World History Chapter 4 Test
Flashcard maker : Brandon Ruffin
What two geographic features played a specially significant role in the development of Greek history?
Mountains and the sea.
About what percent of Greece was mountains, and what impact did it have on Greek communities?
80% and caused Greek communities to develop unequally and independently from each other.
The small size of independent communities had what impact on local politics?
It encouraged more of the population to participate in politics.
What enabled the Greeks to make contact with the outside world?
The first Greek state was developed by who?
According to Homer the Mycenaean Greeks conquered Troy around what year, and do all scholars agree that this event was factual?
1250 B.C. and No.
Following the collapse of the Mycenaean Empire what age did Greece enter?
Homer wrote two Epic Poems, what was one of them?
The Iliad or The Odyssey.
What were the two main values taught by Homer?
Courage and Honor.
The polis had become a central focus for Greek life, what three activities would people do there?
Political, Social, and Religious activities.
Ancient Greeks sought more farmland and trade bases, so they established colonies at what sea and what was the most notable of these colonies.
Mediterranean Sea and Byzantium.
The Greeks grew wealthy trading what three items?
Pottery, Wine, and Olive Oil.
The expansion of trade and industry gave a rise to a new group of men who used _____ to seize power?
The age of Tyrants didn’t last, what happened as a result?
More people became involved in politics.
Beginning around what year did the city-state Sparta become a dominant military state and conquered several of its neighbors?
All males in Sparta spent their childhood learning about what?
At what age were all Spartan males required to enter the military?
What did Sparta and its citizens think about philosophy, literature, and travel?
They were discouraged.
In Sparta ephors (Spartan kings) were elected how often.
Annually (Every Year).
What where the ephors two main responsibilities?
Education and the Conduct of Citizens.
Around 700 B.C., Athens had become an unified polis on the peninsula of Attica. Who owned the best land and headed the government as an oligarchy.
A small number of Aristocrats.
Solon solved the economic problems of Athens by doing what?
Canceling land debts and freeing those enslaved due to debt.
Another reformer named Cleisthenes created a council of 500 men to oversee government affairs. What this assembly create?
It Created the Foundation of Athenian Democracy.
Who captured the Ionian Greek cities in western Asia Minor during the mid-6th century B.C.?
Why did the Persian ruler Darius want revenge against Athens?
Athens assisted a failed rebellion by the Ionian Cities.
In 490 B.C. the Persian army led by Darius was defeated by whom?
In 480 B.C., who led another Persian invasion into Greece?
What groups of people united and defeated the Persian invaders in 479 B.C.?
Athenians, Spartans, and Other Greeks.
During the age of Pericles where was the center of Greek culture?
In 478 B.C., the Athenians created a defensive alliance against the Persians known as the _______.
Pericles became a prominent leader in Athenian politics between 461 and 429 B.C. He expanded the democracy to enable what group of people to paly a role in government?
All MALE Citizens.
Historians consider what period of classical Athenian and Greek history as the height of Athenian power and brilliance.
Age of Pericles.
What would happen to anyone who under the practice of ostracism who had their name written by at least 6000 members of the assembly?
The Person Would be Banned from the City for 10 Years.
The Athenian economy was largely based on what two things?
Farming and Trade.
In the Athenian empire what was the primary function of a family?
To produce new citizens by having children.
In 431 B.C. the Great Peloponneasian War began, how long did this war last and who was ultimately victorious.
25 Years and Sparta.
In ancient Greece the gods and goddesses were thought to live where?
What was the most important form of Greek architecture and why was it important?
Temples and it was dedicated to gods and goddesses.
What were the first Greek dramas?
Greek comedies used puns and satires to criticize what two groups?
Politicians and Intellectuals.
What is often seen as the first real history text in western civilization.
The History of the Persian Wars, written by Herodotus.
Who is often considered the greatest historian of the ancient world, and why is he considered to be this?
Thucydides and He Attempted to Portray History Fairly and Accurately with No Bias.
Many philosophers in Ancient Greece sought answers to questions of the natural universe through ________
Pythagoras thought that the essence of the universe could be found in _______
Music and Numbers.
What did the traveling group of teachers called the Sophists believe?
They did not Believe it was Possible to Understand the Universe and They Believed it was more Important for Individuals to Improve Themselves.
What did Socrates believe the goal of education was?
To Improve the Individual.
Please describe and define the Socratic Method.
A Question and Answer Form of Teaching that Leads Students to Find Their Own Answers.
Plato was a student of Socrates and was fascinated with what?
The Question of Reality.
He wrote his ideas of government in a work entitled what?
Aristotle was a student of Plato who believed that _______ was tied to people’s behavior.
Aristotle studied natural science by making and recording observations, laying the foundations of what?
Aristotle did not seek an ideal state but rather studied existing government and favored what type of government?
Alexander the Great continued the plan of his deceased father Philip the 2 and conquered ______, after he took the thrown when he was 20.
Alexander’s unified kingdom did not last, and Four Hellenistic Kingdoms arose. What were three of them?
Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, and Peragmum.
Aristarchus developed a famous theory that stated what?
Earth Revolves Around the Sun.
What did Eratosthenes determine about the earth?
That It was Round.
Euclid wrote Elements, a textbook on _______ that is still studied today.
Archimedes established what mathematical value?
What did Epicureanism teach?
People had to Free Themselves From Public Activity in Order to Follow Their Own Self Interest to Find Happiness.
What did followers of Stoicism believe?
That by Living in Harmony with the Will of God the could Bear whatever Life Offered.
In early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to achieve in a struggle or contest.
The early Greek city-state consisting of a city or town and its surrounding countryside.
In early Greek city-states a fortified gathering place at the top of the hill that was sometimes used as place for a temple.
In early Greek city-states an open area that served as a market.
In the Greek military system a heavily armed foot solider.
A wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation.
A ruler who seized power from the aristocrats and gained support from the newly rich and poor and kept power by using hired soldiers.
A government by the people or rule of the many direct or through election by their representatives.
The rule of the few, a form of government by a selected group of people who exercise control.
In ancient Sparta a captive person who was forced to work for the captor.
In ancient Greece a sacred shrine where god or goddesses was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess.
Aiding or promoting with public money.