World History Chapter 11 Study Guide

Flashcard maker : Edwin Holland
Islam and Women
Women of islamic religion had more rights including the right to divorce, be educated, consent to marriage, inherit, and equal spiritual rights
Quran
Islamic Holy book straight from God allowing it to be unnegotiable. (Everything muslims do is not in the Quran)
Hijra
An exodus of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib in AD 622, when threatened by the opposition of the Meccan merchants who feared neglecting their idols and disrupting the pilgrim trade
Hajj
Fifth pillar of Islam that requires a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life. Muslims must trek around the Kaaba in silence seven times. (Kaaba is believed to be the site where abraham built a temple)
Mosque
Muslim house of worship where they pray and attend services
Muhammad
Messenger of god/last and most important prophet in islam
Five Pillars of Islam
All muslims accept the duties known as the five pillars of Islam
1st: Shahadah-\”You shall know there is no god but Allah\”
2nd: Salat- Prayer five times a day facing mecca
3rd: Zakat- Charity in which two and a half percent of total income is given to poor
4th: Sawm- Fasting from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan
5th: Hajj-a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life. Muslims must trek around the Kaaba in silence seven times. (Kaaba is believed to be the site where abraham built a temple)
Islam after Muhammad’s death
Division arose within Islam over his successor.
Jihad
Effort in service to god as another duty
Sharia
Islamic system of law that regulated moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, and other aspects of a Muslim community
Harun Al-Rashid
a caliph who ruled from 786 to 809
Admired for his wealth, generosity, and support for art and education.
Sufis
Muslim mystics who sought communion with god through meditation, fasting, and other rituals and respected for their piety and miraculous powers. Spread their faith through missionary work
Minaret
the slender towers mosques
Muezzin
a mosque official who climbed to the top of the minarets and called the faithful to prayer
Seljuks Turks
Invaders from central Asia that converted to Muslim
Gained control of Baghdad, pushed into the Asia Minor and threatened the Byzantine empire
Migrated into the Middle East and built a large empire in the Fertile Crescent.
Responsible for the start of the Crusades.
Seljuk Sultan-an authority that controlled Baghdad but Left the Abbasid caliph as a figurehead
Muslim conquest
-Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s caliph and the three caliphs following him expanded the land.
-Many places in Europe that Muslims conquered became cultural centers
Islam and conquered peoples
-Muslims tated non-muslims but tolerated their presence
-Many Jews and Christians Became key officials, doctors, and translators and many even converted
Sunnis
-viewed caliph as a leader, not as a religious authority
-Believed Muhammad’s successor should be chosen by leaders of the Muslim community.
Shiites
-Believed the only true successors to the Prophet were descendants of Muhammad’s
– Believed descendants of Muhammad were divinely inspired
Muslim Medicine
-Govt. set up test for doctors
-Hospitals with emergency rooms
-Surgeons developed treatment for cataracts
Arab philosophers and Greek Ideas
Muslim trade
-Between 750 and 1360, merchants built a vast trading network across the muslim world and beyond.
-New business practices were established, such as partnerships, credit, banks, and bank checks
-Handicraft manufacturing in cities was organized by guilds
Outside the cities, agriculture flourished
Slaves and Arab world
Slaves were brought from conquered lands in Spain, Greece, Africa, India, and Central Asia. Muslims could not be enslaved. Slaves that converted to Islam free the children from slavery but no them. Most slaves worked as household servant, the Abbasids used slave-soldiers. Slaves could rise to higher govt positions.
Averroes
Set standards for scientific study of history
Avicenna
Wrote a medical encyclopedia
Al Khwarizmi
-Pioneered the study of algebra and wrote mathematics textbook that became standard in Europe.
-Developed astronomical tables
Domes of the Rock
A great shrine capped with a magnificent dome. Believed to be the place Muhammad was brought in his Hijra
Omar Khayyam
The Thousand and One Nights
A tale of islamic literature that included persian, egyptian, Greek, Jewish,Indian and Turkish influences
Muhammad Al-Razi
Studied measles and smallpox
Mughal Dynasty
Established in 1526
Babur
Conqueror from central Asia who destroyed what was left of the Sultanate and established the Mughal dynasty
Nur Jahan
-Wife of Jahangir (Akbar’s son)
-The most powerful woman in Indian History up until the twentieth century.
-Possesed shrewd political judgement
-Loved poetry and royal sports
Sikhism
A blend of Religious Beliefs:
Belief in the unity of God
Belief in reincarnation
Rejection of caste system
Taj Mahal
The high point of Mughal culture came under Akbar’s grandson, Shah Jahan, who built the taj Mahal after his wife Mumtaz Mahal died
Urdo
A language that appeared as intermarriage occurred
Muslims and Hindus
-Blended to create Sikhism
-Rajahs were left in power
-Poor people caste converted to Islam
-Persian art appears in Indian subjects
Samarkand
Akbar the Great
Strengthened Mughal India with the following accomplishments:
Implemented policy of religious toleration
Employed paid officials, instead of hereditary office holders
Modernized the army
Encouraged international trade
Standardized weights and measures
Introduced land reforms
Abbas the Great
Revived the glory of ancient Persia with the following accomplishments:
-centralized govt.
-created a powerful and modern military force
-strengthened the economy by reducing taxes on farmers and herder and encouraging industry
-Tolerated non-Muslims and valued their economic contributions
-used a mixture of forces and diplomacy against the ottomans
-forged alliances with European states
-Built magnificent new capital at Isfahan
-Supported the growth of Persian culture
Janizaries
the elite force of the Ottoman army
Muhammad II
Ottoman Empire size
Dominated the middle east and parts of Eastern Europe
Ottoman Empire social classes
Men of the Pen- Intellects/upperclass
Men of the sword-Fighters/upperclass
Men of the negotiation-artisans/middle class
Men of Husbandry- agricultural workers/middle class
Millets- non-muslims/ lower class
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most famous Sultan of the Ottomans,
led the Ottomans into a golden age in 1520-1566.
Known as the Lawgiver
Created empire in the Middle east and Europe
Modernized the army
claimed to be the rightful heir of the Abbasids and caliph to all Muslims
Practiced sunni islam
Suleiman and art
Poets produced works in the Turkish language
Painters produced detailed miniatures and illuminated manuscripts.
Sinan
The royal architect who designed magnificent mosques and palaces
Millet
non-Islamic religious communities
Ottoman Empire’s economy

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