UTA Prof. Wooten COMS 1301 Ch. 12 & 14-18

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The words we use to label an event determine to a great extent how we respond to that event
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True
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Connotative meaning is precise, literal, and objective
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False
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A speaker should avoid using familiar words because they make the speech sound trite
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False
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Language needs to be appropriate to a speaker herself or himself, as well as to the audience, topic, and occasion
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True
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A speech dominated by abstract words will almost always be clearer than one dominated by concrete words
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False
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“The Olympic flame burns inside every competitor, igniting their desire to win gold” is an example of metaphor
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True
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Antithesis and alliteration are excellent ways to enhance the imagery of a speech
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False
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“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country” is an example of antithesis
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True
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Using language with a strong rhythm can increase the impact of a speaker’s words
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True
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As your textbook explains, using inclusive language in a speech is important primarily as a matter of political correctness
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False
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List the guidelines for using language
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Use language accurately Use language clearly Use language vividly Use language appropriately
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Three methods explained in your textbook for using language clearly are
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Use familiar words Choose concrete words Eliminate clutter
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In public speaking, the use of language should be appropriate to
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Occasion Audience Topic Speaker
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Identify the points mentioned by your textbook for using inclusive language
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Avoid the generic “he” Avoid use of “man” when referring to both men and women Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender Use names that groups use to identify themselves
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denotative meaning
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The literal or dictionary meaning a word or phrase
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connotative meaning
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The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
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thesaurus
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A book of synonyms
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concrete words
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Words that refer to tangible objects
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abstract words
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Words that refer to ideas or concepts
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clutter
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Discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
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imagery
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The use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
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simile
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An explicit comparison, introduce with the word “like” or “as,” between things that are essentially different yet have something in common
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cliche
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A trite or overuse expression
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metaphor
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An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word “like” or “as,” between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common
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rhythm
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The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words
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parallelism
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The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
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repetition
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Reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences
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alliteration
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Repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words
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antithesis
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The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure
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inclusive language
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Language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors
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generic “he”
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The use of “he” to refer to both women and men
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If you were showing statistical trends in a speech, the best visual aid to use would probably be a pie graph
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False
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Your textbook recommends that you use presentation technology to illustrate each point in your speech
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False
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Research has shown that an average speaker who uses visual aids will come across as more credible and better prepared than a speaker who does not use visual aids
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True
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When you are going to give an audience material to take home from a speech, you should usually distribute the material at the beginning of the speech
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False
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In most circumstances, you should keep your visual aids on display throughout your speech
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False
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Research has show that visual aids can increase both the clarity and the persuasiveness of a speaker’s message
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True
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Printing your visual aid in ALL CAPITAL letters is a good way to make sure it will be easy for the audience to read
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False
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A visual aid is only as useful as the explanation that goes with it
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True
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Using visual aids can help a speaker combat stage freight
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True
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It is important to maintain strong eye contact with your audience when you are presenting a visual aid
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True
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List the guidelines discussed in your textbook for preparing visual aids
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Prepare visual aids well in advance Keep visual aids simple Make sure visual aids are large enough Use a limited amount of text Use fonts effectively Use color effectively Use images strategically
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List the guidelines discussed in your textbook for presenting visual aids
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Display visual aids where listeners can see them Avoid passing visual aids among the audience Display visual aids only while discussing them Explain visual aids clearly and concisely Talk to your audience, not your visual aid Practice with your visual aids Check the room and equipment
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List the advantages of using visual aids
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Clarity Interest Retention Credibility Persuasiveness
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List the kinds of visual aids
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Objects & models Photos & drawings Graphs Charts Video The speaker
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List the guidelines to use fonts effectively
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Clear, easy to read Normal case Two per slide Standardized across slides Properly sized titles, body text
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List the guidelines to use colors effectively
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High contrast Easy to see Limited number Consistent across slides
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List the guidelines to use images effectively
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Large enough High-resolution Clear, simple Title included on slide
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graph
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A visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns
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line graph
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A graph the uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space
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pie graph
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A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns
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bar graph
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A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items
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chart
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A visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form
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font
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A complete set of type of the same design
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Your textbook discusses four kinds of informative speeches: speeches about objects, speeches about concepts, speeches about processes, and speeches about events
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True
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A lawyer urging a jury to acquit her client is an example of informative speaking
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False
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If the specific purpose of your informative speech is to recount the history of an event, you will usually arrange the speak in chronological order
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True
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When an informative speech about a process has more than five steps, the speaker should group the steps into units so as to limit the number of main points
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True
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Research shows that using personal terms such as “you” and “your” in an informative speech can increase listeners’ understanding of the speaker’s ideas
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True
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Informative speeches about concepts are usually arranged in spatial order
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False
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Using jargon in an informative speech is useful since it demonstrates your expertise on the topic
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False
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“To inform my audience how to grow an indoor herb garden” is a specific purpose statement for an informative speech about a process
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True
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One of the major barriers to effective informative speaking is overestimating what the audience knows about the topic
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True
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When giving an informative speech, you should think about ways to relate your topic to the audience in the body of the speech as well as in the introduction
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True
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List three general criteria for informative speech
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Accurately Clearly Meaningful
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List the guidelines given in your textbook for effective informative speaking
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Don’t overestimate what the audience knows Relate the subject directly to the audience Don’t be too technical Avoid abstractions Personalize your ideas Be creative
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informative speech
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A speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding
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object
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Anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form
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process
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A systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product
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event
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Anything that happens or is regarded as happening
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concept
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A belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like
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description
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A statement that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness
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comparison
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A statement of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc
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contrast
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A statement of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc
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personalize
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To present one’s ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience
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The target audience is that portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade
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True
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When speaking to persuade, you need to think of your speech as a kind of mental dialogue with your audience
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True
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“To persuade my audience that Citizen Kane is the greatest movie of all time” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of value
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True
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As your textbook explains, persuasion takes place only if the audience is strongly in favor of the speaker’s position by the end of the speech
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False
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“To persuade my audience to contribute to the campus blood drive” is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of policy whose aim is passive agreement
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False
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Even though a persuasive speaker’s goal is to influence the audience’s beliefs or actions, she or he still has an ethical obligation to present evidence fairly and accurately
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True
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When you discuss a question of policy, you must deal with three basic issues – need, plan, and practicality
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True
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Persuasion is the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions
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True
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When trying to persuade listeners that are skeptical about your position, you need to deal directly with the reasons for their skepticism
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True
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If you advocate a new policy in a persuasive speech, your main points will usually fall naturally in topical order
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False
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List the five steps of Monroe’s motivated sequence
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Attention Need Satisfaction Visualization Action
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List the degrees of persuasion
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Strongly opposed Moderately opposed Slightly opposed Neutral Slightly in favor Moderately in favor Strongly in favor
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persuasion
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The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s beliefs or actions
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mental dialogue with the audience
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The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech
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target audience
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The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade
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question of fact
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A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
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question of value
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A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action
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question of policy
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A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
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speech to fain passive agreement
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A persuasive speech in which the speaker’s goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy
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speech to gain immediate action
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A persuasive speech in which the speaker’s goal is convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
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need
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The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy
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burden of proof
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The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary
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plan
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The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem
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practicality
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The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker’s plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems
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problem-solution order
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A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
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problem-cause-solution
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A method or organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies a problem, the second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem
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comparative advantages order
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A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker’s solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions
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Monroe’s motivated sequence
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A method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
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List the methods of persuasion
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Building credibility Using evidence Reasoning Appealing to emotions
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List the tips for evidence
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Use specific evidence Use novel evidence Use credible evidence Make clear point of evidence
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List the types of reasoning
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Specific instances Principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning
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List the types of fallacies
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Hasty generalization False cause Invalid analogy Bandwagon Red herring Ad hominem Either-or Slippery slope Appeal to tradition Appeal to novelty
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List the ways to appeal to emotions
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Use emotional language Develop vivid examples Speak with sincerity, conviction
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List how to use ethical emotional appeals
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Make appropriate to topic Don’t substitute for evidence, reasoning
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ethos
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The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility
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credibility
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The audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. The two major factors influence a speaker’s credibility are competence and character
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initial credibility
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The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak
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derived credibility
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The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech
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terminal credibility
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The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
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creating common ground
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A technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience
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evidence
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Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something
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logos
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The names used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning
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reasoning
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The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
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reasoning from specific instances
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Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
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reasoning from principle
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Reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion
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fallacy
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An error in reasoning
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hasty generalization
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A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
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false cause
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A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second
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invalid analogy
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An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
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bandwagon
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A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable
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red herring
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A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
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ad hominem
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A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
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either-or
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A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
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slippery slope
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A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
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appeal to tradition
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A fallacy which assumes that something old is automatically better than something new
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appeal to novelty
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A fallacy which assumes that something new is automatically better than something old
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pathos
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The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal
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List the guidelines for speeches of introduction
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Be brief Be accurate Adapt to occasion, main speaker and audience Build sense of anticipation and drama
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List the guidelines for commemoration speeches
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Inspire audience Heighten appreciation Adjust content, delivery to fit situation Use language creatively
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List the types of special occasion speeches
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Introduction Presentation Acceptance Commemoration
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speech of introduction
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A speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience
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speech of presentation
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A speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
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acceptance speech
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A speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
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commemorative speech
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A speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea

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