World History Chapter 14 Section 1 and 2

Flashcard maker : Ruth Blanco
caravel
a new type of ship that was very large and could travel through shallow water, it was much more maneuverable.
astrolabes
instruments that would be used to find latitudes and show people where they were, and what the local time was
magnetic compass
an instrument that had been invented by the Chinese and perfected by the Arabs and used by the Europeans. It pointed toward the magnetic north.
sextants
instuments that people used to look at stars and find their latitude and longitude location
mercator projection
a map that showed distortion toward the poles, and a projection that showed the latitude and longitude lines. It was invented by the Portuguese.
Portolan Map
showed sea lanes, and was a map of the sea
El Paso
the passage through the New World toward India
Amerigo Vespucci
a sailor who sailed with the Spanish and Portuguese and kept a diary that was used to make a map of the New World by German Mapmaker Martin Waldseemüler. The New World was named after him.
carte blanche
blank check, it gave Joint Stock Companies the power of the government
Bartolomeo Dias
the Portuguese sailor who went around the Tip of Storms
Cristoforo Colombo
the Italian sailor who was funded by Queen Isabella to sail across the Atlantic Ocean to India. He reached the New World and the Caribbean on four voyages, and never realized he had found new continents.
Giovanni Caboto
a sailor who went west and discovered the Maritimes and the Grand Banks
Pedro Alvarez Cabral
a Portuguese sailor who was blown off course on his way to Africa and hit Brazil.
Alfonso de Albuquerque
a sea captain who established ports that were along the route to the Spice Islands
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
he was Spanish and looking for El Paso. He reached Panama and got natives to hack through the forest until they reached the Pacific Ocean. He named it the South Sea.
Juan Ponce de León
the first governor of San Juan Baptiste. When he left the island he went to Florida looking for new territory, where he was injured and brought to Cuba, where he died.
Ferdinand Magellan
The Captain who went west, around South America, and across the Pacific Ocean until he reached the Philippines, where he died. A small part of his crew managed to circumnavigate the world. He renamed the South Sea el Mar Pacifico
Jacques Cartier
a Frenchman who was looking for the Northwest Passage. He reached the St. Lawrence River, which divided parts of Northern Europe. He claimed parts of Eastern Canada and named them New France.
Henry Hudson
he was an Englishman who sailed for the Netherlands. He wanted to find the Northwest Passage. He explored what would later be called the Hudson Bay, and also the Hudson River.
Samuel de Champlain
a French Noblemen who sailed to Canada and established the first settlement in Quebec. He explored modern Main and established Montreal and Nova Scotia.
Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette
They were Frenchmen. Jolliet was a fur trapper and Marquette was a priest. With Native American guides they discovered the great Lakes and went down the Mississippi River. They explored Wisconsin and claimed it for France.
Sueur de la Salle
René-Robert Cavalier
a poor French Noblemen who was given land in Canada. He explored the lower Mississippi and claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France. He established New Orleans.
Moluccas
an island chain in present-day Indonesia; Spice Islands
Prince Henry
Prince of Portugal; He led the way in sponsoring exploration for Portugal; The Navigator
cartographers
mapmakers; scientists
Vasco de Gama
a Portuguese navigator who led four ships around the Cape of kStorms. He reached the spice port of Calicut and returned home were he sold a cargo of spices for a huge profit.
Line of Demarcation
the line set up by the Pope that divided the non-European world into two zones. Spain had trading and exploration rights in any lands west of the line, and Portugal had the same rights to lands east of the line.
Treaty of Tordesillas
the treaty that documented the specific terms of the Line of Demarcation, and was signed by Spain and Portugal.
circumnavigate
to sail around
Mombasa and Malindi
cities that were hubs of international trade on the East African coast. They were attacked by the Portuguese.
plantations
large estates run by an owner or an owner’s overseer. Large numbers of slaves usually worked on them.
Affonso I
ruler of Kongo in west-central Africa. He wanted to end the slave trade in his kingdom and appealed to the Portuguese. He failed.
-he had been tutored by Portuguese missionaries and was Christian
missionaries
people who hoped to convert people to Christianity
Asante Kingdom
the African Kingdom that arose in the area occupied by present-day Ghana. It was united by Osei Tutu, who conquered neighboring peoples.
Osei Tutu
the able military leader of the Asante Kingdom who conquered neighboring peoples and unified his kingdom. He claimed that he had divine right to rule, and that everyone in his kingdom was linked by spiritual bonds. This strategy worked and he defeated the Denkyera people.
monopoly
the exclusive control of a business or industry
Oyo empire
an empire that arose form successive waves of settlement by the Yoruba people of present-day Nigeria. It began as a small kingdom, but used its wealth form the slave trade to build up an impressive army. They conquered the neighboring Dahomey kingdom.
Cape Town
the first permanent European settlement, which was settled by the Dutch.
Boers
Dutch farmers who settled around Cape town and ousted, enslaved, or killed the people who lived there. They called themselves Afrikaners.
Goa
the island off of the cost of India. The Portuguese made it their major military and commercial base.
Malacca
The port in the East Indies that the Portuguese conquered. They massacred the Muslims who lived in the city.
-It was later taken over by the Dutch
outposts
distant areas under their control.
Dutch East India Company
the company that the Dutch Merchants formed that had full sovereign powers
sovereign
the power to build armies, wage ware, negotiate peace treaties, and govern overseas territory
Philippines
The archipelago in Southeast Asia that was named after Spanish king Philip II.
-Claimed by Spain by Magellan
rajah
local chiefs
sepoys
Indian troops
Macao
the Portuguese trading post that the Ming dynasty allowed them to set up to trade with china; Canton
Matteo Ricci
A Jesuit priest who made a strong impression on the Chinese. He had little success in spreading his religion. He was a source of information for the Europeans and Chinese about each other.
Manchus
the people who ruled Manchuria. They took over China and the Ming dynasty and established the Qing dynasty
Kangxi
A Qing emperor who was an able administrator and military leader. he extended Chinese power into Central Asia and promoted Chinese culture.
Qianlong
a Qing emperor who was the grandson of Kangxi and expanded China’s borders to rule the largest area in the nation’s history.
Lord Macartney
the head of a British diplomatic mission who offended the Chinese and was disrespectful and offensive. He showed them inferior British goods.

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