World History Final – Flashcards

question
What was social Darwinism?
answer
a theory that applied Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest" to human society; white English and Germans were biologically superior to blacks
question
What was the "white man's burden"?
answer
the duty of superior, more civilized white countries to educate and bring culture to backward, inferior races
question
What did many people think was an appropriate education for black students?
answer
vocational training, in a skill or trade
question
What skills were stressed for blacks and Native Americans at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute?
answer
learning hard work in a trade, Christian morality, and middle-class values
question
What black college did Booker T. Washington found in 1872?
answer
Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
question
What was not a belief of Booker T. Washington about opportunities for blacks?
answer
Washington believed that blacks should work for the right to vote while they worked for economic success.
question
How was Booker T. Washington's message received by whites?
answer
Whites embraced his non-threatening acceptance of white superiority, and many supported him financially.
question
What was not a reason why some people were critical of Washington's approach with the Tuskegee Institute?
answer
Critics often felt that Washington was pushing too hard for change.
question
What was the "talented tenth"?
answer
the top ten percent of black society; leaders like Du Bois felt that this group should lead blacks to greater social and political equality
question
Where did most black men in the army after the Civil War spend their time?
answer
in the West, fighting Native Americans
question
How did the free black family in the North change in the time period between 1820 and 1860?
answer
More became single-parent households, with women heading them
question
Why was it difficult for blacks to find jobs in the North after 1820?
answer
White immigration increased, and employers preferred to hire whites.
question
What were some of the differences between life for a black soldier and life for a white soldier?
answer
Blacks received far worse food rations, equipment, and horses.
question
Where did the term "buffalo soldiers" come from?
answer
Native Americans admired blacks' fighting abilities, and thought their hair similar to the buffalo
question
How did blacks feel about fighting Native Americans?
answer
Most felt no worries or concerns at all. They felt a genuine pride in being professional soldiers.
question
What was the Spanish-American War about?
answer
America wanted to liberate Cuba from Spanish control
question
Why did blacks serve in the Spanish-American War?
answer
They hoped to demonstrate their bravery and worth to whites, and thereby eliminate racism and hostility
question
Which of the following is true about blacks in business in the late nineteenth century?
answer
In order to succeed in business, blacks generally had to cater to other blacks
question
What did the American Federation of Labor think about black involvement in unions?
answer
It refused entry to blacks or women.
question
What were the limitations of the early antislavery movement?
answer
White abolitionists did not think that blacks should have equal rights
question
Why did most strikes fail during the late nineteenth century?
answer
Government and the police helped the businessmen over the workers.
question
What tactic did whites in Atlanta not use to break the widespread washerwomen's strike in 1881?
answer
They brought in convict labor to perform washing duties for white Atlantans
question
Why did five of the seven existing black medical schools close down around 1910?
answer
Because whites recommended the strengthening of the medical profession, partially by eliminating weaker medical schools.
question
Why did many black lawyers have a hard time making a living?
answer
Blacks often preferred to hire white lawyers, which they believed could improve their chances of winning their cases.
question
What legal organization did blacks form, since the American Bar Association would not include them?
answer
the National Bar Association
question
What were "minstrel shows"?
answer
traveling groups of actors and musicians, some portraying blacks as stereotypical caricatures
question
How did white authorities harass heavyweight champion Jack Johnson?
answer
They had him arrested for violating the Mann Act when he married a white woman.
question
How did the typical early 20th century Progressive reformer feel about racism?
answer
Most were racist themselves. They showed little interest in altering white supremacy
question
Which of the following was not an element of Booker T. Washington's famous speech at the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition in 1895?
answer
He thought that blacks should work for voting rights at the same time they were trying to impress whites with their hard work, cleanliness, and good morals.
question
How did white people react to Washington's Atlanta Compromise speech?
answer
Since it was so non-threatening, they thought it was sensible and praiseworthy. Many whites supported Washington's leadership
question
What type of political influence did Booker T. Washington have?
answer
Washington actually had tremendous influence for a black man at the time. President Teddy Roosevelt respected him, and consulted with him regularly on political appointments
question
What types of political activities was Washington supporting behind the scenes?
answer
He tried to both improve conditions for blacks on segregated railroad cars and get the grandfather clause overturned in the courts.
question
How did men like W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter feel about Booker T. Washington's efforts and views?
answer
They became vocal, intense critics of Washington's. They felt he was yielding too much to whites
question
How did Du Bois's background shape his views, just as Washington's shaped his?
answer
Du Bois was born free in the North, encountered little racism during his early years, and was incredibly intelligent and allowed to obtain a superior education.
question
What is not true about Du Bois's and Washington's approaches to improving the condition of black men?
answer
Du Bois did not think blacks should be submissive to whites and merely wait for change.
question
What was the role of the "Talented Tenth," according to Du Bois?
answer
The top ten percent of blacks were to be responsible for working to achieve the civil and political rights of African Americans.
question
What did the Niagara Movement demand in 1905?
answer
That blacks should protest vigorously for their rights, better schools, housing, and an end to racial prejudice.
question
The Niagara Movement leaders stated, "We repudiate the monstrous doctrine that the oppressor should be the sole authority as to the rights of the oppressed." What does this mean?
answer
Blacks wanted to have an active role in determining what they wanted, rather than leaving it all up to whites.
question
How did Booker T. Washington react to the new Niagara Movement?
answer
He paid newspaper reporters to criticize Du Bois.
question
What is true about the early NAACP?
answer
White leaders dominated it and financed it.
question
What methods did the NAACP use to try to gain black civil and political rights?
answer
They worked within the court and legislative system, chipping away at discrimination, racism, and the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
question
What was the significance of the Guinn v. United States case in 1915?
answer
It overturned the grandfather clause in Oklahoma
question
What was true about the NAACP publication, "The Crisis"?
answer
Edited by Du Bois, it generally contained strident language denouncing racism and demanding that blacks stand up for their rights.
question
How did Booker T. Washington feel about the NAACP?
answer
He sent in aides and supporters to disrupt meetings, and attack Du Bois publicly
question
What was the result of Washington's scheming to destroy the NAACP?
answer
The NAACP eventually triumphed, in goals and tactics
question
What was the goal of the Urban League?
answer
to help blacks as they moved into cities, with housing, discrimination issues, and medical care
question
What is true about black women's support for women's suffrage?
answer
They had long supported the issue, and understood that political power was needed to change discrimination in America.
question
What political party did blacks generally support in the early twentieth century?
answer
Republican
question
How did Woodrow Wilson act toward black people when he became president?
answer
Wilson held southern views about race; he segregated federal offices to avoid friction between the races.
question
How did most African Americans feel about entering World War I?
answer
Most supported it, and many served in the armed forces as a way to demonstrate their patriotism and loyalty.
question
How were most black troops used during World War I used?
answer
Most were used in manual labor, in building roads and as cooks.
question
How did the French troops and people feel about black soldiers?
answer
They praised their ability and courage, and asked for more black troops.
question
World War I was supposed to be a war "to make the world safe for democracy." With all this language, how did Americans apply these ideals to the treatment of blacks?
answer
They didn't. Americans continued to hold onto racism, and reacted violently against blacks.
question
What is true about violence against blacks in America around the time of World War I?
answer
The violence expanded from the South to include the North as well.
question
What provoked the 1906 race riot in Atlanta, Georgia?
answer
A white sheriff accused a black man of raping a white woman.
question
How did Booker T. Washington react to the Atlanta Riot of 1906?
answer
He said that black resistance would only lead to more black deaths, and urged racial harmony
question
What did the Springfield Riot of 1908 lead to?
answer
the creation of the NAACP
question
What did many of the race riots of the early twentieth century not have in common?
answer
They generally led to some sort of improvement in race relations.
question
What reaction did the NAACP have to the violence of the East St. Louis riot?
answer
It sent members in to investigate, publicized the issues, and organized a silent march in New York City as a protest.
question
What prompted the Houston Riot in 1917?
answer
Black soldiers were disgusted over the racist treatment they received at the hands of the police in the segregated city
question
What is true about black migration between 1910 and 1940?
answer
About 1.75 million blacks left the South, doubling the population of blacks outside that region.
question
Which of the following is true about black migration destinations?
answer
Many black families moved several times before settling down. c. Black migrants universally found "heaven" in their destinations.
question
What is true about segregation in the North?
answer
Although the North had laws against discrimination of blacks, enforcement was often overlooked.
question
What does the case of Sacco and Vanzetti tell us about America in the early 1920s?
answer
Many felt their conviction and execution had more to do with xenophobia than legal evidence that they had been involved in a crime.
question
What is true about academic studies and academic views of race in the 1920s?
answer
Prominent scholars published numerous books warning about the threat to America from immigrants, and the dangers of "diluting" the white race
question
What did the film, Birth of a Nation, depict?
answer
an incredibly racist view of black men as either ignorant or rapists, along with a glorification of the Ku Klux Klan
question
What was not a popular reaction to the film, Birth of a Nation?
answer
The film encouraged students to study the American Revolution.
question
What organization reemerged with millions of members shortly after the release of the movie, The Birth of a Nation?
answer
Ku Klux Klan
question
How was the Klan of the 1920s different from the Reconstruction Klan?
answer
The Klan of the 1920s expanded their hate targets to include Catholics, Jews, and immigrants as well as blacks.
question
What was the ultimate result of the Dyer anti-lynching bill?
answer
Although the NAACP gained publicity for the anti-lynching crusade, the bill ultimately failed
question
What do the activities of the NAACP regarding "white primaries" and in the Sweet case tell us about their tactics during the 1920s?
answer
The NAACP continued to use the court system to gain changes and civil rights in America.
question
What benefits did Marcus Garvey and his ideas bring to many black people?
answer
His ideas brought an opportunity to celebrate their culture, history, and heritage in a world that generally saw them as inferior or meaningless.
question
What African American author influenced Jamaican born Marcus Garvey's early ideas about changing the situation of blacks?
answer
Booker T. Washington
question
What organization did Marcus Garvey form in Jamaica in 1914?
answer
Universal Negro Improvement Association
question
What was not true about Marcus Garvey and his ideas?
answer
Garvey was very poorly educated, since he grew up in Jamaica, and left school at 14
question
For what proposal is Garvey best remembered?
answer
establishing the Black Star Line, a group of steamships that were supposed to help blacks get back to Africa
question
Garvey wanted to establish a settlement in Liberia. What stopped him?
answer
The American, British, and French governments blocked his requests to the League of Nations, since they wanted to maintain power for themselves
question
How did other black leaders, like W. E. B. Du Bois and A. Philip Randolph, view Garvey?
answer
They continually denigrated him and his ideas, calling him dangerous and a fool.
question
How did Garvey react to the KKK?
answer
He praised the organization as being the only honest white men in America
question
What 1960s civil rights leader was very influenced by Garvey, and continued promoting some of his ideas?
answer
Malcolm X
question
What did Du Bois and Garvey, as well as other black leaders, have in common?
answer
a great interest in Africa, and trying to improve or eliminate colonial rule there
question
What did Du Bois ask for at the first Pan-African Congress?
answer
the creation of a central black nation, but he did not demand the immediate withdrawal of the Europeans
question
What is true about the occupations of black people after World War I and the great migration?
answer
Most black people were still employed in agricultural work or domestic service
question
Why was the railroad train Pullman Company an early area for black labor organizing?
answer
By the 1920s, it was the largest employer of black people in America.
question
How did Pullman porters react to discrimination and unjust treatment on their railroad coach jobs?
answer
The porters tried to work behind the scenes, very quietly, to try to get helpful legislation passed by Congress.
question
What was true about the formal education of many of the black writers and artists of the Harlem Renaissance?
answer
Many of them went to very elite schools, at a time when any college education was rare.
question
What did authors like Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston think the purpose of black literature should be?
answer
that art should portray ordinary, even poor black people, with their good and bad sides
question
Why were black women often affected more than black men during the Depression?
answer
White families could not afford domestic help during the Depression, or could get it at almost no cost at all, since some black women were so desperate.
question
What was the "Bronx Slave Market"?
answer
an area in New York where white women could very cheaply obtain day help from black women
question
What does the story of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company tell us about blacks during the Great Depression?
answer
Some black businesses were able to succeed even with the difficulties of the Great Depression.
question
How were social services and relief programs handled beforethe Great Depression?
answer
through private charities and individuals
question
How did President Herbert Hoover deal with African Americans during the Great Depression?
answer
Hoover wanted an all-white Republican Party in the South, and tried to appoint a racist to the Supreme Court.
question
Why did President Hoover do very little during the Great Depression to alleviate poverty?
answer
He strongly believed that individuals or charities, not the government, should help alleviate poverty.
question
During the Great Depression why W. E. B. Du Bois begin to criticize the NAACP?
answer
not putting enough emphasis on economic development for blacks
question
Who was central to the NAACP's legal effectiveness during the 1930s in chipping away at segregation through the court system?
answer
Charles Hamilton Houston
question
What was Charles Hamilton Houston's legal focus?
answer
He tried to force the South to equalize facilities, especially in education
question
Why did Charles H. Houston and Thurgood Marshall focus on gaining blacks access to professional and graduate schools?
answer
The inequalities were very obvious; almost no graduate facilities existed for blacks in the South.
question
Why did the all-white primary law disfranchise black voters in Texas, when they could still vote in the general election?
answer
Texas was so heavily Democratic that the only really contested election was the primary race.
question
What case ended the all-white primary strategy altogether?
answer
Smith v. Allwright
question
Which of the following is true about the role of black women in the NAACP?
answer
Black women often made huge contributions through organizing and fundraising.
question
How did black voting patterns begin to change after the first election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt?
answer
Blacks began to shift from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party
question
How was Roosevelt unlike Hoover in his attempts to end the Great Depression?
answer
He proved very flexible, and willing to experiment with new changes and ideas.
question
What is true about the National Industrial Recovery Act's effect on black Americans?
answer
When the NIRA increased wages, employers fired blacks in order to be able to hire whites.
question
How was the Agricultural Adjustment Actunevenly implemented?
answer
White landlords sometimes evicted black tenants from their land during the Great Depression.
question
What was the role of FDR's "Black Cabinet"?
answer
They lobbied and pressured the president and other governmental agencies to create color-blind policies
question
What happened to much First New Deal legislation during the Great Depression?
answer
The Supreme Court declared much of it unconstitutional.
question
Which of the following was a major enduring program initiated during the Second New Deal?
answer
Social Security Act
question
What was significant about the 1936 presidential election?
answer
Republican Black voters outside the South shifted in significant numbers to the Democratic Party.
question
Which of the following was a reason for blacks to move over to the Democratic Party during the 1936 election?
answer
Blacks felt that Roosevelt had been doing more for them than any other president.
question
How did many whites react to the increased presence of blacks in the Democratic Party?
answer
Some southern white Democrats were infuriated, and actually walked out of the presidential convention when blacks spoke.
question
What was true about the administration of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)?
answer
The WPA was actuallyadministered far more equally than previous programs. It helped many black families.
question
Which of the following was not a program of the Depression era WPA?
answer
giving food to hungry blacks and whites
question
How did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the 1930s?
answer
In the 1930s, more labor unions allowed blacks membership, and some even began integrated unions
question
What did the case of the Scottsboro Boysinvolve?
answer
two young white women who falsely accused nine young black men of rape on a train
question
What did the case of Powell v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1932, state?
answer
The Scottsboro Boys had not been given adequate council, and the trial was not fair because it had occurred in a hostile environment
question
What did the case ofNorris v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1935, state?
answer
All Americans have the right to a jury of their peers. Excluding blacks from jury pools was deemed unconstitutional.
question
What was the Tuskegee Experiment?
answer
when the federal government sponsored a health study that monitored, but did not treat, black men with syphilis
question
What lessons did Amos 'n' Andy teach white America?
answer
That it was acceptable to make fun and laugh at black people's efforts to make it in America
question
What 1930s movie most solidified blacks in the roles of servants in the American mind?
answer
Gone With the Wind
question
How did Billie Holiday's song "Strange Fruit" protest racism?
answer
The song was about the horror and violence surrounding lynching
question
What was the primary force behind much of Adolf Hitler's policies?
answer
racism, focusing on blaming Jews for all of Germany's problems
question
Why did the United States take so long to get involved in World War II?
answer
Congress, with most of the American population, was isolationist, and thought that we should not have been involved in World War I.
question
How did events in Ethiopia in 1935 and in Spain in 1936-1937 affect how some African Americans thought about world events leading up to World War II?
answer
African Americans supported anti-fascist movements in both countries, and the events demonstrated the threats of that type of government.
question
What finally lifted the United States out of the Great Depression?
answer
military spending by the United States to prepare for World War II
question
What was the "Double V" campaign?
answer
a slogan adopted by African Americans to work for victory in World War II and victory over racism at home
question
Who organized the proposed 1942 March on Washington Movement?
answer
A. Philip Randolph
question
What was the March on Washington Movement designed to do?
answer
Stop discrimination against blacks in wartime industries and the military
question
What did FDR's Executive Order 8022 do?
answer
technically ended discrimination by race in defense industry employment
question
What was not a difference between German POWs' treatment in prison camps and the treatment of African Americans in the military?
answer
Germans, like other non-black ethnic groups, faced no discrimination within American society during the war
question
What was different about the black soldiers who served in World War II versus those who served in World War I?
answer
Those who served in World War II were more likely to be high school or college graduates.
question
What successes did the NAACP see during World War II?
answer
The NAACP grew tremendously in membership and influence, even in the South
question
What principles did the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), created in 1942, stand by?
answer
They were very democratic in their organization, and wanted America to stand up to its principles.
question
What was the Cold War?
answer
an ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union over different interests for Europe and the rest of the world
question
What was the reaction of many white southerners to Truman's interest in African-American rights?
answer
They left the Democratic Party to form the Dixiecrat Party, which favored white supremacy.
question
What did President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9981 do?
answer
It officially desegregated the armed forces.
question
Which was the first war to see integrated American troop units in conflict?
answer
the Korean War
question
What did the case of State of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada involve?
answer
It forced states to provide equal facilities to blacks for legal education within their borders.
question
What amendment did the NAACP claim southern states were violating when they lacked black graduate education facilities or refused admittance to blacks?
answer
Fourteenth Amendment
question
Which of the following cases involved a young woman who had been denied admission to a the law school because she was black?
answer
Sipuel v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents
question
What did the Supreme Court decide in Sweatt v. Painter?
answer
Equality in educational facilities included a lot of intangibles. The justices were basically saying that Sweatt had to be admitted to the main law school, not simply give space for him in the basement of the university.
question
How was the case of Briggs v. Elliot different from prior NAACP cases in education?
answer
It was the first case to involve elementary school education, rather than graduate school education.
question
What was the result of the Brown case?
answer
The court declared that separate educations for blacks and whites were not equal, therefore overturning the Plessy rule
question
What did the Brown II decision say?
answer
Schools should desegregate "with all deliberate speed."
question
How had President Eisenhower reacted to the Brown decision?
answer
He did not seem to accept the ruling completely, refusing to provide it with the backing of his office.
question
What was not a reaction by southern whites to implementing Brown?
answer
They began a policy of massive, organized violent resistance.
question
What is true about school desegregation under Brown by 1960?
answer
Only 17 school systems had been desegregated.
question
What did the Supreme Court decide in the case of Browder v. Gayle?
answer
Segregation in public transportation was unconstitutional
question
Which of the following is true about the Civil Rights Act of 1957?
answer
The act created a commission to study infringements on black voting
question
How did Arkansas Orville Faubus react to the Brown decision?
answer
He tried to keep blacks from attending the local high school by posting the National Guard there, and closing the schools down
question
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 not do?
answer
Restored all voting rights to African American men and women.
question
What did the 1965 Voting Rights Act not do?
answer
It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
question
What did the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakkeinvolve?
answer
a white man who said that the University of California's admission requirements discriminated against him
question
How did the Rodney King verdict show differences between whites and blacks regarding American justice?
answer
Blacks saw the acquittal of the police officers as an example of continued injustice while whites saw it as preserving law and order
question
What is true of Obama's winning percentage for the election of 2008?
answer
Obama received one of the largest winning percentages in American history
1 of

Unlock all answers in this set

Unlock answers
question
What was social Darwinism?
answer
a theory that applied Darwin's theory of "survival of the fittest" to human society; white English and Germans were biologically superior to blacks
question
What was the "white man's burden"?
answer
the duty of superior, more civilized white countries to educate and bring culture to backward, inferior races
question
What did many people think was an appropriate education for black students?
answer
vocational training, in a skill or trade
question
What skills were stressed for blacks and Native Americans at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute?
answer
learning hard work in a trade, Christian morality, and middle-class values
question
What black college did Booker T. Washington found in 1872?
answer
Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
question
What was not a belief of Booker T. Washington about opportunities for blacks?
answer
Washington believed that blacks should work for the right to vote while they worked for economic success.
question
How was Booker T. Washington's message received by whites?
answer
Whites embraced his non-threatening acceptance of white superiority, and many supported him financially.
question
What was not a reason why some people were critical of Washington's approach with the Tuskegee Institute?
answer
Critics often felt that Washington was pushing too hard for change.
question
What was the "talented tenth"?
answer
the top ten percent of black society; leaders like Du Bois felt that this group should lead blacks to greater social and political equality
question
Where did most black men in the army after the Civil War spend their time?
answer
in the West, fighting Native Americans
question
How did the free black family in the North change in the time period between 1820 and 1860?
answer
More became single-parent households, with women heading them
question
Why was it difficult for blacks to find jobs in the North after 1820?
answer
White immigration increased, and employers preferred to hire whites.
question
What were some of the differences between life for a black soldier and life for a white soldier?
answer
Blacks received far worse food rations, equipment, and horses.
question
Where did the term "buffalo soldiers" come from?
answer
Native Americans admired blacks' fighting abilities, and thought their hair similar to the buffalo
question
How did blacks feel about fighting Native Americans?
answer
Most felt no worries or concerns at all. They felt a genuine pride in being professional soldiers.
question
What was the Spanish-American War about?
answer
America wanted to liberate Cuba from Spanish control
question
Why did blacks serve in the Spanish-American War?
answer
They hoped to demonstrate their bravery and worth to whites, and thereby eliminate racism and hostility
question
Which of the following is true about blacks in business in the late nineteenth century?
answer
In order to succeed in business, blacks generally had to cater to other blacks
question
What did the American Federation of Labor think about black involvement in unions?
answer
It refused entry to blacks or women.
question
What were the limitations of the early antislavery movement?
answer
White abolitionists did not think that blacks should have equal rights
question
Why did most strikes fail during the late nineteenth century?
answer
Government and the police helped the businessmen over the workers.
question
What tactic did whites in Atlanta not use to break the widespread washerwomen's strike in 1881?
answer
They brought in convict labor to perform washing duties for white Atlantans
question
Why did five of the seven existing black medical schools close down around 1910?
answer
Because whites recommended the strengthening of the medical profession, partially by eliminating weaker medical schools.
question
Why did many black lawyers have a hard time making a living?
answer
Blacks often preferred to hire white lawyers, which they believed could improve their chances of winning their cases.
question
What legal organization did blacks form, since the American Bar Association would not include them?
answer
the National Bar Association
question
What were "minstrel shows"?
answer
traveling groups of actors and musicians, some portraying blacks as stereotypical caricatures
question
How did white authorities harass heavyweight champion Jack Johnson?
answer
They had him arrested for violating the Mann Act when he married a white woman.
question
How did the typical early 20th century Progressive reformer feel about racism?
answer
Most were racist themselves. They showed little interest in altering white supremacy
question
Which of the following was not an element of Booker T. Washington's famous speech at the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition in 1895?
answer
He thought that blacks should work for voting rights at the same time they were trying to impress whites with their hard work, cleanliness, and good morals.
question
How did white people react to Washington's Atlanta Compromise speech?
answer
Since it was so non-threatening, they thought it was sensible and praiseworthy. Many whites supported Washington's leadership
question
What type of political influence did Booker T. Washington have?
answer
Washington actually had tremendous influence for a black man at the time. President Teddy Roosevelt respected him, and consulted with him regularly on political appointments
question
What types of political activities was Washington supporting behind the scenes?
answer
He tried to both improve conditions for blacks on segregated railroad cars and get the grandfather clause overturned in the courts.
question
How did men like W.E.B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter feel about Booker T. Washington's efforts and views?
answer
They became vocal, intense critics of Washington's. They felt he was yielding too much to whites
question
How did Du Bois's background shape his views, just as Washington's shaped his?
answer
Du Bois was born free in the North, encountered little racism during his early years, and was incredibly intelligent and allowed to obtain a superior education.
question
What is not true about Du Bois's and Washington's approaches to improving the condition of black men?
answer
Du Bois did not think blacks should be submissive to whites and merely wait for change.
question
What was the role of the "Talented Tenth," according to Du Bois?
answer
The top ten percent of blacks were to be responsible for working to achieve the civil and political rights of African Americans.
question
What did the Niagara Movement demand in 1905?
answer
That blacks should protest vigorously for their rights, better schools, housing, and an end to racial prejudice.
question
The Niagara Movement leaders stated, "We repudiate the monstrous doctrine that the oppressor should be the sole authority as to the rights of the oppressed." What does this mean?
answer
Blacks wanted to have an active role in determining what they wanted, rather than leaving it all up to whites.
question
How did Booker T. Washington react to the new Niagara Movement?
answer
He paid newspaper reporters to criticize Du Bois.
question
What is true about the early NAACP?
answer
White leaders dominated it and financed it.
question
What methods did the NAACP use to try to gain black civil and political rights?
answer
They worked within the court and legislative system, chipping away at discrimination, racism, and the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
question
What was the significance of the Guinn v. United States case in 1915?
answer
It overturned the grandfather clause in Oklahoma
question
What was true about the NAACP publication, "The Crisis"?
answer
Edited by Du Bois, it generally contained strident language denouncing racism and demanding that blacks stand up for their rights.
question
How did Booker T. Washington feel about the NAACP?
answer
He sent in aides and supporters to disrupt meetings, and attack Du Bois publicly
question
What was the result of Washington's scheming to destroy the NAACP?
answer
The NAACP eventually triumphed, in goals and tactics
question
What was the goal of the Urban League?
answer
to help blacks as they moved into cities, with housing, discrimination issues, and medical care
question
What is true about black women's support for women's suffrage?
answer
They had long supported the issue, and understood that political power was needed to change discrimination in America.
question
What political party did blacks generally support in the early twentieth century?
answer
Republican
question
How did Woodrow Wilson act toward black people when he became president?
answer
Wilson held southern views about race; he segregated federal offices to avoid friction between the races.
question
How did most African Americans feel about entering World War I?
answer
Most supported it, and many served in the armed forces as a way to demonstrate their patriotism and loyalty.
question
How were most black troops used during World War I used?
answer
Most were used in manual labor, in building roads and as cooks.
question
How did the French troops and people feel about black soldiers?
answer
They praised their ability and courage, and asked for more black troops.
question
World War I was supposed to be a war "to make the world safe for democracy." With all this language, how did Americans apply these ideals to the treatment of blacks?
answer
They didn't. Americans continued to hold onto racism, and reacted violently against blacks.
question
What is true about violence against blacks in America around the time of World War I?
answer
The violence expanded from the South to include the North as well.
question
What provoked the 1906 race riot in Atlanta, Georgia?
answer
A white sheriff accused a black man of raping a white woman.
question
How did Booker T. Washington react to the Atlanta Riot of 1906?
answer
He said that black resistance would only lead to more black deaths, and urged racial harmony
question
What did the Springfield Riot of 1908 lead to?
answer
the creation of the NAACP
question
What did many of the race riots of the early twentieth century not have in common?
answer
They generally led to some sort of improvement in race relations.
question
What reaction did the NAACP have to the violence of the East St. Louis riot?
answer
It sent members in to investigate, publicized the issues, and organized a silent march in New York City as a protest.
question
What prompted the Houston Riot in 1917?
answer
Black soldiers were disgusted over the racist treatment they received at the hands of the police in the segregated city
question
What is true about black migration between 1910 and 1940?
answer
About 1.75 million blacks left the South, doubling the population of blacks outside that region.
question
Which of the following is true about black migration destinations?
answer
Many black families moved several times before settling down. c. Black migrants universally found "heaven" in their destinations.
question
What is true about segregation in the North?
answer
Although the North had laws against discrimination of blacks, enforcement was often overlooked.
question
What does the case of Sacco and Vanzetti tell us about America in the early 1920s?
answer
Many felt their conviction and execution had more to do with xenophobia than legal evidence that they had been involved in a crime.
question
What is true about academic studies and academic views of race in the 1920s?
answer
Prominent scholars published numerous books warning about the threat to America from immigrants, and the dangers of "diluting" the white race
question
What did the film, Birth of a Nation, depict?
answer
an incredibly racist view of black men as either ignorant or rapists, along with a glorification of the Ku Klux Klan
question
What was not a popular reaction to the film, Birth of a Nation?
answer
The film encouraged students to study the American Revolution.
question
What organization reemerged with millions of members shortly after the release of the movie, The Birth of a Nation?
answer
Ku Klux Klan
question
How was the Klan of the 1920s different from the Reconstruction Klan?
answer
The Klan of the 1920s expanded their hate targets to include Catholics, Jews, and immigrants as well as blacks.
question
What was the ultimate result of the Dyer anti-lynching bill?
answer
Although the NAACP gained publicity for the anti-lynching crusade, the bill ultimately failed
question
What do the activities of the NAACP regarding "white primaries" and in the Sweet case tell us about their tactics during the 1920s?
answer
The NAACP continued to use the court system to gain changes and civil rights in America.
question
What benefits did Marcus Garvey and his ideas bring to many black people?
answer
His ideas brought an opportunity to celebrate their culture, history, and heritage in a world that generally saw them as inferior or meaningless.
question
What African American author influenced Jamaican born Marcus Garvey's early ideas about changing the situation of blacks?
answer
Booker T. Washington
question
What organization did Marcus Garvey form in Jamaica in 1914?
answer
Universal Negro Improvement Association
question
What was not true about Marcus Garvey and his ideas?
answer
Garvey was very poorly educated, since he grew up in Jamaica, and left school at 14
question
For what proposal is Garvey best remembered?
answer
establishing the Black Star Line, a group of steamships that were supposed to help blacks get back to Africa
question
Garvey wanted to establish a settlement in Liberia. What stopped him?
answer
The American, British, and French governments blocked his requests to the League of Nations, since they wanted to maintain power for themselves
question
How did other black leaders, like W. E. B. Du Bois and A. Philip Randolph, view Garvey?
answer
They continually denigrated him and his ideas, calling him dangerous and a fool.
question
How did Garvey react to the KKK?
answer
He praised the organization as being the only honest white men in America
question
What 1960s civil rights leader was very influenced by Garvey, and continued promoting some of his ideas?
answer
Malcolm X
question
What did Du Bois and Garvey, as well as other black leaders, have in common?
answer
a great interest in Africa, and trying to improve or eliminate colonial rule there
question
What did Du Bois ask for at the first Pan-African Congress?
answer
the creation of a central black nation, but he did not demand the immediate withdrawal of the Europeans
question
What is true about the occupations of black people after World War I and the great migration?
answer
Most black people were still employed in agricultural work or domestic service
question
Why was the railroad train Pullman Company an early area for black labor organizing?
answer
By the 1920s, it was the largest employer of black people in America.
question
How did Pullman porters react to discrimination and unjust treatment on their railroad coach jobs?
answer
The porters tried to work behind the scenes, very quietly, to try to get helpful legislation passed by Congress.
question
What was true about the formal education of many of the black writers and artists of the Harlem Renaissance?
answer
Many of them went to very elite schools, at a time when any college education was rare.
question
What did authors like Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston think the purpose of black literature should be?
answer
that art should portray ordinary, even poor black people, with their good and bad sides
question
Why were black women often affected more than black men during the Depression?
answer
White families could not afford domestic help during the Depression, or could get it at almost no cost at all, since some black women were so desperate.
question
What was the "Bronx Slave Market"?
answer
an area in New York where white women could very cheaply obtain day help from black women
question
What does the story of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company tell us about blacks during the Great Depression?
answer
Some black businesses were able to succeed even with the difficulties of the Great Depression.
question
How were social services and relief programs handled beforethe Great Depression?
answer
through private charities and individuals
question
How did President Herbert Hoover deal with African Americans during the Great Depression?
answer
Hoover wanted an all-white Republican Party in the South, and tried to appoint a racist to the Supreme Court.
question
Why did President Hoover do very little during the Great Depression to alleviate poverty?
answer
He strongly believed that individuals or charities, not the government, should help alleviate poverty.
question
During the Great Depression why W. E. B. Du Bois begin to criticize the NAACP?
answer
not putting enough emphasis on economic development for blacks
question
Who was central to the NAACP's legal effectiveness during the 1930s in chipping away at segregation through the court system?
answer
Charles Hamilton Houston
question
What was Charles Hamilton Houston's legal focus?
answer
He tried to force the South to equalize facilities, especially in education
question
Why did Charles H. Houston and Thurgood Marshall focus on gaining blacks access to professional and graduate schools?
answer
The inequalities were very obvious; almost no graduate facilities existed for blacks in the South.
question
Why did the all-white primary law disfranchise black voters in Texas, when they could still vote in the general election?
answer
Texas was so heavily Democratic that the only really contested election was the primary race.
question
What case ended the all-white primary strategy altogether?
answer
Smith v. Allwright
question
Which of the following is true about the role of black women in the NAACP?
answer
Black women often made huge contributions through organizing and fundraising.
question
How did black voting patterns begin to change after the first election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt?
answer
Blacks began to shift from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party
question
How was Roosevelt unlike Hoover in his attempts to end the Great Depression?
answer
He proved very flexible, and willing to experiment with new changes and ideas.
question
What is true about the National Industrial Recovery Act's effect on black Americans?
answer
When the NIRA increased wages, employers fired blacks in order to be able to hire whites.
question
How was the Agricultural Adjustment Actunevenly implemented?
answer
White landlords sometimes evicted black tenants from their land during the Great Depression.
question
What was the role of FDR's "Black Cabinet"?
answer
They lobbied and pressured the president and other governmental agencies to create color-blind policies
question
What happened to much First New Deal legislation during the Great Depression?
answer
The Supreme Court declared much of it unconstitutional.
question
Which of the following was a major enduring program initiated during the Second New Deal?
answer
Social Security Act
question
What was significant about the 1936 presidential election?
answer
Republican Black voters outside the South shifted in significant numbers to the Democratic Party.
question
Which of the following was a reason for blacks to move over to the Democratic Party during the 1936 election?
answer
Blacks felt that Roosevelt had been doing more for them than any other president.
question
How did many whites react to the increased presence of blacks in the Democratic Party?
answer
Some southern white Democrats were infuriated, and actually walked out of the presidential convention when blacks spoke.
question
What was true about the administration of the Works Progress Administration (WPA)?
answer
The WPA was actuallyadministered far more equally than previous programs. It helped many black families.
question
Which of the following was not a program of the Depression era WPA?
answer
giving food to hungry blacks and whites
question
How did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the 1930s?
answer
In the 1930s, more labor unions allowed blacks membership, and some even began integrated unions
question
What did the case of the Scottsboro Boysinvolve?
answer
two young white women who falsely accused nine young black men of rape on a train
question
What did the case of Powell v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1932, state?
answer
The Scottsboro Boys had not been given adequate council, and the trial was not fair because it had occurred in a hostile environment
question
What did the case ofNorris v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1935, state?
answer
All Americans have the right to a jury of their peers. Excluding blacks from jury pools was deemed unconstitutional.
question
What was the Tuskegee Experiment?
answer
when the federal government sponsored a health study that monitored, but did not treat, black men with syphilis
question
What lessons did Amos 'n' Andy teach white America?
answer
That it was acceptable to make fun and laugh at black people's efforts to make it in America
question
What 1930s movie most solidified blacks in the roles of servants in the American mind?
answer
Gone With the Wind
question
How did Billie Holiday's song "Strange Fruit" protest racism?
answer
The song was about the horror and violence surrounding lynching
question
What was the primary force behind much of Adolf Hitler's policies?
answer
racism, focusing on blaming Jews for all of Germany's problems
question
Why did the United States take so long to get involved in World War II?
answer
Congress, with most of the American population, was isolationist, and thought that we should not have been involved in World War I.
question
How did events in Ethiopia in 1935 and in Spain in 1936-1937 affect how some African Americans thought about world events leading up to World War II?
answer
African Americans supported anti-fascist movements in both countries, and the events demonstrated the threats of that type of government.
question
What finally lifted the United States out of the Great Depression?
answer
military spending by the United States to prepare for World War II
question
What was the "Double V" campaign?
answer
a slogan adopted by African Americans to work for victory in World War II and victory over racism at home
question
Who organized the proposed 1942 March on Washington Movement?
answer
A. Philip Randolph
question
What was the March on Washington Movement designed to do?
answer
Stop discrimination against blacks in wartime industries and the military
question
What did FDR's Executive Order 8022 do?
answer
technically ended discrimination by race in defense industry employment
question
What was not a difference between German POWs' treatment in prison camps and the treatment of African Americans in the military?
answer
Germans, like other non-black ethnic groups, faced no discrimination within American society during the war
question
What was different about the black soldiers who served in World War II versus those who served in World War I?
answer
Those who served in World War II were more likely to be high school or college graduates.
question
What successes did the NAACP see during World War II?
answer
The NAACP grew tremendously in membership and influence, even in the South
question
What principles did the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), created in 1942, stand by?
answer
They were very democratic in their organization, and wanted America to stand up to its principles.
question
What was the Cold War?
answer
an ideological conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union over different interests for Europe and the rest of the world
question
What was the reaction of many white southerners to Truman's interest in African-American rights?
answer
They left the Democratic Party to form the Dixiecrat Party, which favored white supremacy.
question
What did President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9981 do?
answer
It officially desegregated the armed forces.
question
Which was the first war to see integrated American troop units in conflict?
answer
the Korean War
question
What did the case of State of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada involve?
answer
It forced states to provide equal facilities to blacks for legal education within their borders.
question
What amendment did the NAACP claim southern states were violating when they lacked black graduate education facilities or refused admittance to blacks?
answer
Fourteenth Amendment
question
Which of the following cases involved a young woman who had been denied admission to a the law school because she was black?
answer
Sipuel v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents
question
What did the Supreme Court decide in Sweatt v. Painter?
answer
Equality in educational facilities included a lot of intangibles. The justices were basically saying that Sweatt had to be admitted to the main law school, not simply give space for him in the basement of the university.
question
How was the case of Briggs v. Elliot different from prior NAACP cases in education?
answer
It was the first case to involve elementary school education, rather than graduate school education.
question
What was the result of the Brown case?
answer
The court declared that separate educations for blacks and whites were not equal, therefore overturning the Plessy rule
question
What did the Brown II decision say?
answer
Schools should desegregate "with all deliberate speed."
question
How had President Eisenhower reacted to the Brown decision?
answer
He did not seem to accept the ruling completely, refusing to provide it with the backing of his office.
question
What was not a reaction by southern whites to implementing Brown?
answer
They began a policy of massive, organized violent resistance.
question
What is true about school desegregation under Brown by 1960?
answer
Only 17 school systems had been desegregated.
question
What did the Supreme Court decide in the case of Browder v. Gayle?
answer
Segregation in public transportation was unconstitutional
question
Which of the following is true about the Civil Rights Act of 1957?
answer
The act created a commission to study infringements on black voting
question
How did Arkansas Orville Faubus react to the Brown decision?
answer
He tried to keep blacks from attending the local high school by posting the National Guard there, and closing the schools down
question
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 not do?
answer
Restored all voting rights to African American men and women.
question
What did the 1965 Voting Rights Act not do?
answer
It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
question
What did the case of Regents of the University of California v. Bakkeinvolve?
answer
a white man who said that the University of California's admission requirements discriminated against him
question
How did the Rodney King verdict show differences between whites and blacks regarding American justice?
answer
Blacks saw the acquittal of the police officers as an example of continued injustice while whites saw it as preserving law and order
question
What is true of Obama's winning percentage for the election of 2008?
answer
Obama received one of the largest winning percentages in American history