World History Chapter 22 Test:Enlightenment

Flashcard maker : Josephine Mack
What was the Geocentric Theory?
Aristotle’s and Ptolemy’s belief that the Earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
What did Christianity teach about the universe?
God placed the Earth at the center of the universe so life could occur
What was the Scientific Revolution?
new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observations and experimentation
What helped spread challenging ideas more widely among European thinkers?
invention of the printing press
What did European exploration encourage?
scientific research in Astronomy and Mathematics
What was the Heliocentric Theory?
Copernicus believed that the sun stood at the center of the universe
Why didn’t Copernicus publish his ideas?
his views contradicted religious views
Who recorded the movements of the planets providing data on the Heliocentric Theory?
Brahe
Who concluded that the Laws of Planetary Motion demonstrate mathematically how the earth revolves around the sun?
Kepler
Who built the telescope?
Galileo
Who published \”Starry Messenger\” describing his observations?
Galileo
What were three things Galileo observed?
1. Jupiter has 4 moons
2. Sun has dark spots
3. Moon has a rough, uneven surface
Did Galileo’s observations challenge church teaching?
Yes
What did Galileo do when the church threatened his life?
agreed that observations of Copernicus are false
Where did Galileo live as a result of his observations?
under house arrest for the rest of his life
What is the scientific method?
logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
What are the 5 steps for the Scientific Method?
1. Identify a problem
2. Develop a hypothesis
3. Experimentation
4. Analyze and Interpret the data
5. Draw a conclusion
What did Francis Bacon encourage?
scientists to experiment and draw conclusions
What did Eugene Descartes rely on to draw conclusions?
mathematics and logic
What was Descartes belief?
everything should be doubted until it is proven by reason
What did Sir Isaac Newton discover?
Law of Gravity
What was the Law of Gravity?
every object in the universe attracts every other object
According to the Law of Gravity, what does the degree of attraction depend on?
mass of the objects and their distance
What did Zacharias Jansen invent?
first microscope
What did Antonvan Leeuwenhock used a microscope to observe?
bacteria and red blood cells
What did Evangelista Torricelli develop?
first barometer to measure atmospheric pressure for predicting weather
What did Gabriel Fahrenheit invent?
first thermometer
What did Anders Celsius create?
another scale for the thermometer
What did Galen believe?
human anatomy was the same as animals
What did Andreas Vesalius prove?
Galen’s assumptions were false after dissecting human corpses
What did Edward Jenner produce?
vaccine to prevent smallpox
What did Robert Boyle propose?
matter was made up of smaller primary particles that are joined together
What does Boyle’s law explain?
explains how volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affect each other
Define Enlightenment.
new intellectual movement that stressed reason, thought, and the power of individuals to solve problems
Which two individuals started the Enlightenment movement?
1. Thomas Hobbes
2. John Locke
What did Thomas Hobbes believe about all humans?
humans are naturally selfish and wicked
What did Thomas Hobbes believe about governments?
governments are necessary to maintain order
What did Thomas Hobbes mean by a social contract?
1. people should hand over their rights to a strong ruler
2. people are given law and order in exchange
What did Thomas Hobbes believe a strong ruler needed to protect everyone’s interests?
Total Power
Did Thomas Hobbes support democracy?
No, he supported Absolute Monarchs
What did John Locke believe people could learn from?
mistakes and improve themselves
What did John Locke believe people had the ability to do?
govern their own affairs to handle the welfare of society
Which idea did Locke favor?
idea of self-government
What did Locke believe about freedom?
All people are born free and equal with the natural rights of life, liberty, and property
What did Locke believe is the purpose of government?
protect natural rights
Which form of government did Locke support?
democracy where people select their leaders with the ability to remove ineffective leaders
What do philosophers believe?
people could apply reason to life
What are the 5 concepts of philosophers?
1. Reason
2. Nature
3. Happiness
4. Progress
5. Liberty
What did philosophers believe about reason?
truth is found in logical thinking
What did philosophers believe about nature?
nature was good and reasonable
What did philosophers believe about happiness?
people should work for the well-being of society
What did philosophers believe about progress?
society should work to improve
What did philosophers believe about liberty?
people should have freedom
Why was Voltaire sent to prison twice?
fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech
What did Montesquieu support?
separation of powers
What did Montesquieu believe about the branches of government?
supported checks and balances where one branch checks the powers of another branch
What did Rousseau believe civilization did to people?
corrupted people’s natural goodness
What form of government did Rousseau support?
direct democracy that favors the common good
What did Beccaria believe was the purpose of laws?
preserve social order
What did Beccaria believe people accused of a crime should have?
speedy trial and be free from torture
What did Beccaria believe punishment should be based on?
severity of crime
Did Beccaria support the death penalty?
No
What did philosophers believe women should be educated to do?
how to be a helpful wife and mother
Why were women scolded for reading novels?
reading novels would lead to idleness and individuality
What did Mary Astell speak out against?
lack of educational opportunities for women
What did Mary Astell challenge?
unequal relationship between a man and a woman in a marriage
What did Mary Wollstonecraft argue?
women need education to become virtuous and useful
What did Mary Wollstonecraft encourage women to do?
enter male-dominated fields of medicine and politics
What were the 3 main themes that occurred during the Enlightenment period?
1. belief in progress as noted by science
2. secular, nonreligious outlook on life
3. individualism

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