prices and controlled access to farm supplies
c.) individual peasants could own small plots of land
d.) agricultural output skyrocketed in the 1930s

What was a key characteristic of fascism in the 1920s and 1930s?
a.) open political debate
b.) pursuit of a classless society
c.) supremacy of the state
d.) glorification of human reason

What was a result of prohibition, which was made law in the United States in 1919?
a.) voting rights for more citizens
b.) the development of jazz music
c.) an increase in organized crime
d.) greater freedom for women

Sigmund Freud’s method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders is called
a.) surrealism
b.) stream of consciousness
c.) relativity
d.) psychoanalysis

In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws which
a.) established the Third Reich under Hitler
b.) deprived Jews of German citizenship
c.) required all young Germans to join the Hitler Youth
d.) combined all Protestant sects into a single state church

Stalin attempted to make the cultural life of the Soviet Union more Russian by promoting a policy of
a.) russification
b.) capitalism
c.) surrealism
d.) tsarism

What measure did the Nazis take that was a rejection of the Versailles treaty?
a.) They launched large public work projects
b.) They rearmed Germany
c.) They established the Gestapo
d.) They passed the Nuremberg Laws

After most of Ireland became self-governing in 1922, why did the Irish Republican Army (IRA) continue to fight the British?
a.) Northern Ireland remained under British rule
b.) Northern Ireland wanted independence from the Irish Free State
c.) The IRA wanted a socialist government
d.) The IRA wanted reparations from Britain

Which of the following helped Adolf Hitler gain power in Germany?
a.) the promise of a new democracy
b.) the support of the Weimar government
c.) the Great Depression
d.) big business and labor

U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed a massive package of Depression relief called the
a.) Fair Deal
b.) Federal Reserve
c.) New Deal
d.) Great Society

In Britain during the 1920s, the Labour party supported
a.) middle-class business interests
b.) legislation limiting the power of workers to strike
c.) a gradual move toward socialism
d.) upper class conservatives

an artistic movement that attempts to portray the workings of the unconscious

a one-party dictatorship that tries to regulate all aspects of its citizens’ lives
totalitarian state

Nazi secret police

militant supporters of Benito Mussolini
Black Shirts

a class of wealthy farmers whom Stalin destroyed

encouraged world-wide communist revolution

renounced war as an instrument of policy
Kellogg-Briand Pact

liberated young women of the Jazz Age

a system of brutal Russian labor camps

“Night of the Broken Glass”

Hitler decided to invade the Soviet Union because
a.) the Soviets had betrayed him by seizing the Baltic States
b.) he wanted to protect the Germans living in Russia
c.) he wanted the Soviet Union’s vast natural resources
d.) the Soviets had helped the British at Dunkirk

The U.S. strategy of “island-hopping” in the Pacific
a.) pushed Japanese forces into the jungles of Burma and Malaya
b.) quickly weakened the resolve of Japanese soldiers
c.) was a failure, forcing the U.S. To use atomic weapons
d.) allowed the U.S. to gradually move north toward Japan

What happened at Dunkirk in the spring of 1940?
a.) France signed German surrender documents
b.) The British waited for Germans to attack in the “Phony War”
c.) British forces successfully retreated across the English Channel
d.) The Germans launched their invasion of Britain

In 1942, what priority did Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin set in the war?
a.) to open a second front in Western Europe in 1943
b.) to achieve victory in Europe before trying to achieve it in Asia
c.) to destroy the German navy before invading Western Europe
d.) to achieve victory in Asia before trying to achieve it in Europe

Which city was the target of an unsuccessful German blitz for two months in 1941?
a.) London
b.) Dunkirk
c.) Paris
d.) Vichy

Who were the kamikaze?
a.) the ruling class in Japanese society
b.) the pro-war group within Japanese government
c.) the name of the Japanese carrier group at Midway
d.) Japanese pilots who crashed it to Allied warships

What was important about the Battle of the Bulge?
a.) It delayed the Allied advance from the west
b.) It caused the Allies to withdraw from Belgium
c.) It delayed the Soviet advance from the east
d.) It caused the Germans to sue for peace

World War II in Europe began in Hitler’s invasion of
a.) Czechoslovakia
b.) France
c.) Poland
d.) Austria

How did Churchill and Roosevelt give in to Stalin at the conference in Tehran in 1943? P
a.) They began a new naval campaign in the Mediterranean Sea
b.) They let the borders in the Nazi-Soviet Pact stand
c.) They sent troops to help Soviet forces on the Eastern Front
d.) They opened a second front against Germany in Western Europe

The German Air Force was almost grounded by the time of the D-Day invasion because
a.) the Germans feared their planes would be destroyed in the air
b.) the Germans had little fuel due to Allied bombing
c.) so many German aircraft were in need of repair
d.) so many German pilots had been killed in the war

How did the Germans change their tactics in preparing for Operation Sea Lion?
a.) They planned to launch their invasion of Britain from Denmark
b.) They enlisted the help of the Vichy French To invade Britain
c.) They enlisted the help of the Italians to invade Britain
d.) They began to bomb London and other cities

What was one of Stalin’s major goals in Europe after World War II?
a.) to debate the proper course of socialism
b.) to lead Eastern Eastern to economic prosperity
c.) to improve education and protect refugees
d.) to create a protective buffer zone of friendly governments

The Truman Doctrine was rooted in the idea of
a.) appeasement
b.) pacifism
c.) aggression
d.) containment

What did the Soviet Union do during Germany’s invasion of Poland in 1939?
a.) It attacked Poland from the east as part of the Nazi-Soviet Pact
b.) It filed a protest with the League of Nations
c.) It formed an alliance with Britain and France
d.) It seized part of Finland, Estonia, and Latvia

The League of Nations voted sanctions against which country for invading Ethiopia in 1935?
a.) Germany
b.) Bulgaria
c.) Italy
d.) Japan

What was usually the first stage of Hitler’s blitzkrieg strategy?
a.) Fast-moving tanks quickly rolled across enemy territory
b.) Fast-moving ground troops quickly overwhelmed the enemy
c.) Cities were shelled by modern battleships
d.) The Luftwaffe attacked ground targets from the air

During World War II, “Rosie the Riveter” came to symbolize
a.) the importance of obeying rules for food and gas rationing
b.) the Allied nurses who cared for wounded troops on the front lines
c.) the women who worked in British manufacturing plans
d.) the women who worked in U.S. manufacturing plants

What stopped the German advance during the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941?
a.) superior soviet weaponry
b.) the Soviet victory at Stalingrad
c.) the terrible winter of 1941-42
d.) the marshy land near Moscow

What was the Manhattan Project?
a.) a plan to increase war production in U.S. industry
a.) the Allied plan for the invasion of Europe
c.) a code name for atomic bomb research
d.) a code name for the invasion of Guadalcanal

What was one reason why the Spanish Civil War was called a “dress rehearsal” for World War II?
a.) The Nazis used the war to test their new weapons
b.) The forces of democracy defeated the forces of fascism
c.) Supporters of the Spanish Loyalists supported the Axis powers
d.) France, Britain, and the U.S. rallied to fight fascism

What action did the Western Allies take after World War II that caused the Soviets to strengthen their hold on East Germany?
a.) They disputed the Soviet occupation of East Berlin
b.) They fortified the border with East Germany
c.) They encouraged rebellion in Soviet satellite states
d.) They helped western Germany rebuild its economy

What did the Nazi-Soviet Pact accomplish for Germany?
a.) It allowed the union of Austria and Germany
b.) It gave Germany a free hand in Poland
c.) It gave Germany a free hand in the Sudetenland
d.) It allowed the union of Germany and Hungary

What U.S. action influenced the Japanese decision to attack the United States in 1941?
a.) The U.S. demanded that Japanese forces leave Manchuria
b.) The U.S. banned the sale of iron, steel, and oil to Japan
c.) The U.S. occupied the important island of Midway
d.) The U.S. condemned German aggression in Europe

What did the British and French do at the Munich Conference in 1938 to avoid war?
a.) They persuaded Belgium to allow the occupation of Luxembourg
b.) They persuaded the Czechs to surrender the Sudetenland
c.) They persuaded Austria to give in to German occupation
d.) They persuaded the Soviet Union to allow Germany to occupy Poland

Through what action did Hitler violate the Versailles treaty in 1936?
a.) He sent troops into Czechoslovakia
b.) He annexed Austria
c.) He invaded Poland
d.) He sent troops into the Rhineland

opposition to all war

site of Allied war strategy meeting

German city in which Allies held war crimes trials

intended to prevent U.S. involvement in a European war
Neutrality Acts

“lightning war”

Hitler’s plan for the union of Austria and Germany

location of first U.S. atomic bombing

giving in to an aggressor’s demands to maintain peace

allowed the U.S. president to aid to American allies
Lend-Lease Act

site of major Russian victory over German troops

A major goal of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was to
a.) extend equal rights to all Americans
b.) support the Tet offensive in Vietnam
c.) help rebuild Europe after World War II
d.) aid the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

During the Vietnam War, the Tet Offensive
a.) turned American public opinion against the war
b.) was North Vietnam’s final offensive
c.) was a major victory for Chinese forces
d.) brought the United States into the war

After the Soviet Union split up and communism was defeated in Eastern Europe, China accelerated its embrace of
a.) capitalism
b.) totalitarianism
c.) democracy
d.) communism

What happened to the defeated Chinese Nationalists?
a.) They fled to North Vietnam
b.) They fled to the island of Taiwan
c.) They fled to the Soviet Union
d.) They were all killed by the communists

What aspect of the Cold War arms race made it so terrifying?
a.) The weapons were more powerful than ever before
b.) The weapons were being used as fast as they were built
c.) They were many superpowers with hydrogen bombs
d.) Many countries involved were very small and unstable

During the Korean War, which nation provided hundreds of thousands of troops to help North Korea?
a.) South Korea
b.) China
c.) the United States
d.) Japan

What was the main goal of the National Liberation Front, or Viet Cong?
a.) to overthrow South Vietnam’s government
b.) to support the Chinese Nationalists
c.) to capture Ho Chi Minh
d.) to fulfill the domino theory

What agency helped spur economic growth across Western Europe by eliminating tariffs?
a.) Bourgeois Alliance
b.) Alliance of Baltic States
c.) European Coal and Steel Community
d.) North Atlantic Treaty Organization

What was a result of Gorbachev’s perestroika?
a.) The success of capitalism encouraged more reforms
b.) Polish nationalists demanded more Soviet control
c.) Shortages grew worse and prices soared
d.) The Soviet Union ended the Warsaw Pact

What kind of government did Japan adopt after World War II?
a.) a decentralized socialist system
b.) a strict dictatorship
c.) a parliamentary democracy
d.) a military-controlled state

The Khmer Rouge was responsible for
a.) helping peasant farmers in Cambodia
b.) the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
c.) committing genocide in Cambodia
d.) aiding the “boat people” of Cambodia

Why did the United States establish diplomatic relations with China in the 1970s?
a.) to attempt to bring down the Chinese leadership
b.) to isolate the Soviets between NATO and a hostile China
c.) to gain access to Chinese markets for American goods
d.) to explore communism and welcoming it into American life

What was a change that took place during the Cuban Revolution?
a.) Political freedom was restricted
b.) Cuba joined SEATO
c.) Freedom of the press was guaranteed
d.) The U.S. dropped the embargo on Cuba

Which alliance was dedicated to the security of communist nations in Europe during the Cold War?
a.) the Central Treaty Organization
b.) the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
c.) the Khrushchev Alliance
d.) the Warsaw Pact

The East German government responded to Gorbachev’s call for change by
a.) welcoming glasnost
b.) banning Soviet publications
c.) encouraging new political freedoms
d.) banning Solidarity

After World War II, the United States offered assistance to war-torn European nations through which of the following?
a.) the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
b.) the Marshall Plan
c.) glasnost
d.) Solidarity

What conflict was called the Soviet Union’s “Vietnam?”
a.) the war in North Korea
b.) the war in Cuba
c.) the war in China
d.) the war in Afghanistan

When the North Koreans overran South Korea in the summer of 1950, United Nations forces stopped their advance at
a.) the demilitarized zone (DMZ)
b.) the Pusan Perimeter
c.) the Yalu River
d.) the 38th Parallel

The American strategy under the detente was to
a.) develop more anti-ballistic missiles
b.) restrain the Soviets through diplomatic agreements
c.) solve the Cuban missile crisis
d.) discourage Cuba from going communist

The purpose of the SALT talks and the START treaty was
a.) to establish trade relations with China during the 1970s
b.) to negotiate an end to the Vietnam war
c.) to limit the number of nuclear weapons held by the superpowers
d.) to define the boundaries of Europe after World War II

The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were social reform programs led by which leaders?
a.) Pol Pot
b.) Kim Il Sung
c.) Ho Chi Minh
d.) Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong created agricultural communes to
a.) make agriculture more efficient
b.) help the bourgeoisie prosper
c.) “rectify thinking through labor”
d.) grow extra food for Taiwan

A “red scare” was the fear of
a.) a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union
b.) an invasion of South Vietnam
c.) communists in the United States
d.) a Soviet invasion of Europe

The movement of Americans from cities to communities outside an urban core is known as
a.) upward mobility
b.) urbanization
c.) suburbanization
d.) democratization

In 1992, the Slovaks and Czechs split Czechoslovakia into separate nations
a.) so each nation could have its own command economy
b.) because they are separate ethnic groups with their own language and traditions
c.) so the Slovaks could stay in the Warsaw Pact
d.) so they could overthrow Nicolae Ceausescu

communist ruler of North Vietnam after 1954

seen as a particular threat to the balance of terror during the SALT talks
anti-ballistic missiles

brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in 1962
Cuban Missiles Crisis

the belief that one communist victory would lead to many others
domino theory

a relaxation of tensions

the Soviet leader after Stalin
Nikita Khrushchev

American-supported ruler of South Vietnam
Ngo Dihn Diem

brought on high taxes and greater government regulation
welfare state

nations that are stronger than other powerful nations

led the Cuban Revolution in 1959
Fidel Castro

The struggle for independence against a colonial power turned violent in which African colony?
a.) Kenya
b.) Nigeria
c.) Gold Coast (Ghana)
d.) Biafra

What was the reaction in 1947 to the United Nations plan to divide Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states?
a.) The Syrians immediately seized part of Palestine
b.) The Christians lobbied for their own separate state
c.) The Jew accepted the plan, but the Arabs rejected i
d.) The Arabs accepted the plan, but the Jews rejected it

The British decision to partition British India into two countries were influenced by
a.) the desire that Bangladesh be independent
b.) the fear of violence between the Hindus and Muslims
c.) the fear of violence between the Hindus and Sikhs
d.) the desire that Sri Lanka be independent

What statement is generally true about the economies of many African nations after independence?
a.) They were usually able to quickly gain economic independence
b.) Their economies flourished under democratic governments
c.) Their economies were often controlled by the colonial powers
d.) Their economies did well under a system of central planning

Many Bengalis in East Pakistan wanted independence from West Pakistan because
a.) they thought their government neglected them
b.) they rejected East Pakistani socialism
c.) they wanted to unify with Kashmir
d.) they wanted to unify with India

Which minority group has faced harsh discrimination int eh countries of Turkey and Iraq?
a.) Bengalis
b.) Kurds
c.) Palestinians
d.) Persians

In the 1970s, why did the U.S. have an alliance with the government of Somalia?
a.) to counter the Soviet Union’s support of Ethiopia
b.) to gain control of Somalian oil and gas reserves
c.) to support the democratic government that was under attack by terrorists
d.) to gain access to Somalian mineral reserves

In 1973, Arab members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) blocked oil shipments to the United States primarily
a.) to protest Western influence on their countries
b.) to weaken the U.S. economy
c.) to protest U.S. support for Israel
d.) to drive up the price of oil

In 1955, a meeting of countries organized by India and Pakistan?
a.) rejected democratic ideals and moved toward autocratic forms of government
b.) supported communism and rejected Western-style democracy
c.) condemned colonialism and Cold War expansion
d.) insisted on religious and ethnic diversity among member states

What event in 1997 helped bring about the resignation of President Suharto of Indonesia?
a.) a revolt of East Timorese
b.) an Asian financial crisis
c.) a rebellion in Papua
d.) the destruction from an earthquake

Separatists from what religious group occupied their holiest shrine, the Golden Temple, in 1984 in a bid to gain independence from India?
a.) Muslims
b.) Buddhists
c.) Sikhs
d.) Taoism

What is a major criticism that Islamic religious leaders have had toward the Sa’ud royal family of Saudi Arabia?
a.) Freedom of speech should be a right of all Saudi citizens
b.) Government jobs should not be closed to people of the Shiite sect
c.) The government should become more open and democratic
d.) Western influence in the kingdom violates Islamic priniciples

In 1975, how did East Timor become part of Indonesia?
a.) Indonesia purchased East Timor from Spain
b.) The East Timorese voted to become part of Indonesia
c.) East Timorese Catholics declared their nation to be part of Indonesia
d.) Indonesia seized East Timor from Portugal

What Egyptian leader nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956?
a.) Anwar Sadat
b.) Hosni Mubarak
c.) Gamal Abdel Nasser
d.) King Farouk

Jawaharlal Nehru’s attempts to reduce the birthrate in India failed because
a.) it was difficult to communicate the policy in the rural areas of India
b.) Indian religious leaders disagreed with Nehru’s policy
c.) family planning methods were unheard of in india
d.) rural Indians saw children as an economic resourced

What statement is true about the economies of mainland Southeast Asia?
a.) Myanmar has developed a vigorous economy based on foreign trade
b.) Thailand and Malaysia have suffered under radical socialism
c.) Unlike Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia have prospered under market economies
d.) Myanmar is politically stable, encouraging foreign investment

Filipino president Ferdinand Marcos
a.) supported the peasants over the wealthy elite
b.) achieved power through the Huks, a revolutionary group
c.) strongly supported free elections in his country
d.) became a dictator and cracked down on basic freedoms

In the alte 1960s, the Ibo people of Biafra declared independence from
a.) Congo
b.) Kenya
c.) Nigeria
d.) South Africa

Generally speaking, Islamic women have less freedom in which conservative Middle Eastern country?
a.) Syria
b.) Turkey
c.) Egypt
d.) Saudi Arabia

What influenced the movement of many African nations to democratic governments?
a.) Fewer Africans felt their first loyalty was to their own ethnic group
b.) Colonial powers demanded democratic reforms as a requirement for independence
c.) Western governments required democratic reforms as a condition for loans
d.) The decline of the Soviet Union pushed many countries to democracy

first Arab leader to make peace with Israel
Anwar Sadat

a collective farm

led the independence movement in Kenya
Jomo Kenyatta

the forcible overthrow of a government
coup d’etat

headscarves and loose-fittin garments worn by some Muslim women

a government ruled by religious leaders

political and diplomatic independence frrom Cold War powers

came to power in the Philippines during the “people power” revolution
Corazon Aquino

describes a government with unlimited power

elected prime minister of India after Nehru’s death
Indira Gandhi

What did the Palestinians get in the 1993 Oslo Accord?
a.) limiting self-rule in Gaza and the West Bank
b.) Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories
c.) the “right to return” to Israeli territory
d.) East Jerusalem as the capital of their new state

In Sudan in 2004, one reason the southern rebels stopped fighting was because the government agreed to
a.) grant all landowners the rights to vote
b.) grant the south independence
c.) free the south from Islamic law
d.) end apartheid in the south

What happened after the failure of a 1997 peace treaty between the Chechens and Russians?
a.) The Russians established a communists government in Chechnya
b.) A new treaty created an independent Chenchnya
c.) Chechens took their fight to other parts of the Caucasus region
d.) The United Nations sent troops to keep the peace

After Mozambique’s independence, South Africa helped rebels fighting against the new government because
a.) it wanted to establish apartheid in Mozambique
b.) it feared that Mozambique intended to invade South Africa
c.) it believed Mozambique’s government had ties to the African National Congress
d.) it wanted to restore Portuguese colonial rule in Mozambique

In the early 1990s, Serbia conducted a campaign of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia to try to
a.) bring ethnic groups back to traditional religious practices
b.) force NATO forces to leave Bosnia
c.) purify Bosnia of communist influences
d.) remove Bosniaks and Croats from Bosnia

U.S. led forces invaded Iraq in 2002 partly because President George W. Bush believed that Saddam Hussein
a.) was planning to attack Israel
b.) was committing genocide against the Kurds
c.) was hiding weapons of mass destruction
d.) was planning to seize the oil fields of Iran

Why did many people in the Canadian province of Quebec call for independence?
a.) to protect the French language and culture
b.) to avoid the political domination of Great Britain
c.) to set up a new government based on French socialism
d.) to win religious freedoms for diverse French ethnic groups

What helped to bring about the 1975 civil war in Lebanon?
a.) Syrian troops occupied eastern Lebanon
b.) Muslims who had fled to Lebanon upset the balance of Terror
c.) Christians forced Muslims out of the city of Beirut
d.) Muslims and Christians sought control of oil reserves there

After Angola won independence from Portugal, why did the United States aid rebels fighting against the new government?
a.) The U.S. believed that Angolan government had ties to the Soviets
b.) The U.S. wanted to help Portugal regain control of Angola
c.) The U.S. wanted to gain access to the Angolian oil fields
d.) The U.S. believed the new government would a=support apartheid

In 1999, what stopped the fighting in Kosovo between Yugoslav forces and ethnic Albanians?
a.) The Albanians won the battle for their independence
b.) The Yugoslav government passed laws to protect the rights of the Albanians
c.) The Yugoslavs crushed the Albanian guerrillas
d.) NATO air strikes forces Yugoslav troops to leave Kosovo

What event in 1991 cause fighting to break out in Croatia between the Croats and Serbs?
a.) Serbia declared independence from Yugoslavia
b.) Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia
c.) Croatia declared independence from Slovenia
d.) Croatia declared independence from Serbia

The United States helped to end apartheid in South Africa by
a.) imposing economic sanctions on South Africa
b.) providing aid to South African insurgent groups
c.) authorizing NATO air strikes on South Africa
d.) sending UN peacekeepers to South Africa

Conflict between the Tutsis and Hutus led to civil war in the nations of Rwanda and
a.) Sudan
b.) Zimbabwe
c.) Burundi
d.) Mozambique

In the 1991 Gulf War, the goal of the U.S. led coalition was to
a.) remove Saddam Hussein from power
b.) gain control of Iraq’s oil fields
c.) drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait
d.) destroy Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction

What was the position of Muslim Bosnia after Bosnia declared independence in 1992?
a.) They did not want Albanian refugees to stay in Bosnia
b.) They did not want Bosnia to merge with Macedonia
c.) They did not want Bosnia to merge with Montenegro
d.) They did not want Bosnia divided into ethnic regions

Which of the following was a response to the genocide that took place during the civil war in Rwanda?
a.) Britain sent troops to stop the fighting
b.) France sent troops to stop the fighting
c.) UN support of the Tutsis forced a stalemate
d.) Portugal gave up its African possessions

What caused the start of the Iran-Iraq war in 1980?
a.) The Iranians seized the city of Basrah
b.) The Iraqis seized a disputed border region
c.) The Iraqis invaded Kuwait near Iran’s border
d.) The Iranians oppressed Sunni Arabs in Iran

What started a series of independence movements in the Yugoslavian republics beginning in the early 1990s?
a.) the fall of the Communist Party
b.) the desire for Western-style economies
c.) a U.S. supported democracy movement
d.) the demand for socialist reforms

What was a reason why Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990?
a.) to gain greater access to the Persian Gulf
b.) to set up an Islamic government in Kuwait
c.) to create a separate state for Iraq’s Shiite Arabs
d.) to stop guerrilla attacks launched from Kuwait

Why has Jerusalem been a stumbling block in peace negotiations between Arabs and Israelis?
a.) It was the capital of Palestine until the Israelis took it
b.) Hamas has its main base of operations there
c.) Jerusalem is sacred to both Jews and Muslims
d.) Israelis forced all Palestinians to leave Jerusalem

In Sudan in 2004, conflict in Darfur led to fear of genocide against
a.) non-Arab Muslims
b.) Kurds
c.) Druze
d.) Arab Muslims

What did Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas promise after succeeding Yasir Abbas in 2004?
a.) to stop terrorist attacks on Israel
b.) to accept Israeli settlements in the West Bank
c.) to take over Israeli settlements in Gaza
d.) to launch new terrorist attacks on Israel

In the mid-1990s, peace talks between Israel and Syria broke down over Israel’s claims in the
a.) Sinai Peninsula
b.) West Bank
c.) Gaza Strip
d.) Golan Heights

Beginning in 1922, what was a cause of conflict between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland?
a.) The Irish Republican Army attacked Catholics
b.) The Catholic minority voted to remain part of Britain
c.) Protestant militias attacked NATO forces
d.) The Protestant majority voted to remain part of Britain

What ended the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2002 that had been fought between Sinhalese Buddhists and Hindu Tamils?
a.) Sinhalese Buddhists put down the Tamil uprising
b.) The Tamil government granted political rights to the Sinhalese Buddhists
c.) The government declared Hindu an official erelgion
d.) The Tamils gained the right to their own regional government

a former part of the Soviet republic

an armed group of citizen soldiers

the majority group in Rwanda

the first South African president elected after the end of apartheid
Nelson Mandela

a province of Serbia where ethnic differences led to armed conflict

a minority group in Rwanda

a Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation

the South African president who lifted the ban on the African National Congress
F. W. de Klerk

Serbian president who oppressed ethnic Albanians
Slobodan Milosevic

an Anglican bishop who won the Nobel Peace Prize for leadership against apartheid
Desmond Tutu

What was the main reason that many Africans defied the law and killed endangered elephants?
a.) Elephants were an important food source
b.) Elephants were trampling their crops
c.) Hunting elephants was a popular sport
d.) Foreigners would pay for elephant tusks

What happened in 1980 as a result of Archbishop Oscar Romero’s demands for reform in El Salvador?
a.) His “people’s revolution” toppled the government
b.) He fled to the U.S. in fear for his life
c.) He was assassinated by his enemies
d.) The government began some democratic reforms

How has economic development generally affected women in the Global South?
a.) Women’s opportunities are limited by new constitutions
b.) Women’s have become political leaders in the same numbers as men
c.) Women are entering the workforce in growing numbers
d.) Women have educational opportunities equal to men

Developing nations whose governments owned businesses and controlled farming had what form of economy
a.) traditional economy
b.) capitalist economy
c.) market economy
d.) command economy

In the recent years, Latin American governments have been trying to promote agriculture by
a.) backing efforts to open more land to farming
b.) establishing collective farms
c.) encouraging the migration of people from cities to farms
d.) distributing land to peasant farmers

In the 1950s and 1960s, many Latin American governments followed a policy of import substitution in order to
a.) increase the flow of imported goods
b.) reduce the cost of imported goods
c.) reduce dependence on imported goods
d.) increase the flow of exported goods

African economies that suffer most from abrupt changes in market price are economies that depend on
a.) foreign investment
b.) mining rather than farming
c.) a single export crop
d.) many kinds of cash crops

The liberation theology movement in Latin America wanted the Catholic Church to
a.) back rebels fighting for independence
b.) push for reforms to end poverty
c.) support the regional war on drugs
d.) push for greater religious freedom

Shantytowns sprang up around cities in the Global South because
a.) not enough jobs were available, so housing was affordable
b.) factories hired workers faster than housing could be built for them
c.) the newcomers chose to live with their own ethnic groups
d.) building materials for homes were scarce in the Global South

Investors in the Global North financed industries in developing nations mainly to
a.) provide jobs in developing nations
b.) help developing nations build their economies
c.) make a profit on their investment
d.) help developing nations repay their debts

Many newly independent nations supported socialism to
a.) create jobs through government bureaucracy
b.) provide an efficient structure for government
c.) protect the rights of minority groups
d.) end economic inequalities between rich and poor

What was a direct result of rapid desertification in Africa?
a.) the spread of disease
b.) overgrazing of livestock
c.) the loss of farmland
d.) the extinction of species

One consequence of the Green Revolution was that
a.) crop prices rose, making food to expensive for the poor
b.) farms needed more labor, drawing workers away from cities
c.) production increased, resulting in crops going to waste
d.) crop prices dropped, forcing small farmers out of business

In Nicaragua’s civil war that began in 1979, why did the United States support the contras against the Sandinistas?
a.) The contras promised to end the drug trade
b.) The contras promised land reforms
c.) The contras promised aid to the poor
d.) The contras were anti-communist

Begun in the early 1980s in China, Den Xiaoping’s Four Modernizations program was designed to
a.) introduce limited democratic reforms
b.) help to control population growth
c.) increase government control of the economy
d.) introduce some feature of a free market

Under China’s “responsibility system,” plots of farmland were owned by
a.) agribusinesses
b.) the government
c.) independent communes
d.) peasant farmers

How did India change its approach to developing its economy in the early 1980s?
a.) It developed its oil and natural gas resources
b.) It nationalized major industries
c.) It increased government control of the economy
d.) It shifted to more of a free-market system

African nations that chose market economies often had the problem of
a.) inefficiency
b.) low farm output
c.) large bureaucracies
d.) profits leaving the country

What is a major problem that has occurred in China due to economic growth?
a.) Severe pollution threatens health
b.) Poor quality goods are unsafe for consumers
c.) Western investors take most of the profits
d.) Western ideas threaten religious freedoms

The Tienanmen Square Massacre in 1989 showed that
a.) Chinese leaders favored order over political freedom
b.) Chinese leaders could force political reforms on the people
c.) China would continue to suppress Buddhist culture
d.) China’s Four Modernizations program failed

founded the Missionaries of Charity to care for the poor in Kolkata, India
Mother Teresa

started the Green Belt Movement in Kenya
Wangari Maathai

people of the lowest caste in India

socialist rebels that ousted Nicaragua’s ruling Somoza family

people who support the basic values of their faith

a president of Argentina who enjoyed great support from workers
Juan Peron

a leader who introduced economic reforms in China
Deng Xiaoping

the ability to read and write

the process of building a stronger economy and higher living standards

Nicaraguan guerrillas backed by the United States