World History Chapter 27

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser
Pacifism
the belief that all international disputes can be settled by arbitration
Militarism
glorification of the military
Entente
an informal alliance between countries
Francis Ferdinand
(1863-1914) Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I.
Gavrilo Princip
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Ultimatum
a final proposal or statement of conditions
Mobilize
call to arms
Neutrality
policy of supporting neither side in a war
Western Front
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
Verdun
France vs. Germany, France led by Nivelle. Poorly defended, Germans lost, lost 700,000 men
Somme
A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man’s land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.
Tannenburg
In 1914 during World War I a German army under the command of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg won an important victory over two Russian armies in the Second Battle of Tannenberg who had invaded East Prussia.
Caporetto
In 1917 the Austro-Hungarians and Germans defeated the Italians at this battle on the A-H front betw Austria and Italy. The Central Powers streamed into Italy demonstrating weakness of Italian forces. Brit and French troops rushed in to hold the line. Stalemate resulted, then allies waiting – holding out for arrival of fresh American troops.
Gallipoli
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
T. E. Lawrence
British colonel fighting in the Middle East, he later became known as Lawrence of Arabia
Stalemate
A situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible
No-Man’s land
A strip of land beween the trenches of opposing armies along the Western Front during WW1
Zeppelin
large gas-filled balloon (used by Germany to bomb England)
U-boat
a German submarine that was the first submarine employed in warfare, initially used during WW1
Convoy
a group that travels with something, such as a ship, to protect it
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Lusitania
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Fourteen Points
It was Wilson’s peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.
Total War
the channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort, all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
Conscription
a military draft
Propoganda
information designed to promote a cause or spread an idea and usually damage the other side
Atrocity
an act of great cruelty and wickedness
Self-determination
the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
Armistice
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
David Loyd George
prime minister of Britain
Georges Clemenceau
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Leauge of Nations
an international organazation up after World War I to prevent future wars
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
Reperations
payments for the losses suffered during a war
Collective Security
a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all
Mandate
a document giving an official instruction or command

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