World Geography: Unit 4

What types if land forms are found in Europe?
Mountains, uplands, peninsulas, rivers, islands, and plains.
What resources help with farming?
Fertile agriculture
Why is Europe called the peninsula of peninsulas?
Because Europe is a peninsula and has five peninsulas within the peninsula.
What role did the waterways of Europe play in the development of its economy?
Brought people and goods together.
Which regions of Europe have the harshest, coldest climates?
Sweden and Finland and eastern parts of Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary.
Which climate zones produce the richest variety of vegetation?
Western Europe
How do the North Atlantic Drift and the prevailing westerlies affect Europe’s climate?
It picks up warmth from this current and carry it over Europe.
How are a mistral and a sirocco different?
Mistral is cold, dry wind from the north.
Sirocco is hot, steady south wind.
Why is northern Scandinavia sometimes called the Land of the Midnight Sun?
In winter, the sun never rises and in summer, the sun never sets.
Dike
Earthen banks
Polder
Land that is reclaimed by diking and draining.
Seaworks
Structures that are used to control the sea’s destructive impact on human life.
Terpen
Those sea works include dikes and high earthen platforms.
Zuider Zee
It was an arm of the North Sea and is now a freshwater lake.
Ijsselmeer
Since no saltwater flowed into the Zuider Zee, it eventually became a fresh water lake called _____.
How have the people of the Netherlands been able to create more land for their country?
Dike and polder
How has pollution affected the city of Venice?
Industrial waste, sewage, and saltwater combining to eat away the foundations of building.
How has industrialization hurt the forests of Europe?
Acid rain
City-state
A political unit made up of a city and its surrounding lands.
Republic
A government in which citizens elect representatives to rule in their name.
Crusades
A series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims.
Renaissance
A time of renewed interest in learning and the arts that lasted from the 14th through 16th centuries
Aqueduct
Structures that carried water for long distances.
Benelux
A customs union comprising Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, begun January 1, 1948.
Reformation
A period when many Christians broke away from the Catholic Church and started Protestant churches.
Feudalism
The feudal system, or its principles and practices.
Nationalism
The belief that people should be loyal to their nation, the people with whom they share land, culture, and history.
Holocaust
A program of mass murder of European Jews and other minorities.
Berlin Wall
A wall that divided Berlin, Germany; located in east Germany.
How do language and religion reflect the cultural division in Western Europe?
Language: French is a romance language that evolved from Latin and is spoken in Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Monaco, and Switzerland. Germanic languages are spoken in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Switzerland.

Religion: Reformation occurred in 1517 when Christians broke off from the Catholic Church and started Protestants, but both Catholics and Protestants lived in countries right next to each other.

Which Western European leaders tried to unify Europe through conquest?
Adolf Hitler
Nordic Countries
Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden
Parliament
A representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed.
Silicon Glen
The section of Scotland between Glasgow and Edinburgh named for its high concentration of high-tech companies.
Euro
The single European currency, which replaced the national currencies of France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 2002. Seventeen member states of the European Union now use the euro.
How did conquest influence the languages spoken in Northern Europe?
Whoever conquered an area of Northern Europe then got to use their language. Ex: If England conquered somewhere in Northern Europe then that area would speak English.
How did the Industrial Revolution spur the growth of Britain’s empire?
Britain’s empire imported raw materials from its colonies and sold finished goods to those colonies.
How did the Reformation affect Northern Europe?
Several different Protestant churches took root there.
Cultural Crossroads
A place where various cultures cross paths.
Balkanization
The process of a region breaking up into small, mutually hostile units.
Market Economy
Industries make the goods consumers want to buy.
Folk Art
Produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles instead of by professional artists.
Anti Semitism
Discrimination against Jewish people.
Satellite Nation
Nations dominated by another country.
What country dominated Eastern Europe after World War 2?
Soviet Union
What problems did the move toward a market economy cause?
Inflation, the closing of factories and unemployment.
Why has Eastern Europe considered a cultural crossroads?
Since ancient times, people moving between Europe and Asia-traders, nomads, migrants, and armies-have passed through this region. Because the region is an important crossroads, many world powers have tried to control it.
What role did the Soviet Union play in the rise and fall of communism in Eastern Europe?
Eastern Europe couldn’t keep up with the technology of other nations. As a result, they had difficulty selling goods to nations outside Eastern Europe and their outdated factories created heavy pollution.
Fjords
Steep U-shaped valleys that connect to the sea and that filled with seawater after the glaciers melted; provides excellent harbors for fishing boats. Often separated by a narrow peninsula.
Uplands
Hills or very low mountains that may also contain meas and high plateaus.
Meseta
Central plateau of Spain.
Massif Central
1/6 of French lands are located on these. Mountain range in France; is an elevated region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaux. It covers 15 percent of the country.
Peat
A brown, soil-like material characteristic of boggy, acid ground, consisting of partly decomposed vegetable matter. It is widely cut and dried for use in gardening and as fuel.
North Atlantic Drift
A current of warm water from the tropics; it flows near Europe’s west coast
Sirocco
A hot, steady south wind that blows from North Africa across the Mediterranean Sea into southern Europe; some pick up moisture from the sea and produce rain; others carry dust from the desert.
Mistral
A cold, dry wind from the north
Albania
Andorra
Andorra
Austria
Belarus
Belgium
Belgium
Bulgaria
Croatia
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Finland
France
Germany
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Kosovo
Latvia
Lithuania
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macedonia
Macedonia
Moldova
Moldova
Montenegro
Netherlands
Netherlands
Norway
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Portugal
Romania
Romania
Russia
Russia
Serbia
Slovakia
Slovenia
Slovenia
Spain
Sweden
Sweden
Switzerland
Switzerland
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United Kingdom

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