World History-Chapter 26

Flashcard maker : Kelly Fisher
suffrage
right to vote; extended to wealthy middle class in1832 which changed gov.- not only did upper class run the gov; working class men eventually gained suffrage in 1867
Chartist movement
popular movement where many workers pressed for the right to vote; presented demands in petition called The People’s charter of 1838; protests brought attention to the complaints of workers
Queen Victoria
popular Queen of British Empire for 64 years; brought empire to its height; prime minister and cabinet mainly ruled and forced her to accept lesser role b/c previous kings had taken too much power
Third Republic
republic that ruled France for 60 years; formed after crisis following the Franco-Prussian War; threatened by groups that wanted a monarchy or military rule
Dreyfus Affair
scandal where a Jewish military officer of the French army was accused of selling military secrets to Germany; sentenced to a life in prison after found guilty based on false evidence; became a battleground for opposing forces in France and divided public opinion on the issue of anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
prejudice against Jews; played a major role in the Dreyfus Affair as people were split in their view of Dreyfus’ innocence
Zionism
a movement led by Theodore Herzl of Vienna to work for a homeland in Palestine; forced by the persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe where officials permitted killings
Dominion
an area that self-governs in domestic affairs but remains part of an empire; push for colonies to become independent
Maori
Polynesian people who had settled in New Zealand around 800 A.D; had an economy based on farming, hunting, and fishing; met James Cook when he settled in 1769; soon overrun from their lands by the British despite resistance
Aborigine
native people of Australia that sparsely populated the area(named this by Europeans); have the longest ongoing culture in the world; economy based on fishing, hunting, and gathering food; displaced by European colonists that settled in Australia
Penal Colony
a place where convicts were sent to serve their sentences; used by many European countries to prevent overcrowding in prisons; helped economies b/c freed prisoners could buy land and settle; settlers were attracted to new area for economic reasons
Home Rule
local control over internal matters only; created as a way of appeasing Irish that wanted more independence from Britain; issue further divided Ireland into southern Catholics and northern Protestants
Irish Republican Army
an unofficial military force seeking independence for Ireland; formed by Irish nationalists who protested the delays of home rule; staged a series of attack against British officials in Ireland that sparked war between the nationalists and the British gov.
Manifest Destiny
the idea that the U.S had the right and duty to rule North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; used by gov leaders to justify evicting Native Americans from their lands
Abraham Lincoln
elected prez of the U.S in 1860; created the climax of the conflict between the North and South b/c he had promised to stop the spread of slavery; South opposed him and soon seceded from the Union
Secede
to withdraw from the Union; Southern States broke away to form the Confederate States of America in response to earlier conflicts in the north
U.S Civil War
war fought between the North and South for four years (1862-1865) mainly on Southern soil; purpose was to bring Confederate states back to the Union; North was better equipped for war despite superior Southern military leadership
Emancipation Proclamation
proclamation issued by Lincoln in 1863 that stated all slaves in Confederate states were free; had little effect at first b/c Confederates refused to accept the law; showed that the war was fighting slavery- European countries didn’t help the South as a result; eventually led to the 13th,14th and 15th amendments which have more rights to former slaves
Segregation
separation of blacks and whites in the South; created in response to amendments that gave rights to blacks; Southerns made such laws b/c they didn’t want to recognize blacks as equals
Assembly Line
method of building cars created by Henry Ford; a line of workers would each put a single piece of unfinished cars as they passed on a moving belt; greatly increased automobile production and sales by lowering production costs and price of a car
Charles Darwin
English naturalist that challenged the idea of special creation by developing a theory that all forms of life evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years ago; book: ON HE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION which argued that best adapted species survived and produced offspring; created much controversy in the scientific world
Theory of Evolution
Darwin’s idea of change through natural selection; explained that species change gradually over many generations; challenged former ideas about the beginnings of life
Radioactivity
name given by Marie Curie; powerful energy given off in a mineral called pitchblends; important discovery for science that led to even further exploration in chemistry
Psychology
the study of the human mind and behavior; important social science that cause scientist to contemplate and debate the capabilities of the mind
Mass Culture
the appeal of art, writing, music, and other forms of entertainment to a larger audience; art and music had previously been enjoyed only by the wealthy b/c they were the only ones with money, leisure time, and education to appreciate high culture; people gained more leisure time b/c of shorter workdays and better hours and had improved education and communication-enabled them to enjoy new pursuits
Freud
Austrian doctor who pioneered psychology; believe that the unconscious mind drives how people think and act; thought unconscious force like memories and desires shaped human behavior; developed therapy called psychoanalysis to deal with psychological conflicts; his theories became very influential and challenged fundamental idea of the Enlightenment but shocked many people
The Curies
husband/wife team Marie and Pierre that worked in Paris; discovered two missing elements on the periodic table called radium and polonium; given Nobel Peace Prize for physics in 1903 for their work on radioactivity; Marie Curie was given Prize in 1922 for discovery of radium and polonium in chemistry
Edison
one of the greatest inventors in history; patented more than 1,000 inventions including light bulb and phonograph; also created the research lab which some argue was his most important invention; lab created a new way to develop inventions
Bell
a teacher of the deaf; invented the telephone which transmitted sounds over great distance; permanently changed communication in the world drastically increasing the rate at which info could be exchanged
Marconi
Italian inventor that used theoretical discoveries about electromagnetic waves to create the first radio
Ford
invented car with interchangeable parts and the assembly line
Mendel
Austrian monk that discovered pattern to the way traits were inherited
Pavolv
physiologist that believed human actions were often unconscious reactions to experience
Vaudeville
musical variety shos

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