Western Civ 2

Flashcard maker : Sarah Adrian
Luther’s Ninety-five Theses objected primarily to
the idea that people could skip confessing their sins if they bought an indulgence
For Zwingli, the Eucharist
was an important commemoration of Christ’s historical sacrifice on the cross
\”Institutes of the Christian Religion\”
John Calvin’s most famous theological work
As a young monk Luther
was fearful that he could never do enough good deeds to deserve salvation
The German Peasants Revolt of 1525
cemented the alliance of Lutheranism with state power
The Church taught that indulgences worked to reduce the penance that an individual owed to God
by drawing on the good deeds of martyrs and saint from the Treasury of Merits
Lurther’s confrontation with Charles V at the Diet of Worms demonstrated
the willingness of the papacy to allow German princes to manage their own affairs
Luther’s doctrine of \”justification by faith\” meant that
humans are saved by their faith in God’s grace, not by that good work they do
In contrast to Lutheran’s, Zwinglians, and Calvanists, Anabaptists
believed that only adults should be baptized, not children
Luther believed that works of piety and charity were
the natural outgrowth of justification and Christian devotion
One might claim that Luther had established a new church when
various German princes protected him after the Diet of Worms
When Henry VIII broke with the Church of Rome, it was over his desire to marry
Anne Boleyn
——- were the most successful missionaries during the 16th century
In comparison to Lutheranism, Calvinism was much more
authoritarian with respect to personal conduct and morality
The primary problem caused by the Price Revolution of the late 16 century was —–
During the 16th century, in both Protestant and Catholic countries, marriage practices changed so as to encourage
more parental control over their children’s choice of marriage partners
What religious change is generally associated with Protestantism in England under Henry VIII?
Closing monasteries and convents and confiscating their property
The Council of Trent
—– the Catholic Church reaffirmed almost all of the doctrinal claims that Protestants criticized
Why did Clement VII not permit King Henry VIII of England to divorce Catherine of Aragon and massy Anne Boleyn?
because Catherine’s nephew, Charles V, controlled Rome at the time and disapproved of Henry’s request for a divorce
King Edward VI
—-the first English monarch to enforce Protestant theology in the English Church
The economy of 16th century Europe was characterized by
increasing population, fixed food supplies and stagnant wages
The Counter-Reformation brought the most sweeping changes to the Catholic Church’s
attitudes toward the religious roles of women
Most French Protestants were —–
The Edict of Nantes
—— recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France
The Fronde Was
a French Protestant rebellion against the government of Cardinal Mazarin
The German religious wars may be attributed to
the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, whose goal was to reestablish Catholic unity within his realm
The Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre resulted in a major setback for ——
William of Orange (William the Silent) fought during the religious wars to free the Netherlands from
Catholic rule under the Spanish
The 1555 Peace of Augsburg rested on the principle of \”cuius regio, eius religio\” which meant
the ruler of each principality settled all matters of religion
The Stuart dynasty of English kings began with
King James I
The 30 Years War created the greatest devastation in ——
The English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1558 was a decisive moment in Western history because
had Spain conjured England,, Catholics would have made major inroads against the Protestants
The primary goal of Cardinal Richelieu’s government was
to increase and centralize royal power over France
The 30 Years War began when
a Catholic prince became the ruler of a Protestant territory
Christopher Marlow
Elizabethan author of \”Doctor Faustus\”
Why did most English men and women welcome the restoration of the monarchy in 1660?
because years of unpopular Calvinist prohibitions on public amusements had discredited Cromwell’s Puritan regime
The most important opponents of royal absolutism were —–
The immediate provocation for the outbreak of civil war between King Charles and his parliament was
Charles’s attempt to arrest 5 parliamentary leaders on the floor of the House of Commons
Jean Bodin’s \”Six Books of the Commonwealth\” was the first fully developed statement of
absolute governmental sovereignty
Louis XIV used the palace of Versailles to
demonstrate the grandeur of his rule and to control the French nobility
Oliver Cromwell rose to power in England as
the leader of the parliamentary army
A chivalric mentality had remained important for some segments of European society into the early modern period, but its anachronistic nature was satirized by
Miguel de Cervantes
Remembrant wan Rijn
Dutch painter who was famous for his black and white etchings of New Testament scenes
Absolute rulers such as Louis XIV sought control over the state because
the 16th and early 17th centuries were times of great disorder in Europe
Jean Baptiste Colbert
the royal finance minister who increased revenues in France during the reign of Louis XIV
Peter Rubens
—— stressed the extravagance of the Baroque style
In the 17th and 18th centuries, absolutism was a political theory that
allowed rulers to govern by divine right and according to their own will
Why do English call the 1688-1689 transfer of power to William and Mary the \”Glorious Revolution\”?
it established England, without bloodshed, as a mixed monarchy governed by \”the King in Parliament\”
The government of France under Louis XIV would be best described as
highly centralized, with everyone being appointed by the king and reporting to the king
Frederick William I made Prussia strong by
exerting prudent financial leadership and building a large army
In general, the religious policies of Louis XIV aimed to
impose religious unity upon all French people
James II of England angered his critics and sent off a national crisis when he
and his second wife, Mary of Modena, had a son: a Catholic heir to the throne
In England, Charles II triggered a crisis not unlike that produced by his father when he
began modeling his kingship on the absolutism of Louis XIV
The goal of Peter the Great’s foreign policy was to
secure year-round ports for Russia
How did the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) alter the balance of power in Europe?
by giving Great Britain trading rights and desirable French territory in the New World
Poland lost 30 percent of its territory and 50 percent of its population as the result of an agreement brokered between Prussia, Austria, and Russia by
Frederick the Great
The most valuable Dutch colonies during the 17th century were in
Southeast Asia
Frederick the Great of Prussia made Prussia a major European power by
invading Silesia and Poland and carefully consolidating his gains
The economic nature of the Spanish colonies in the 16th and 17th centuries reflected
the principles of merchantilist theory
In general, the policies of Peter the Great of Russia included
the introduction of Western ideas and customs
The Portuguese and the Spanish had begun modern European colonization, but by the mid 18th century the European leaders were the
French and the English
When England began to break into international colonial trade, its efforts were marked by
quite a bit of piracy, as English sailors seized Spanish cargo ships for the plunder
The cultivation of New World sugar and tobacco depended on
slave labor
Johann Tetzel
—– Catholic monk that was selling indulgences in Germany that Luther protested against
Diet of Worms
—— the name of the trial of Martin Luther
John Knox
—— reformation leader in Scotland
The Act of Supremacy 1534
made Henry VIII of England the head of the Church of England
Mary Tudor (Blood Mary)
—- attempted to bring the Catholic faith back to England
Saint Ignatius Loyola
—-founded the Catholic religious order known as the Jesuits
Society of Jesus
the formal name of the Jesuits
Saint Bartholonew’s Day Massacre August 24, 1572
two to three thousand Parisian Protestants slaughtered and then thousand more across France
Gustavus Adolphus
Lutheran king of Sweden who was the Protestant leader in the 30 Years War
The Peace of Westphilia
ended the 30 Years War
Cardinal Richelieu
served as the ruler of France while Louis XIV was under age
Petition of Right 1628
English Parliament forced Charles II to accept it as a condition for him to rule
the supports of Charles II in the English Civil War
the supports of Parliament in the English Civil War
The Protectorate
the name of the English government under Oliver Cromwell after the English Civil War
Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell’s official title
Thomas Hobbs
wrote \”Leviathan\”
\”Don Quixote\”
written by Miguel de Cervantes
Act of Toleration 1689
passed by the English Parliament which granted dissenters the right to worship freely, but they could not hold political office
The Act of Succession 1701
required that every future English monarch must be a member of the Church of England
Act of Union 1707
united England and Scotland into one kingdom
John Locke
wrote \”Two Treatises of Government\”
The Restoration
refers to when the Stuarts under Charles II were to the throne of England in 1660
El Greco
the painting style of mannerism reached its height in his work
Remembrant van Rijn
the finest example of Dutch realism painters and a product of the Dutch Golden Age of Painting
Name the 3 religious doctrines of Luther
1. Justification by Faith
2. Priesthood of the believer
3. The Bible is the only source of truth
Name 4 of Luther’s religious reforms
1. Reducing the number of sacraments from seven to two
2. Changing the language used for worship in Germany from Latin to German
3. Allowing priests to marry
4. Belief in the absolute authority of Scripture
Name 4 reasons why Luther received support from German princes
1. The economic impact of the confiscation of Church lands
2. Their ability to enforce the religion of Luther in their lands
3. The political advantage they would gain from turning away from Rome
4.The personal religious beliefs of the individual princes
Name 4 causes of the English Civil War
1. Hostilities between component parts of a composite kingdom
2. Religious hostilities between different kinds of Protestants
3. Struggles for power among competing factions at court
4. A fiscal system increasingly ineffective at keeping up with the cost of government

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