VCLA study material

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Context Clues
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Using the “___________” To determine the meaning of a word with Multiple meanings
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Familiar word
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Use a familiar word in a context that is not so familiar., Use a familiar word in a context that is not so familiar.
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Punctuation mark use
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Besides actual clue words, context hints can also come from punctuation marks like commas or dashes.
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Main Idea
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Identify the Stated Main Idea of a Paragraph or Passage
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Expository Writting
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Writing that explains – the main idea of a passage is usually stated in the passage; it is explicit. Frequently, it will be stated as the first sentence of the passage or at the end of the introduction.
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Own writting or User writting
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In your own writing, you may have learned to call this main idea a topic statement.
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Stated Main Idea
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In order to draw an inference, the reader must use past knowledge plus the facts and opinions of the writer. Keep the main idea in mind as you read, and determine whether or not you can conclude the same ideas as those of the writer.
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Also, and, besides, again
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A word, phrase, sentence adds to the content of the preceding one.
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In fact, in other words, obviously, of course, too, evidently
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A word, phrase, sentence clarifies the content of the preceding one.
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Also, likewise, similar, by the same token
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A phrase/sentence indicates a comparison to the preceding one.
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Although, but, however, in contrast, nevertheless, yet, on the contrary, on the other hand
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A phrase/sentence indicates contrast to the preceding one.
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for example, to illustrate, for instance, thus, that is
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A phrase/sentence provides an example of a preceding generalization.
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below, above, near, next to, opposite, elsewhere, within
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A phrase/sentence shows location or spatial order.
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because, as a result of
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A phrase/sentence shows cause and effect.
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to conclude, in short to summarize
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A phrase/sentence summarizes.
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After, at that time, before, during, while, at last, now, first, second, immediately
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A phrase/sentence shows time order.
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Signal Words
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alert the reader to the relationships intended.
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Adjacent Sentences Clues
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Using adjoining sentences to present adjoining definition
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Luminosity
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Emission of light
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Contingency Fund
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Cash that is set aside for unexpected needs of the business. Emergency money
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Furrows
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Long cuts made by a plow
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Shambling
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Walking awkwardly, falling apart
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Entire passage clues
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Look at the entire paragraph or passage to figure out the definion of word or term.
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Nostalgia
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Greek word for “away from home, “pain”
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Nostalgic
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Feeling distress discomfort, alienated, separated from the love ones or a love place
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credibility
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believability
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assuage
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To make easier or milder, relieve; to quiet, calm; to put an end to, appease, satisfy, quench
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Hyperbole
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a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
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Apahty
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lack of caring or eamotion
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Xenophobic
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having a fear or hatred for foreigners
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incarceration
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imprisonment; jailing; confinement
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Main idea
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What the author says about the topic; the most important message of the selection.
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sequence of events
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Identify the proper order in which specific steps of a task are performed
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transition words
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Words or phrases that signal a change from one idea to another.
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supporting details
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ideas that support, or back up, the main idea of a selection
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skeleton of a paragraph
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sentences that help to frame and support the main idea on a paragraph
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writers purpose
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the reason or reasons an author has for writing a selection
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Basic expository writing
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Gives information not previously known about a topic or is used to explain or define one.
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descriptive writing
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writing that uses details that appeal to one or more of the readers 5 senses
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Narrative writing
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writing about the events in a personal way; a story
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Persuasive writing
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a type of writing that aims at convincing people to think or act in a certain way
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Journalistic writing
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Factual and objective. Free of bias. Relays info about event, person or thing.
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Cause and effect
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is a text structure that writers use to explain how or why one thing leads to another. The cause is the reason that an action or reaction takes place. The effect is the result or consequence of the cause
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Causal chain
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(rhetoric) when one event triggers another and in turn triggers another, and so on
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Explicit Cause and effect
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definite, clearly stated
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Implicit cause and effect
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(adj.) implied or understood though unexpressed; without doubts or reservations, unquestioning; potentially contained in
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opposition to argument
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Analyzes relationships between ideas in disagreement
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exhilaration
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thrill; invigoration
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inference
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A conclusion one draws based on premises or evidence, conclusion based on the content of the passage
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tone
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(linguistics) a pitch or change in pitch of the voice that serves to distinguish words in tonal languages
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synthax
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the ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns
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diction
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the manner in which something is expressed in words
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bias
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influence in an unfair way
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fact
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a statement or assertion of verified information about something that is the case or has happened
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opinion
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a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
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reasoning
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using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
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valid
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founded on fact or evidence
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invalid
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not good enough; not correct
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analogy
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an inference that if things agree in some respects they probably agree in others
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sumarize
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Make a big “chuck” of information smaller.
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outline
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describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of
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Outlines
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helpful tools that organize information in visual way to better understand concepts.
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mapping
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the process of linking content from one terminology or classification scheme to another
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qualitative descriptions
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qualities or characteristics such as color, texture, heat changes, form of material
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quantitative descriptions
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How much of of the results of one of one treatment differ from another
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classification
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the process of grouping things based on their similarities
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Estimation
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method of making an educated guess at a measurement
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comparison
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relation based on similarities and differences
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tables
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A simple way to organize information using rows and columns to align data in an easy-to-read format.
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graphs
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Charts that represent data (Ex: Pie, Bar, Line)
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maps
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provide info about specific geographic location; look for a legend with symbols, compass, and scale
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illustrations
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Drawings, photographs, maps, graphs, tables, charts, cartoons, etc. in an article
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pictograph
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a graph that uses pictures to show and compare information
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bar graph
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a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to display data
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line graph
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a graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
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circle graph
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A graph of data where the entire circle represents the whole or 100%
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scatter plot
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a graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship between two sets of data.
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steam and leaf plots
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graphs the frequencies of quantitative variables like a frequency histogram turned on its side.
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histograms
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A graph that uses bars to represent the frequency of numerical data that has been organized into intervals
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values
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Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
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audience needs
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what the audience needs to learn/needs to know
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constrains
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limits or restrict
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demographic information
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The “person” characteristics (age, sex, race, and occupation)– of descriptive epidemiology used to characterize the population at risk, Information relevant to population statistics such as age, cultural group, place of birth, religion, and the like
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unity
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quality of a piece of writing (also see coherence)
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coherence
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quality of a piece of writing in which all the parts contribute to the development of the central idea, theme, or organizing principle
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focus
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The center of interest or attention.
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point of view
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the perspective from which a story is told
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third person writting
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It is recommended that you write in this person
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tense
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a grammatical category of verbs used to express distinctions of time
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Number
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the grammatical category for the forms of nouns and pronouns and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural)
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enhancing interest
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attention grabbing dynamic vocabulary avoid cliches
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ensuring understanding
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avoid; “clearly”, “obviously”, “and Undoubtedly use words that fits the meaning intended when in doubt explain futher
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maintain focus
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focus on main point start paragraph with topic sentence stick to the point be flexible
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select material with
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accuracy, relevance, importance, and sufficiency
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accuracy
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1. The condition or quality of being true, correct, or exact; precision; exactness. 2. The degree of correctness of a quantity or expression.
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relevance
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the quality of information that indicates the information makes a difference in a decision
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Importance
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the quality of being important and worthy of note
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sufficiency
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an adequate quantity
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Logical order
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pattern of organization used for an expository essay
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statement support
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the main idea is stated and the rest of the paragraph explains or proves it
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comparison – contrast
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A method of informing that explains something by focusing on how it is similar and different from other things
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spatial place
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System of paragraph organization in which descriptions are organized according to the location of items in relation to each other and/or the larger context.
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example, clarification, definition
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explains of elaborates on the main idea, show specific cases. describes one term extensively
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definition
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a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
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similarity
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Also, in the same way just as, so too, likewise,
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exception/contrast
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but, however, in spite of, on the one hand…. on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast on the contrary, still , yer
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sequence/order
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first, second third, next, then finally
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time
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afterward, after , at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously,suvsequently
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example
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for example for instance, namely specifically, to illustrate
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emphasis
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even, indeed, in fact of course, tuly
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place/ possition
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above , adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front , in back, nearby, there
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cause and effect (relationships)
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accordingly, consecutively, hence, so, therefore, thus
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Additional Support or evidence
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Additionally, again , also , and , as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then
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Conclusion/ Summary
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Finally, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, in the end in the final analysis , on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize , in sum, in summary.
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topic sentence
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A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph, that announces the paragraph’s idea and often unites it with the work’s thesis.
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Write topic sentences
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Relate topic to the thesis statement. State clearly and concretely the subject of the paragraph. Provide transition from the previous paragraph. Avoid topic sentences that are fact, questions , or announcers.
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fragment
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1. Word groups standing alone are missing either a subject of a verb or 2. If word groups containing a subject and verb and standing alone are actually made dependent because of the use of subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns.
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run on sentences
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A run-on sentence consists of two or more main clauses that are run together without proper punctuation
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comma splices
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A comma instead of a period or semicolon is used to join, or splice, two independent sentences
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Use of verbs
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A verb must correspond to the singular or plural form with the simple subject.
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to bake —-past tense
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baked
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to bake —- past participle
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baked
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to be —- past tense
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was (singular). were (plural)
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to be —- past participle
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been
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To Become—- past tense
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became
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To Become—- past participle
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become
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to break—- past tense
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broke
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to break—- past participle
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broken
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agreement between pronoun and antecedent
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Mus correspond to its antecedent in number (singular or plural), person (first, second, or third) and gender (male, female or neutral) pronoun must refer to single word, not a complete idea.
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Pronoun shifts
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Avoid shifts between first person (“I,” “we”), second person (“you”), and third person (“he,” “she,” “it,” “they”) while you are still referring to the same people or things
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relative clause
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A clause introduced by a relative pronoun, such as WHO, WHICH, THAT, or by a relative adverb, such as WHERE, WHEN, WHY., A clause which is attached to a noun phrase, which it modifies by giving extra information.
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expletives
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words without meaning in the sentence
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ambiguity sentences
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sentences are ambiguous if they are composed of the same sounds in the same order, and have different meanings
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relative pronouns
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joins a dependent clause to an independent clause (who, whom, whose, which, that and all of the W’s + ever) who/ subjective nominative whom /objective whose/ possesive
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demonstrative pronouns
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This, that, these, those
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slow
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slower (comparative) slowest (superlative)
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Young
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younger (comparative) youngest (superlative)
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Tall
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taller (comparative) tallest (superlative)
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Quiet
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More quiet (comparative) Most quiet (superlative)
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Energetic
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More energetic (comparative) Most energetic (superlative)
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Quick
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More Quickly (comparative) Most Quickly (superlative)
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homonyms
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words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings (sale/sail)
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homographs
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words that are spelled the same but have different meanings
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Heteronyms – heterophones
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words that are spelled the same but differ in pronunciation and meaning
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capitonym
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A word that changes meaning depending on the capitalization
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accept
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tolerate
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except
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leave out
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add
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put together
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ad
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advertisement
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allowed
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permitted
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aloud
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aydibly
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allot
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to distribute
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allocatte
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a lot, much, many
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bare
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naked, exposed, very little
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bear
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1. large mammal 2. verb to carry
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boy
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child, male adolescent
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buoy
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floating marker in the sea
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allusion
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indirect, reference
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illusion
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a distortion of sensory perception
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bridal
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pertinent to a bride
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bridle
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part of a horse’s tack
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capital -Capital
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1.punishable by death 2. With upper case the principal town or city 3. With upper case wealth and money
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Capitol
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A building where a legislative body of a republic, state or country meets
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chord
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a combination of three or more notes that blend harmoniously when sounded together
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cord
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a line made of twisted fibers or threads
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compliment
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a remark (or act) expressing praise and admiration
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complement
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something added to complete or make perfect
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discrete
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constituting a separate entity or part
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discreet
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marked by prudence or modesty and wise self-restraint
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dyeing
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the use of dye to change the color of something permanently
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dying
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process of decline in body functions, resulting in death of an organism
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effect
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produce, outcome
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affect
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have an effect upon
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gorilla
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largest anthropoid ape
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guerrilla
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a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment
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hair
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a filamentous projection or process on an organism
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hare
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rabbit
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hoard
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hide, store, accumulate
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horde
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a group of people; a large crowd
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lam
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a rapid escape (as by criminals)
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lamb
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young sheep
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medal
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an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event
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meddle
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intrude in other people’s affairs or business
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metal
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a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten
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morning
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the time period between dawn and noon
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mourning
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the passionate and demonstrative activity of expressing grief
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past
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a verb tense that expresses actions or states in the past
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passed
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past tense of pass
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piece
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portion
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peace
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harmonious relations
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peak
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to reach the highest point. , of a period of maximal use or demand or activity
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peek
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v. to take a look quickly and secretly
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pique
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a sudden outburst of anger
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comma
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a punctuation mark (,) used to indicate the separation of elements within the grammatical structure of a sentence. Brief pause
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period
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a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations
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exclamation points
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Use an exclamation point to end an exclamatory sentence, a sentence that expresses strong feeling.
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semicolons
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joins two indepedent clauses,follows conjunctive adverbs, to seperate groups already with commas
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colons
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used before a list of items, especially after expressions such as the following and as follows
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apostrophes
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Only used in contractions, plurals of letters, and possessive nouns
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quotation marks
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These are used to enclose direct quotations, titles of chapters, articles, short poems or stories, song and essays
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dashes
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to indicate a sudden break, to set off important parenthetical material, to set off an introductary series, indicate interrupted speech, for emphasis
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italics
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Used to indicate book titles and other published works
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capitalize
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write in capital letters, proper adjective and titles with proper name. main words in titles of literature, art and music.
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plural nouns
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names more than one person, place, thing, or idea
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possessive nouns
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A word that shows something or owns something. Add (‘s) to most singular common and proper nouns. Add a ( ‘ ) to most plural common and proper nouns to show possession. Add ( ‘s) to most irregular plural nouns to show possession.
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gerund
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a noun formed from a verb (such as the ‘-ing’ form of an English verb when used as a noun)
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proofreading
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comparing keyed text to the original copy, and correcting errors; one of the editing steps
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dangling modifiers
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These are words or phrases that do not modify ANY word in the sentence.
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Faulty Parallelism
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occurs when the elements put into pairs and series “go in different directions” because they do not have the same form
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conditionals
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A statement that can be written int he form if p, then q
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present simple
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conjugated infinitive verb in present tense
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past simple
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conjugated infinitive verb in past tense; was, jumped, took
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present perfect
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tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS
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common negative
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no, not, none, nothing, nowhere, neither, nobody, no-one, hardly, scarcely, barely
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double negative
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a grammatically substandard but emphatic negative
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Good written summary
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1.Read the passage. 2. Determine the Main Idea. 3.Outline the Passage. 4. Write the summary. 5. Edit and revise.
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A good summary shouldn’t have
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Quotations, opinions, new data, irrelevant specifics, examples, illustrations, background, introductory information, footnotes, bibliographies, appendixes , tables of graphs.
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Appropriateness
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Responding in ways that fit the communication context
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Mechanical conventions
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The extent to which word are spelled correctly and to which the response follows the conventions of punctuation and capitalization
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Usage
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the customary way language or its elements are used
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Sentence structure
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the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
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Focus and unity
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The principals of composition
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Organization
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Is an organized structure for arranging or classifying
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Development
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The extent in which the response provides statements of appropriate depth, specificity, and/ or accuracy.
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Subject
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The subject matter of a conversation, discussion, or writing.
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Assertion
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is declaration that is made emphatically (as if no supporting evidence were necessary)
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Fallacy
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a mistaken belief based on unsound information
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Sentence fragments
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Phrases or incomplete sentences missing either a subject, predicate, or a complete thought.
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run-ons
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Two or more independent clauses run up against one another, with nothing to properly join them.
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assonance
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The repeated use of vowel sounds, as in, “Old king Cole was a merry old soul.”
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Anastrophe
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customary word order changed for emphasis, e.g. “Ask not what your country can do for you . . . ;” “The first time ever I saw your face.”
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Consonance
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the repetition of consonant sounds within or at the end of a word, e.g., east, west, best, test, trust, burst
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Epiphany
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characterized as a sudden moment of realization or recognition for a character. In an epiphany a character often sees someone or something in a new light.
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Soliloquy
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a long speech made by a character in a play while no other characters are on stage
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Metaphor
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a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance
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Juxtaposition
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The arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development
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Synthesis
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the combination of ideas into a complex whole
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Equivocation
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a statement that is not literally false but that cleverly avoids an unpleasant truth
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Weak analogy
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when the differences in the items being compared are major and the similarities minor
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Begging the question
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supporting an argument with claims whose truth is taken for granted but never verified
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Missing the point,
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Arguer draws a conclusion different from the one supported by the premises
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Red herring
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any diversion intended to distract attention from the main issue
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Surreptitious
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marked by quiet and caution and secrecy
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Onomatopoeia
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words that sound like what they mean
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Irony
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the use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between what is expected and what actually happens

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