World Civilizations II Ch. 14 Essay

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In what way had the Islamic world in the period between 1500 and 1780 changed from its earlier pattern of cultural development?
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The Islamic world had developed three distinctive cultural traditions centered around the Mughal, Ottoman, and Safavid empires.
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How did popular culture in Tokugawa Japan subvert its social order?
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It idolized groups such as actors, musicians, and courtesans, who were ordinarily at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
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Francis Bacon’s method of scientific inquiry asserted that:
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conducting experiments was the only way that humans could begin to understand the workings of nature.
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Where did Enlightenment ideas circulate most broadly?
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commercial centers and port cities
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Safavid culture was a mixture of which two elements?
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Shiite Islam and Persian culture
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Why did the Chinese devote a great deal of attention to the science of astronomy?
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They believed that the stability of the kingdom depended on the emperor’s ability to calculate correct dates for festivals, court sessions, mourning periods, and agricultural work.
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What characteristic did Enlightenment thinkers believe should be the basis for a person’s social status?
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talent
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The most popular books published in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century China were:
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study guides for civil service examinations.
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Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the French Encyclopedia?
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It singled out some regions, such as China, as examples that Europe should aspire to emulate.
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Why did the Enlightenment ideal of gathering knowledge appeal to European absolutist monarchs?
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More knowledge about their subjects allowed them to exert greater control.
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The Ottoman tekkes schools that prepared students to become Sufi masters:
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promoted social and religious solidarity among the Muslim subjects of the empire.
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Members of the Ottoman intellectual elite were interested in and curious about foreign ideas in which of the following areas?
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science
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During the first half of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire experienced a period of prosperity and delight in worldly things that was known as the _______.
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Tulip Period
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Adam Smith claimed that universal “laws” of human behavior justified unregulated markets and a laissez-faire economy because:
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they allowed human nature to express itself fully.
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Dý¯n-i Ila¯hý¯ refers to: (Din-d Ilahi)
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a mix of Quranic, Catholic, and other influences which emphasized virtuous behaviors.
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What did Enlightenment thinkers have in common with authors who wrote about sex and corruption?
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They were all willing to explore ways of thinking that defied established beliefs and institutions.
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During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which region of the world saw the emergence of thinkers who believed their understanding of knowledge was universal and objective?
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Europe
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Peninsulars were:
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people born in Spain or Portugal who were living in their American colonies.
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The U.S. Declaration of Independence is an example of what intellectual tradition?
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the Enlightenment
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Who may have been the first European who attempted to classify the peoples of the world?
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François Bernier
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When Captain Cook arrived in Australia, it had:
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harsh natural conditions and a sparse population.
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The Comte de Buffon and fellow Europeans believed that human groups were more or less admirable according to how closely they resembled the people portrayed in which of the following types of artwork?
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Greek nude sculptures
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What role did Europeans who adopted Native American cultures play in New World societies?
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intermediaries in commerce and diplomatic communication
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Under the Tokugawa, Japanese culture was more open to outside influences than were the cultures of other large Asian empires.
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true
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Absolutist governments adopted some Enlightenment ideas even though other ideas challenged absolutist rule.
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true
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Unlike Native Americans, the indigenous peoples of Oceania did NOT succumb to Afro-Eurasian diseases when they came into contact with Europeans.
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false
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The Oyo Empire and Benin produced what type of significant artwork?
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sophisticated metalwork
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Enlightenment thinkers believed in the equality of all people.
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false
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How did the European missionary presence in the Americas differ from the European missionary presence in East Asia?
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Missionaries to the Americas were backed up by colonial officials and military power.
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Creoles in Spanish and Portuguese colonies were drawn to Enlightenment ideas because:
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Enlightenment ideas helped to justify their dissatisfaction with colonial rule.
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As European colonies in the Americas became more prosperous and settled over the course of the eighteenth century:
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colonists sought to copy European social and material culture as closely as they could.
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Which of the following statements best characterizes Native American converts to Christianity during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
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They used Christianity to supplement their existing beliefs, not replace them.
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Which group of people was consigned to the bottom of Enlightenment-era racial hierarchies?
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Africans
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Scholars in the Ottoman Empire carried out important works in the fields of astronomy and physics, as well as history, geography, and politics.
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true
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How did Asante kings publicly display their connection to the gods?
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by carrying golden spears, maces, and other symbols of power

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